Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kapsabet Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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AGRICULTURE
PAPER 1 

INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATES

  • Write your name and index number and school, Sign and write the date in the spaces provided above.
  • This paper consists of THREE sections; A, B and C. Answer

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer all the question in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name the routine field practice done by:
    1. Removal of extra suckers in banana stool. (½mrk)
    2. Removal of old stems down to level of top foliage in pyrethrum. (½mrk)
    3. Removal of suckers from coffee bushes. (½mrk)
  2. State three characteristics of phosphate fertilizers. (1½mks)
  3. State two physical properties of soil that influence crop production. (1mk)
  4. Outline four ways by which crop pests are classified. (2mks)
  5. State three uses of labour records in Agriculture. (1½mks)
  6. Give four advantages of overhead irrigation in crop production. (2mrks)
  7. List three basic concepts in agricultural economics. (1½mrks)
  8. Give four varieties of tomatoes grown for processing. (2mks)
  9. State four pasture management practices done to enhance yields per unit area. (2mrks)
  10. Name two macro-nutrients which classified as:
    1. Fertilizer elements. (1mrk)
    2. Liming elements. (1mrk)
  11. Give three ways by which pruning helps to control disease in crops. (1½mrks)
  12. State four ways in which weeds are excellently adapted to the environment. (2mrks)
  13. State four factors that determine the time at which a crop is planted. (2mks)
  14. Give four factors that affected the effectiveness of a pesticide. (2mrks)
  15. State four reasons for staking tomatoes in crop production. (2mrks)
  16. State three cultural methods of soil and water conservation. (1½mrks)
  17. State four benefits of having a land title deed to a farmer. (2mrks)

SECTION B. (20 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow. The illustrations represent a method of crop propagation. 
    KapPreMAgrP1q18
    1. Name the crops propagated by illustrations: (2mrks)
      1. .
    2. Give three factors that promote the rooting of illustration A. (3mrks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates an experiment using garden soil. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. 
    KapPreMAgrP1q19
    1. What was the aim of the experiment? (1mrk)
    2. Name the parts labeled C and D. (2mrks)
      • C
      • D
    3. Name the property of soil being investigated. (1mrk)
  3. The illustration below shows a type of soil erosion. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    KapPreMAgrP1q20 
    1. Identify the type of erosion illustrated above. (1mrk) 
    2. Give two soil factors that influence the rate of soil erosion. (2mrks)
    3. Name one agent of soil erosion. (1mrk)
  4. The diagram below represents a method of manure preparation. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    KapPreMAgrP1q21 
    1. Identify the type of manure being prepared. (1mrk)
    2. Name the parts labeled E and F. (2mrks)
      • E
      • F
    3. Give four disadvantages of manures. (4mrks)

SECTION C (40MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section in the answer sheet provided

  1.                    
    1. Describe land preparation for planting of grass seeds. (4mrks)
    2. Explain the precautions that should be observed during the harvesting of pyrethrum (4mks)
    3. Explain six benefits of land consolidation in Agricultural production. (12mrks)
  2.                        
    1. Describe the field management practices that should be carried out on dry bean production. (10mrks)
    2. Explain five factors that should be considered when deciding on the depth of planting a seed. (5mrks)
    3. Describe the characteristics of a crop suitable for green manure. (5mrks)
  3.            
    1. Describe the procedure followed when collecting a soil sample from the field for testing in the laboratory (5mks)
    2. Describe the benefits of using certified seeds in crop production. (5mrks)
    3. Describe the safety precautions a farmer should take when using herbicides. (10mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Removal of extra banana suckers pyrethrum and coffee suckers
    • Banana stool management
    • Cutting back in pyrethrum
    • De – suckering in coffee

  2. Three properties of phosphatic fertilizers
    • Sparingly soluble in water
    • Have a residual effect in soil
    • Not liable to leaching
    • Have a slight scortching effect 3 x ½ = (1 ½ mks)

  3. Two physical properties of soil on crops.
    • Soil texture
    • Soil profile / depth
    • Soil structure 2 x ½ = (1mk)

  4. Four ways of classifying crop pests
    • Mode of feeding
    • Crops attacked
    • Stage of development of the pest
    • Stage of growth of crop
    • Scientific classification
    • Level of damage
    • Habitat / where they are found 4 X ½ (2mks)

  5. Three uses of labour Records
    • Help in payment of wages.
    • Used in calculations of operation costs
    • Used in assessment of income tax
    • Used in calculating profits or losses. 3 x ½ = (1 ½ mks)

  6. Four advantages of overhead irrigation
    • Water is evenly distributed over the required area
    • Less wastage of water than farrow irrigation
    • Can be practiced in slopy grounds.
    • Foliar fertilizers can be applied with irrigation water.
    • Sprinkler system can easily be moved to another place. 4 x ½ = (mks)

  7. Basic economic concepts
    • scarcity
    • preference and choice
    • opportunity cost 3 x ½ = (1½ mks)

  8. Four varieties for processing
    • Ann f
    • Primabel
    • San Merzano
    • Cal J
    • Seinz; Keny Beauty Rutgers 10x Hybrid 4x ½ = (2mks)

  9. Four pastures management to enhance yields:
    • Weed control
    • Top dressing
    • Topping
    • Re. seedling
    • Pest control
    • Controlled grazing
    • Irrigation 4 x ½ = (2mks)

  10.    
    1. Fertilizer Elements
      • Nitrogen
      • Phosphorous
      • Potassium 2 x ½ = 1mk

    2. Liming Elements
      • Calcium
      • Sulphur
      • Magnesium 2 x ½ = 1mk

  11. Three ways by which pruning control disease
    • Enhance penetrating of spray to kill vectors
    • Remove infected branches
    • Removes micro climate to discourage pests and disease
    • Maintains field hygiene to reduce infection. 3 x ½ = (1½ mks)

  12.  Four ways of weed adaptation to environment .
    • Elaborate / Extensive root system
    • Ability to survive in poor soils
    • Have short life cycle
    • Have high competitive ability
    • Some propagate vegetatively eg wandering jew
    • Prolonged seed dormancy
    • Wide range of ecological condition 4x ½ = (2mks)

  13. Four factors that determine time of planting
    • Rainfall patterns / water availability
    • Growth habit of the crop
    • Purpose of the crop
    • Prevalence of pests and diseases
    • Market demand 4 x ½ = (2mks)

  14. Four factors that affect effectiveness of pesticides
    • concentration of pesticide
    • Weather conditions
    • Persistence of pesticide
    • Formulation
    • Mode of action 4 x ½ = (2mks)

  15. Reasons for staking tomatoes
    • Production of clean fruits
    • Prevent infestation by soil borne diseases
    • Facilitates spraying and harvesting of the crop
    • Controls incidence of disease outbreaks e.g blight 4x ½ = (2mks)

  16. Five cultural methods of soil and water conservation
    • Mulching
    • Cover cropping
    • Grass strips / filter strips
    • Grassed water ways
    • Planting agroforestry trees.
    • Countuor farming 3 x ½ = (1 ½ mks)

  17. Four benefits of a land title deed
    • Can be used as security to get a a loan/credit
    • Encourage farmers for long term investment
    • Minimize land disputes
    • You can lease the land out 3 x ½ = (1 ½ mks)
  18.                  
    1.                  
      • A = Tea
      • B = sugarcane 2 x 1 = (2mks)
    2.            
      • Oxygen supply
      • Rooting medium/rooting hormone
      • Correct relative humidity
      • Suitable temperature
      • Suitable light intensive
      • Leaf area 3 x 1 = (3mks)
  19.            
    1. To show that soil is made of different sized particles (1 x 1= 1mk)
    2. C= Humus / organic matter.
      D = Gravel
      2 x 1 = (2mks)
    3. Texture 1x1 = (1mk)
  20.            
    1. Splash / Rain drop erosion
      1 x1 = 1mk
    2. soil depth / profile
      • Soil type
      • Absence of cover crop
      • Rainfall intensity
      • Topography 2 x 1 = (2mks)
    3.     
      • Wind
      • Water
      • Human beings
      • Animals
  21.           
    1. Compost manure 1x1 =(1mk)
    2. E = Dry leaves
      F = Maize stalk 2 x ½ = ( 1mk)
    3. disadvantages of manure
      • Release nutrients slowly
      • Bulky
      • May be a source of weeds
      • Provide breeding ground for pests
      • Difficult to quantify nutrients contained
      • Supply many nutrients to crops 4x 1 = (4mks)
  22.               
    1. Operations carried out when preparing land for planting grass
      • Clear the vegetation using appropriate method
      • Dig the land / carry out primary cultivation
      • Harrow the land / carry out secondary cultivation
      • Refine the tilth / carry out tartiary operation to get a fine tilt
        4 x 1 =(4mks)

    2. Precautions that should be observed during the harvesting of pyrethrum (4 x 1= 4mks)
      • Avoid picking wet flowers
      • Flowers should be put in woven baskets
      • Avoid any form of contamination
      • do not compact the flowers in the basket to avoid fermentation
      • Dry the flowers soon after harvesting

    3. benefits of land consolidation:
      • Enhances proper supervision of land leading to high production
      • It saves time and reduces cost of transport leading to high profit margin.
      • Makes it easy to have a good farm plan for efficient utilization
      • It makes it easier to carry out proper soil and water conservation for high production
      • Farm mechanization is economical due t o enlarged holding.
      • It makes it effective to administer Agricultural extension services under one holding.
      • Makes it possible to construct permanent structure. (6 x2 = 12mks)

  23.             
    1. Management of dry been production from planting to harvesting
      • Plant at onset of rains
      • Plant at dept of 5 – 10cm
      • Plant certified seeds
      • Space at 45 – 60cm x 10 -15cm
      • Use phosphatic fertilizer during planting
      • Apply fertilizer at a rate of 100 – 200kg DAP/ ha. At planting
      • Plant 2-4 seeds per hole / seed rate 50-60kg/ ha
      • Carry out gapping
      • Carry out thinning
      • Provide stakes for climbing varieties
      • Control pests
      • Control diseases e.g anthracnose; been rust
      • Uproot mature dry plantsGather uprooted plants and spread for further drying
        10 X 1= (10mks)

    2. Factors for planting depth:
      • Size of seed: Small seeds shallow depth for seeds to emerge above the ground.
      • Soil moisture: high soil moisture shallow depth for germination and growth.
      • Type of germination: cotyledons above the ground shallow depth to enable plant to push cotyledon above the ground.
      • Soil type: clay soil shallow depth to have quick emergence of seedling above the ground.
      • Possibility of pest attack: deep planting to prevent attack by pests
        Correct explanation
        4x1= 4mks

    3. Characteristics of crop for green manure:
      • Should be leafy / highly vegetative
      • Should be able to rot fast
      • Should be able to fix Nitrogen
      • Should be able grow in less fertile soil.
      • Should be able to complete life cycle in a short time.
      • Should be able to grow fast
      • Should be healthy.
        (5 x1 = 5mks)

  24.                 
    1. Describe the procedure followed when collecting a soil sample from the field for testing in the laboratory(5mks)
      • Clear vegetation from sampling spot
      • Make vertical act 1-25cm deep (crop land), 5cm pasture
      • Take slice with spade/soil auger
      • Put soil sample in clean polythene bag
      • Repeat the 1-4 steps in 15-20 spots
      • Mix sample thoroughly dry and crush
      • ake sub-sample /composite sample to laboratory for testing
        5 x 1 = (5mks)

    2. Benefits of using certified seeds
      • They have high germination potential
      • They are free from pests and diseases / healthy
      • They give high yields
      • They are bred true to type
      • They are free from foreign materials / are pure
      • They are free from physical damage
        5 x 1 = (5mks)

    3. Safety precautions when using herbicides
      • Wear protective clothing such as gloves over alls and boots.
      • Avoid inhaling herbicides by not smoking while spraying or spray a long the direction of the wind.
      • Read manufactures instructions and follow them strictly
      • Avoid blowing / sucking blocked nozzles.
      • Wash thoroughly immediately after handling the herbicide.
      • Keep the herbicides safely out of reach of children
      • Do not wash equipment used for herbicides in water sources used by animals or humans to avoid pollution
      • Carry out proper disposal of empty containers to prevent environmental pollution.
      • Spray when the weather is calm to avoid spray drift to unintended fields/ water sources
      • Avoid chemical spillage to uninted places
      • Avoid eating / handling food before washing
      • Equipment used should be washed thoroughly to avoid damage to crops in the subsequent operations
        10 x 1 = (10mks)

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