Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

  • This paper has two sections A and B
  •  Answer all questions in section A
  • Answer questions 6 and any other two questions from section B

SECTION A

  1.            
    1. Name two forces responsible for the shape of the earth (2mks)
    2. Give three effects of rotation of the earth (3mks)
  2.       
    1. What is a line of latitude (2mks)
    2. State three characteristics of the inter-tropical convergence zone (3mks)
  3.       
    1. Define the term natural vegetation (2mks)
    2. State three characteristics of mountain climates (3mks)
  4.         
    1. State two characteristics of a river in its middle stage (2mks)
    2. Outline three factors that influence the development of drainage patterns
  5. State five factors that influence mass wasting (5mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions

  1. Study the map of Kijabe (1:50000) provided and answer the following questions
    1.        
      1. What is the approximate height of the top of Kijabe hill (1mk)
      2. Measure the length of Nairobi-Navaisha railway line from ladhies grid reference 257987 to the level crossing near Kijabe station grid reference 308984) Give your answer in Kilometers (2mks)
      3. What is the relief feature on the map which may have created problems in the construction of the railway line (1mk)
    2. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map (5mks)
    3. Explain 2 ways in which relief has influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map (4mks)
    4. Citing evidence from the map, state three social services offered in Kijabe area (3mks)
    5. Suppose you were a student in the school at Kinale and you plan to carry out a field of wakagwe forest
    6. State three reasons why it would be necessary to carry out a reconnaissance (3mks)
    7. Give three reasons why it would be necessary to sample part of the forest for the study (3mks)
    8. Identify three problems that may be facing the forest (3mks)
  2.             
    1. What is a rock (2mks)
    2.        
      1. Name two examples of extrusive igneous rocks (2mks)
      2. Describe three ways in which sedimentary rocks are formed (6mks)
    3. state four factors that influence the change of original rocks to metamorphic rocks (4mks)
    4.                    
      1. you are planning to carry out a field study on the rocks within your school environment
      2. Give three secondary sources of information you would use to prepare for the field study (3mks)
      3. State four activities you would carry out during the field study (4mks)
      4. Identify four problems you are likely to face during the study (4mks)
  3.             
    1.         
      1. Name three types of faults (3mks)
      2. Apart from compressional forces, explain two other process that may cause faulting (4mks)
    2.          
      1. With the aid of a well labelled diagram, describe how a rift valley is formed by compressional forces (6mks)
      2. Explain three ways in which faulting may influence drainage (6mks)
    3. Explain three ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities (6mks)
  4.           
    1.            
      1. What are tides (2mks)
      2. Give three causes of ocean currents (3mks)
      3. Name the three ocean currents along the western coast of Africa (3mks)
    2.         
      1. Differentiate between a perigean and apogean tide (2mks)
      2. State three characteristics of submerged lowland coasts (3mks)
    3. With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the formation of a spit (6mks)
    4. State four conditions necessary for the growth of polyps (4mks)
  5.             
    1.          
      1. Define the term desert (2mks)
      2. Name three types of deserts according to their nature of their surface (3mks)
    2. Explain the following methods of wind erosion processes
      1. Deflation (2mks)
      2. Abrasion (2mks)
    3.        
      1. state three factors influencing wind transportation (3mks)
      2. By use of a well labelled diagrams describe the formation of a rock pedestal (7mks)
    4. You are supposed to carry out a field study of a semi- arid area in Kenya
      1. State two ways through which you would prepare yourself of the field study (2mks)
      2. What information would you collect through observation that would indicate that the area is turning into a desert (2mks)
      3. State two measures you would recommend to put in place to control desertification in the area (2mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.        
    1. Name two forces responsible for the shape of the earth (2mks)
      • Gravitational force
      • Centrifugal force
      • Centripetal force

    2.  give three effects of rotation of the earth (3mks)
      • Causes occurrence of day and night due to apparent movement of the sun
      • Leads to falling and rising of ocean ides/high and low tides
      • Causes a difference of one hour between longitude 150 apart/causes time difference over the earth surface/causes time difference at different longitudes
      • Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents
      • Causes differences in atmospheric pressure on the surface of the earth
      • Causes variations in the speed of air masses.

  2.                              
    1. What is a line of latitude (2mks)
      • It is an imaginary line drawn on a map/globe showing how far North or South a place is from the Equator

    2. state three characteristics of the inter-tropical convergence zone (3mks)
      • Found within the tropics 231/2 0N and 231/20s
      • It’s a zone of low atmospheric pressure
      • It is a zone where North East and South East trade winds coverage
      • It migrates t the North and south with apparent movement of the sun
      • Associated with convectional rainfall
      • Characterized by high temperature

  3.            
    1. Define the term natural vegetation (2mks)
      • It is the plant cover that grows wildly on the earth surface without interference from man

    2. State three characteristics of mountain climates (3mks)
      • Temperature decreases with increase in altitude
      • Temperature range from cool to very cold
      • Diurnal range of temperature is small
      • Pressure on the mountain top is low due to rare faction of air
      • Rainfall is dominant
      • Rainfall is mainly relief or orographic
      • Local winds that is fohn and chinook winds are common

  4.        
    1. State two characteristics of a river in its middle stage (2mks)
      • Lateral erosion s move dominant
      • River channel is wider
      • Deposition begins to take place on the inside of the meanders
      • River develop a U-shape appearance

    2. Outline three factors that influence the development of drainage patterns

  5.                      
    1. State five factors that influence mass wasting (5mks)
      • Earthquake shocks lead to the movement to materials downslope
      • Increase in moisture lubricates the soil
      • Lack of vegetation
      • Under cutting of slope by excavation
      • Rearrangement of soil by living organisms in the soil
      • Angle of slope determines the movement of the material

  6. Study the map of Kijabe (1:50000) provided and answer the following questions
    1.      
      1. What is the approximate height of the top of Kijabe hill (1mk)
        • Between 2660 and 2680 above sea level

      2. Measure the length of Nairobi-Navaisha railway line from hadlines (and reference 257987) to the level crossing near Kijabe station (arid reference 308984) Give your answer in Kilometeres (2mks)
        • 5.6 km +- 0.1

      3. What is the relief feature on the map may have created problems in the construction of the railway line (1mk)
        • Escarpment
        • Steep slopes
        • Kijabe hill

    2. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map (5mks)
      • There are many rivers
      • Most of the rivers are permanent
      • Most rivers from dendritic drainage pattern
      • There are water tanks near ersokedony valley
      • Most of the rivers flows forwards the south eastern areas
      • Rivers on Kijabe hill form radial drainage pattern

    3. Explain 2 ways in which relief has influenced the distribution of settlement I the area covered by the map (4mks)
      • Most of the settlement are found at the foot of the escarpment because the land is gently sloping hence support crop farming
      • Few settlements along the escarpment because the land is very steep
      • Few settlements along kijabe Hill because of the very steep slopes

    4. Citing evidence from the map, state three social services offered in Kijabe area (3mks)
      • Education evidenced by schools
      • Religious services evidenced by a church
      • Health services evidenced by a dispensary

    5. Suppose you were a student in the school at Kinale and you plan to carry out a field of wakagwe forest
      1. State three reasons why it would be necessary to carry out a reconnaissance (3mks)
        • To familiarize with the area
        • Able to formulate appropriate objects and hypothesis
        • Identify relevant equipment
        • To identify suitable areas for study
        • To seek permission from the relevant authorities

      2. Give three reasons why it would be necessary to sample part of the forest for the study (3mks)
        • Too jare time
        • To reduce on expenses
        • To avoid being tired/fatigue

      3. Identify three problems that may be facing the forest (3mks)
        • Illegal logging
        • Attack by pets and diseases
        • Encroachment of the forest

  7.           
    1. What is a rock (2mks)
      • Naturally occurring agglomeration of minerals particles forming part of the earth crust

    2.             
      1. Name two examples of extrusive igneous rocks (2mks)
        • Basalt
        • Rhyolite
        • Trachyte
        • Andesite
        • Obsidian

      2. Describe three ways in which sedimentary rocks are formed (6mks)
        • Mechanically formed – Rock fragments are transported by wind or water/ice and are deposited in layers. Over a long period of time, they are compacted into a hard rock
        • Organically formed the remains of plants or animals arte deposited in layers. Over a long period of time the remains are compacted forming a hard rock
        • Chemically formed – dissolved minerals are transported into water bodies. They are then precipitated or evaporated over a long period of time. Precipitates or evaporates are then compacted to form a hard rock

    3. state four factors that influence the change of original rocks to metamorphic rocks (4mks)
      • Resistant of the rock to crushing
      • The size of the grain of the rock being changed
      • The porosity of the minerals
      • Chemical action of the minerals
      • Stability of the minerals that are produced
      • Solubility of the constituents of the rocks

    4. you are planning to carry out a field study on the rocks within your school environment
      1. Give three secondary sources of information you would use to prepare for the field study (3mks)
        • Journals/magazines/newspapers
        • Maps/geological maps
        • Geography textbooks
        • Extracts downloaded from the internet

      2. State four activities you would carry out during the field study (4mks)
        • Observing directly
        • Asking and answering questions
        • Making notes
        • Collecting rock samples
        • Taking photographs

      3. Identify four problems you are likely to face during the study (4mks)
        • Inaccessibility of the area
        • Harsh weather condition eg heavy rainfall
        • Attack by wild animals
        • Uncooperative respondents

  8.             
    1.            
      1. Name three types of faults (3mks)
        • Normal faults
        • Reverse fault
        • Thrust fault
        • Tear/shearl/slip fault
        • Anticlinal fault

      2. Apart from compressional forces, explain two other process that may cause faulting (4mks)
        • Tensional forces – act horizontally away from each other which cause rocks to stretch and fracture
        • Vertical movement – which may ecert a strain in the rocks making them to fracture
        • Shear force where forces act parallel to each other in the opposite/ same direction resulting to shearing

    2. With the aid of a well labelled diagram, describe how a rift valley is formed by compressional forces (6mks)
      1. Explain three ways in which faulting may influence drainage (6mks)
        • Some rivers may bend up flowing along fault lines, thus forming a fault guided drainage pattern
        • Uplifting of land which follows faulting may block a river. This my cause it to change its direction of flow
        • When faulting occurs across a river valley, it may cause the river to disappear into the ground through a faultlie.
        • If riftvalley occurs in an enclosed area a basin maybe formed. When rivers flows into the basin a lake may be formed
        • When faulting occurs across a river valley, vertical displacement of land may occur. The river forms a waterfall where it descends the newly formed escarpment
        • Faulting may lead to the formation of escarpment with springs forming at the base due to exposure of the water table.

    3. Explain three ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities (6mks)
      • Faulting leads to formation of features that form beautiful scenery which attract tourists
      • Faulting leads to formation of lakes that are important fishing ground/tourist sites/ provide water for irrigation
      • Faulting may lead to formation of horst mountains which experience rainfall on the wind ward side that give rise to rivers which provide water for industrial/domestic/industrial use
      • Block Mountains formed through faulting lead to formation of relief rainfall on the windward which favorsagriculture/ forestry.
      • Faulting may cause subsidence of land which may lead to loss of life/property
      • Faulting creates deep faults which are passage of stream jets which may be utilized for geothermal power production.

  9.                     
    1.              
      1. What are tides (2mks)
        • They are periodic rise and fall in the level ocean or sea

      2. Give three causes of ocean currents (3mks)
        • Difference in ocean water density
        • Difference in ocean water temperature
        • Wind blowing over the ocean
        • Rotation of the earth
        • Shape of coastal land mass

      3. Name the three ocean currents along the western coast of Africa (3mks)
        • Benguela
        • Guine
        • Canary

    2.              
      1. Differentiate between a perigean and apogean tide (2mks)
        • Perigian tide occur when the moon is at its nearest point to the earth while apogean occur when the moon is at its farthest point from the earth

      2. State three characteristics of submerged lowland coasts (3mks)
        • They have gentle slopes
        • They have a broad continental shelf
        • They have extensive marshes
        • Have broad shallow indentations or estuarine
        • They may have several creeks

    3. With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the formation of a spit (6mks)
      • A spit forms at a point whose the coastline changes its direction forwards the land
      • Formed on shallow shores when the movement of materials by longshore drift are halted
      • The materials are then deposited in the water. This continues until they buldge out with the accumulations growing towards the sea
      • The end of the spit is usually curved into a hook
      • A low lying narrow ridge of and, shingle and pebbles with one end attached to the coast and the other projecting into the sea is formed called spit

    4. State four conditions necessary for the growth of polyps
      • Live under submerged conditions
      • Optimum temperature should range between 250c and 290c for proper growth’
      • Thrive at a depth of less than 10 meters
      • Require clear salty waters
      • Rarely formed at river mouths

  10.             
    1.            
      1. Define the term desert (2mks)
        • It’s an arid area with sparse vegetation

      2. Name three types of deserts according to their nature of their surface (3mks)
        • Sandy desert
        • Stony desert
        • Rocky desert

    2. Explain the following methods of wind erosion processes
      1. Deflation (2mks)
        • It is the blowing away of any unconsolidated materials like dust and fine sand particles
        • The materials are rolled on the ground and lifted up in the air

      2. Abrasion (2mks)
        • Occur where wind picks loose or weathered materials especially grains of sand on the bare surface
        • As the weathered materials is being transported by wind, it smoothens, scratches or scraps rock surfaces it comes into contact with.

    3.                 
      1. state three factors influencing wind transportation (3mks)
        • The strength and speed of the wind
        • Presence or absence of obstacles
        • The nature and weight of the load

      2. By use of a well labelled diagrams describe the formation of a rock pedestal (7mks)
        • Formed on heterogeneous rocks lying is the path of the moving wind
        • Materials carried by wind erode the soft layers move rapidly than the resistant ones
        • The base is intensively worn out as abrasion is more effective with a height of 2m from the ground
        • This results in irregular rock with protruding alternating layers of soft and hard rocks and a narrow base called a rock pedestal

    4. You are supposed to carry out a field study of a semi- arid area in Kenya
      1. State two ways through which you would prepare yourself of the field study (2mks)
        • Assembling relevant tools
        • Identifying methods of data collection
        • Formulating objectives/ hypothesis
        • Reconnaissance
        • Prepare a working schedule

      2. What information would you collect through observation that would indicate that the area is turning into a desert (2mks)
        • Spare vegetation
        • Dust storms/sand storms
        • Evidence of soil erosion
        • Sparse population

      3. State two measures you would recommend to put in place to control desertification in the area (2mks)
        • Planting of trees
        • Control overgrazing
        • Practice appropriate methods of cultivation eg mulching, planting cover crop
        • Control trees cutting

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