Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER 2

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of two section A and B
  • Answer all questions in section A
  • In section B answer question 6 and any other two questions.

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.              
    1. Define wildlife (2mks)
    2. State three reasons why wildlife should be conserved (3mks)
  2.         
    1. Define mining (2mks)
    2. Give three factors that may encourage mining (3mks)
  3.          
    1. What is beef farming (2mks)
    2. Outline three features of dairy farming in Denmark. (3mks)
  4.         
    1. Name two forest reserves in the Kenya highlands (2mks)
    2. State three physical factors favouring development of soft wood forest in Canada (3mks)
  5.          
    1. Give two provinces in Canada where wheat is grown (2mks)
    2. State three problems facing wheat farming in Canada (3mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions.

  1. The table below shows the number of tourist who visited Kenya from various parts of the world in 2005 and 2006. Use it to answer question (a) and (b) in 2005 and 2006.

    Place of Origin No. of Tourist​ 
      2005 2006 
    Europe
    Africa
    Asia
    North America
    Australia and Newzealand
    All other Countries
    942,000
    120,000
    97,000
    94,000
    19,000
    29,000
     965,000
    154,000
    128,000
    103,000
    24,000
    41,000
     Total 1,301,000 1,415,000

    1.        
      1. Which continent had the highest increase in the number of tourists vising Kenya between 2005 and 2006 (2mks)
      2. Calculate percentage increase of tourists from Australia and New Zealand between 2005 and 2006 (2mks)
    2.       
      1. Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent the number of tourists that visited Kenya in 2006 (10mks)
      2. State two advantages of using divided rectangle to represent a statistical data. (2mks)
    3.      
      1. Give five reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya. (5mks)
      2. State four human factors favouring tourism in Switzerland. (4mks)
  2.                 
    1.         
      1. Define the term Fisheries (2mks)
      2. Name two countries in Southern Africa that are important for marine fish production (2mks)
    2. Explain four factors that favour fishing industry in Japan (8mks)
    3. Describe purse seining as a method of fishing. (6mks)
    4.      
      1. State four problems experienced in the marketing of fish in Kenya (4mks)
      2. State three ways in which Kenya government is promoting fishing industry in the country (3mks)
  3.         
    1. State three physical condition that favour coffee growing in the central highland of Kenya (3mks)
    2. Describe stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing (8mks)
    3. Explain four problems facing coffee farming in Brazil (8mks)
    4. Your Geography class carried out a field study on a coffee farm.
      1. State four methods they used to collect data. (4mks)
      2. During the field study the class collected data on quantities of coffee produced from the farm in the last five years. State two methods the class may have used to represent the data. (2mks)
  4.             
    1. State four physical factors that influenced location of Mwea- Tebere irrigation scheme. (4mks)
    2. Explain two benefits of Perkerra irrigation scheme to the Kenyan economy. (4mks)
    3. State five problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya (5mks)
    4.           
      1. Describe the stages in reclamation of land from the sea in Netherlands (6mks)
      2. State three uses of polder land in Netherlands (3mks)
      3. Highlight three benefits of Zuyder Zee project (3mks)
  5.             
    1.             
      1. Define plantation farming. (2mks)
      2. Name two crops grown in plantations in Kenya highlands East of Rift Valley (2mks)
      3. Outline four characteristics of plantation farming (4mks)
    2. Explain three benefits of plantation farming in Kenya (6mks)
    3. Students from a school in Naivasha carried out a field study on a flower farm near their school.
      1. Give three farm activities they may have identified (3mks)
      2. State three reasons why they needed a working schedule (3mks)
    4.         
      1. Apart from flowers name two other crops grown in horticultural farming (2mks)
      2. State three benefits of growing flowers in a green house. (3mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.            
    1. It is plants (flora) and animals (fauna) in their natural habitat 1x2= (2mks)
    2.        
      • to Protect the endangered animals and plants species.
      • To sustain environmental beauty
      • To sustain plant raw material for manufacture of drugs.
      • To conserve wildlife for future generation
      • To protect wild game that attract tourists/To promote tourism
      • To sustain wildlife for education and research purpose. (any 3x1 = 3mks)
  2.       
    1. It is extraction of valuable minerals from the crust (1x2 = 2mks)
    2. When the ore is of high grade occurrence of large mineral deposit
      • Where there is adequate capital to invest in mining.
      • Where technology for mining is available.
      • Occurrence of mineral near the surface/where the cost of mining is low
      • Where the demand of the mineral in the market is high. (any 3x1 = 3mks)
  3.     
    1. It is commercial rearing of beef cattle for meat production
    2. Features of dairy farming in denmark
      • Dairy farms are small and consolidated in farm houses.
      • dairy cattle are of high quality and milk production is high
      • Dairy farms are highly mechanised eg milking is done by machines.
      • Production of milk is mainly geared for export market.
      • Dairy cows are mainly fed of fooder.
      • The cattle are reared indoors in winter (any 3x1 = 3mks)
  4.              
    1.              
      • Forest reserves in Kenya highlands.
      • Mau forest reserve
      • Mt. Kenya forest reserve.
      • Aberdare forest reserve. (any 2x1 = 2mks)
    2. Factors favouring soft wood forests in Canada
      • Mountainous terrain discourage farming making forestry an alternative.
      • High annual precipitation provide moisture for growth of trees.
      • Prolonged winter discourage farming making growth of forest an alternative (any 3x1= 3mks)
  5.        
    1. provinces in Canada where wheat is grown.
      • Alberta
      • Manitoba
      • Saskatchewan. (any 2x1= 2mks)
    2. Problems facing wheat farming in Canada
      • Early winter frost destroy wheat
      • Exhaustion of soil due to over-cultivation.
      • Fluctuation of wheat prices in the world market.
      • Attack of wheat by diseases eg. Transport
      • Competition in the world market from other world wheat producers (any 3x1 = 3mks)
  6.           
    1.         
      1. Continent with the highest increase in number of tourists between 2005 and 2006.
        • Africa 2x1 = (2mks)
      2. % increase of the number of tourists from Australia and New Zealand between 2005 and 2006
        • 24, 000 – 19,000 = 5000
          5000/19,000 x 15 = 26.3% 2x1=(2mks)
    2.            
      • Divided rectangle to represent the number of tourists who visited Kenya in 2006
        • Europe = 965,00019,000 x 15 = 10.2 cm
          Africa 154,0001,415,000 x 15 = 1.6cm
          Asia 1,28,0001,415,000 x 15 = 1.4cm
          N. America 103,0001,415,000 x 15 = 1.1cm
          Australia and New Zealand 24,0001,415,000 x 15 = 0.3cm
          All other countries 41,0001,415,000 x 15 = 0.4cm.
    3.              
      1. Advantages of using a divided rectangle.
        • It is easy to draw
        • It gives a clear visual impression
        • it is easy to read and interpret.
        • It allows easy comparison (any 2x1 = 2mks)
      2. Reasons why domestic tourism has been encouraged in Kenya
        • To make use of tourist facilities during the low tourist season.
        • To familiarize Kenyans with the different parts of the country.
        • To make Kenyans appreciate the country’s national heritage/culture /wildlife/artifacts.
        • To enhance circulation of money within the country/To promote domestic trade.
        • To enable people from different communities interact/To enhance national unity
        • To expose Kenyans to wide variety of recreational facilities. (any 5x1 = 5mks)
      3. State four human factors favouring tourism in Switzerland
        • Inherent hospitality of swiss population
        • Her elaborate transport network to tourist sites.
        • Swiss population speak many languages such as German, French, English, Latin
        • She has advanced tourist hotels and services.
        • She has well developed financial institutions eg. Banks for monetary transactions.
        • Organisation of package tours which lower the cost
        • Availability of H.E.P from her many rivers for running tourist industry eg. Powering cable cars. (any 4x1 = 4mks)
  7.          
    1.              
      1. Define Fisheries.
        • They are water bodies where exploitation of fish and other aquatic organisms is carried out. (2x1 =2mks)
      2. Two Countries in Southern Africa
        • South Africa
        • Angola
        • Namibia
    2. Factors favouring fishing industry in Japan.
      • Cool climate due to high latitude is favourable for survival of many kinds of fish.
      • The mountainous terrain and prolonged winter discourage agriculture making fishing an alternative.
      • The indented coastline provide sheltered sites for breeding of fish and construction of fishing ports and villages.
      • There is cool water favourable for growth of planktons for fish food.
      • The high population in Asia provide large and ready market for fish.
      • The advanced fishing technology in Japan make fishing, processing and preserving of fish efficient.
      • Japan is made up of islands which expose japanse to marine life hence are skilled fishermen.
      • The meeting kurosiwa warm current and oya-wiwo cold current result to upwelling of sea water which bring planktons near the surface.
      • There is extended continental shelf with many planktons and many fish (any 4x2 8mks)
    3. Describe purse seining.
      • It uses two boats, a large and a small one.
      • It use a large net filled with floats on top and weights and the bottom.
      • The net has a draw string at its bottom edge.
      • The fishermen begin by locating a shoal of fish.
      • The small boat spread the net around the shoal of fish to enclose it.
      • The draw string is pulled to close the net at the bottom and trap the fish.
      • The net is pulled out of water and fish hauled into the large boat for preservation and transportation to the shore
    4.               
      1. Four problems experienced in the marketing of fish in Kenya.
        • Some fishing area are far from the market and roads are in poor condition.
        • Fishermen lack appropriate storage and preservation facilities.
        • There is limited local market due to negative attitude toward fish eating is some communities.
        • The limited number of fish species limit the market.
        • The external market is limited competition from other fish producers.
      2. Ways in which Kenyan government is promoting fishing industry in the country.
        • Carrying out of campaigns to encourage fish eating through mass media.
        • Constructing roads to access fishing grounds eg. Lodwar Kapenguria road.
        • Legislation against disposal of farm and industrial waste in fisheries.
        • Restocking of natural fisheries.
        • Clearing of water hyacinth from fresh water fisheries.
        • Encouraging fishermen to form co-operatives. (any 3 x1=3mks)
  8.                  
    1. Physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the central highlands of Kenya
      • The highlands experience high and well distributed rainfall
      • The soil is deep well drained volcanic soil
      • The temperature is moderate.
      • The land is gentle sloping that allows for good drainage.
    2. Stages involved in coffee production form picking to marketing.
      • The ripe/red berries are picked by hand
      • The harvested berries are carried in bags to the factory
      • The berries are sorted out to remove the waste/diseased barries.
      • The berries are graded in to grade A and B
      • The berries are weighed.
      • The berries are fed with water to a pulping machine to remove the outer covering.
      • The beans are put in a tank to farment
      • The beans are washed and sun- died.
      • The husks are removed and beans winnowed.
      • The beans are roasted at a high temperature
      • The beans are ground into powder ready for sale
        NB. Sequence should be followed (any 8 x1=8mks)
    3. Problems facing coffee farming in Brazil
      • Frost destroy coffee plants reducing yields
      • Stiff competition from other coffee producers into world market.
      • Fluctuation of prices in the world market sometimes lead to low profit.
      • Unplanned planting lead to overproduction. Surplus production lowers the prices.
      • Exhaustion of soil due to over-cultivation and monoculture which lower the quality of coffee
    4.            
      1. Methods of data collection they used.
        • Administering questionnaires
        • Interviewing.
        • Taking photography
        • Observing/Direct observation
        • Taking measurements
        • Collecting samples
        • Counting (Any 4 x 1 = (4mks)
      2. Methods the class used to represent the data.
        • Drawing charts
        • Drawing tables
        • Drawing graphs
        • Displaying samples (any 2 x1 =2mks)
  9.                   
    1. Physical factors that influenced location of Mwea Tebere Irrigation scheme.
      • Regular supply of water for irrigation from river Thiba, Nyamindi
      • Gentle sloping land that allow flow of water by gravity
      • Presence of black cotton soil favourable for irrigation and growing of rice.
      • Unreliable rainfall necessitated growth of crops by irrigation (any 4 x1= 4mks)
    2. Benefits of perkera irrigation scheme to the Kenya economy.
      • It has turned arid and into a productive land.
      • The scheme has settled many tenants who were landless.
      • It has earned livelihood to tenants who sell the produce and earn income.
      • It has created employment opportunities in the construction and maintaninance of irrigation canals thus raising the people living standard. (any 2 x2 = 4mks)
    3. Problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya.
      • Spread of water borne diseases eg. Malaria and Bilhazia.
      • Scarcity of water for irrigation during dry seasons.
      • Rapid growth of weed which compete with crops for nutrients.
      • Silting of irrigation canals which require frequent dredging.
      • Attack of crop by pest which destroys crops and lower the yields eg quelea birds destroy rice.
      • Mismanagement of irrigation schemes lead to losses to farmes.
      • Leaching of soil by irrigation water cause deterioration/degeneration of sil (any 5 x1=5mks)
    4.              
      1. Stages in reclamation of land from the sea in Netherlands.
        • Protective dyke is constructed to enclose the area to be reclaimed from the sea.
        • Ring canals are constructed to remove water from the area.
        • Pumping stations are installed to pump water from the area to the sea.
        • Ditches are dug to drain excess water to the canals and to the sea.
        • Desalination of soil is done by adding lime or washing soil with fresh water
        • Salt tolerant plants are first planted
        • The land is divided into plots and given to people for farming.

          NB. Sequence must be (6 x1 =6mks
      2. Three uses of poldes land in Netherlands
        • Grazing livestock
        • Cultivation of crops
        • Settlement
          (3mks)
      3. Benefits of Zuyder –zee project
        • Barriers dam created fresh water lake for domestic use ie. L.yssel
        • The great dyke controlled flooding caused by invasion of North sea.
        • The dyke helped to reduce salinity of water and soil by controlling invasion of North sea.
        • The polder land created land for farming and settlement.
        • The dyke shorted road connection between north Holland and Friesland provinces.
          (any 3x1= 3mks)
  10.           
    1.         
      1. Define plantation farming.
        • It is commercial cultivation of a cash crop in a large tract of land (2x1=2mks)
      2. crops grown in a plantation in kenya highlands cast of rift valley.
        • Coffee
        • Tea
      3. Characteristics of plantation farming
        • One crop is grown in a farm.
        • The crop is grown in a large track of land.
        • Production is geared for export market
        • Farms are scientifically managed based on use of machine, irrigation scientific control of pest and diseases etc.
        • Production is high.
        • It requires large capital outlay (any 4x1 =4mks)
    2. Explain three benefits of plantation farming in Kenya.
      • The produce is exported ot earn the country foreign exchange used in development of other sectors eg transport.
      • Employment is created in plantation farms and improve the people living standard.
      • It is a source of agricultural raw material for agricultural related industries which promote industrialisation.
      • It has facilitated development of roads to access areas with plantations thum opening the areas up for trade. (any 3 x2 = 6mks)
    3.             
      1. Three farm activities they may have identified
        • Weeding
        • Spraying
        • Irrigating of flowers.
        • Application of fertilizer to the flowers
        • Harvesting of mature flowers.
      2. Reasons why they needed a working schedule.
        • To ensure every activity is undertaken
        • To avoid time wastage
        • For systematic progress of the study.
        • To help evaluate the progress of the study. (any 3 x1 = 3mks)
    4.                
      1. Other crops grown in horticultural farming apart from flowers
        • Fruits
        • Vegetables (any 2 x 1= 2mks)
      2. Benefits of growing flowers in a green house.
        • They are protected from harsh weather.
        • They are protected from destruction by birds, animals pests.
        • Soil moisture is regulated
        • Weed is easily controlled (any 3x1 = 3mks)

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