History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PAPER 2

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. What is history? 1mk
  2. Mention two chemical methods of dating fossils. 2mks
  3. Give two species of Australopithecus. 2mks
  4. State two types of tools used during the Stone Age period. 2mks
  5. Differentiate between barter and currency trade. 2mks
  6. List two items of trade obtained from Western Sudan during the Trans-Saharan trade. 2mks
  7. Give two reasons why African slaves were better than slaves from other races. 2mks
  8. State the major disadvantage of sailing boats. 1mk
  9. Identify the most appropriate means of transport for the export of fresh flowers. 1mk
  10. Give one contribution of internet on education. 1mk
  11. Name two early sources of energy. 2mks
  12. State one African territory that was colonized by Italy 1mk
  13. Outline two terms of the Buganda Agreement of 1900. 2mks
  14. Give the main method of British admistration in West Africa . 1mk
  15. State one French commune in Senegal. 1mk
  16. Identify the permanent decision making organ of the United Nations (UN) 1mk
  17. Name one weapon used in the cold war. 1mk

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer any three questions in this section

  1.            
    1. Five methods of hunting used by man in the Old Stone Age. 5mks
    2. Explain five effects of early agriculture in Egypt. 10mks
  2.           
    1. State 3 factors that facilities scientific revolution. 3mks
    2. Explain six challenges facing Johannesburg today. 12mks
  3.      
    1. State 3 ways the Europeans used to colonize territories in Africa. 3mks
    2. Explain six factors that caused the Chimurenga (Shona- Ndebele) was against the British. 12mks
  4.        
    1. State five factors that promoted African nationalism in the 20th Century. 5mks
    2. Explain the factors that undermined African Nationalism in Mozambique 10mks

SECTION C (30MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.          
    1. State five factors for the growth of the Buganda kingdom in the 19th Century. 5mks
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona in the pre-colonial period. 10mks
  2.        
    1. State three reasons why USA stayed neutral in the World War 1 upto 1917. 3mks
    2. Explain six political consequences of the World War 2. 12mks
  3.      
    1. State 3 organs of the Common Wealth. 3mks
    2. Explain the achievements of the Non –Aligned Movement. 12mks

MARKING SCHEME

  1. What is history? (1mk)
    • it is an account of events that took place in the past.
    • it is the study of man’s past chronological account and record of events in relation to the environment.
  2. Mention two chemical methods of dating fossil (2mks)
    • Radio-carbon dating
    • Potassium argon dating
  3. Give two species of australopithecus (2mks)
    • Australopithecus boisei/robustus
    • Australopithecusanamensis
    • Australopithecus gracilis / africanus
    • Australopithecus afarensis
  4. state two types of tools used during the stone age period (2mks)
    • Oldowans/pebble tools e.g. chopper and fist hatched
    • Sangoan e.g. hand axes, flacked tools, scrapers, knives
    • Mousterian
    • Acheulian tools
    • Microliths
  5. Differentiate between batter and currency trade. (2mks)
    • Batter trade is the exchange of goods and services for other goods and services while currency trade is the change of goods for money.
  6. List two items of trade obtained from Western Sudan during the Trans-Saharan trade. (2mks)
    • Gold
    • Slaves
    • Ivory
    • Kola nuts
  7. Give two reasons why African slaves were better than slaves from other races (1mk)
    • Their supply was high –large population is West Africa
    • They were cheaper to acquire
    • They were stronger than Europeans and Red Indians
    • They were immune to tropical diseases e.g. malaria
    • Their dark complexion made it difficult to escape
  8. State two major disadvantages of sailing boats. (2mks)
    • They depend on wind /their mobiling depended on wind.
  9. Identify the most appropriate means of transport for the export of fresh flowers. (1mk)
    • Air transport.
  10. Give one contribution of internet on education. (1mk)
    • Fast speed of education information/exchange of information.
    • Facilitated research in education.
    • Online teaching.
  11. Name two early sources of energy. (2mks)
    • Wood
    • Wind
    • Water
    • Solar
  12. State on African territory that was colonized by Italy (1mk)
    • Italian Somaliland
    • Libya
  13. Outline two terms of the Buganda Agreement of 1900. (2mks)
    • Boundaries – Buganda became a larger Kingdom within Uganda protectorate with defined boundaries.
    • Government- Kabaka was recognized as the rule of Buganda though with limited powers and Lukiko as its Kingdom’s legislature and court of appeal. A British Resident was also stationed in Buganda.
    • Land ; Half of the land became crownland and the other half divided on freehold among the Kabaka and the mobility.
    • Finances- a hut tax of three rupees, a gun tax was to be levied. Kabaka, the minister and the chiefs were to be paid for their services.
  14. Give the main method of British administration in West Africa (1mk)
    • Indirect method/rule.
  15. state on French Commune in Senegal (1mk)
    • Goree
    • Rufisque
    • Dakar
    • St. Louis
  16. Identify the Permanent decision making Organ of the United Nations. (1mk)
    • The security council
  17.  Name one weapon used in the Cold War. (1mk)
    • Propaganda
    • Financial and technical aid
    • Economic sanctions
    • Military assistance

SECTION B (45MARKS)

  1.        
    1. State five methods of hunting used by man in the Old Stone Age. (5mks)
      • Chasing wild animals.
      • Setting traps for the animals.
      • Throwing stones at the animals.
      • Digging large pits on animal’s paths.
      • Driving animals towards steep stones.
      • Catching the animals around watering points.
      • Surrounding the animals while grazing.
    2. Explain five effects of early Agriculture in Egypt. (10mks)
      • It led to increased production making food supply regular.
      • It led to increased population as a result of increased food.
      • It led to introduction of trade as a result of surplus production.
      • It led to invention of writing, arithmetic and geometry.
      • It led to the development of Urban centers/towns e.g. Memphis, Thebes
      • It led to development of shadoof irrigation in order to put more land into use.
      • It led to settlement of farmers permanently and improvement of their living standards.
      • It led to development of religion as gods were associated with farming seasons.
      • It facilitated specialization in some activitiese.eg. blacksmithing, pottery, priests, soldiers.
      • It led to social stratification i.e. some became wealthy land owners and others peasants, slaves.
  2.                  
    1. State 3 factors that facilitated scientific Revolution. (3mks)
      • The need to find solutions to constant problems. E.g. draining water from coal mines, increase food production.
      • The renaissance period in Europe that encouraged scholarships in scientific research.
      • Printing of books and journals enhanced spread of scientific ideas.
      • Government and wealthy sponsors provided funds to support research.
      • Exploration leading to discovery of new lands encouraged new sphere of knowledge of research.
    2. Explain six challenges facing Johannesburg today. (12mks)
      • Overpopulation /congestion resulting into shortage of hunting and growth of slums.
      • There is high level of unemployment due to influx of people from neighboring countries eg. Zambia.
      • Industrial pollution as a result of heavy concentration industries in the town.
      • Inadequate social amenities e.g. water, schools, hospitals and sanitations in places like Soweto.
      • Rural-Urban migration leading to congestion in town.
      • Heavy traffic jams due to many city residents and cars on the roads
      • Unbalanced infrastructure as a result of apartheid policy/legacy. i.e. areas initially occupied by the whites are more developed.
  3.       
    1. State 3 ways the Europeans used colonizing territories in Africa. (3mks)
      • Signing treaties/diplomacy.
      • Use of force/military.
      • Treachery/luring of chiefs /missionaries.
      • Construction of administration posts.
      • Collaboration.
    2. Explain six factors that caused the Chimurenga (Shona-Ndebele) war against British. (12mks)
      • The Ndebele were unhappy about their loss of independence as their political institutions were disrupted.
      • The Ndebele land had been occupied by the British settlers and had been pushed into reserves.
      • The BSAC took the Ndebele cattle thinking that they belonged to Lobengula.
      • African were forced to work in Europeans farms and mines.
      • The Ndebele dislike the native police force composed mainly of the Shona.
      • The British to their disregarded the Shona religion as they mistreated the Mwari/Mlima cult leaders.
      • The believed that the natural calamities, drought, famine, locust invasion and rinder pest were because God was unhappy with the white man’s presence.
      • The religion leaders e.g. Mkwati, Kakubi, Nehanda encouraged people to rebel against BSAC.
      • The Shona were unhappy with the BSAC for stopping their trading activities in the region.
  4.             
    1. State five factors that promoted African national in the 20th century (5mks)
      • Africans interacted with people from other parts of the world during the world war 2 and learnt ideas about liberty, equality and democracy.
      • The communist revolution in Russia in 1917 had led to the growth of Marxist ideas which condemned colonialism/capitalist exploitation.
      • The Pan-Africanist movement encouraged nationalism.
      • The United Nations declared colonialism illegal against human rights.
      • Emergence of USA as a super power.
      • The rise of the Labour Party in Britain developed that supported decolonization.
      • The independence of India and Pakistan in 1947 inspired African nationalist to fight for independence.
    2. Explain the factors that undermined African Nationalism in Mozambique (10mks)
      • Severe shortage of food and clothes in liberal areas making peasants to withdraw for the liberation struggle
      • The Portuguese strict laws on political movement forced the FRELIMO to operate from outside Mozambique
      • Formation of rival liberation movements due to ideological differences
      • The Portuguese government ruthlessly suppressed its nationalist movement through arrest, detention and killings
      • FRELIMO was denied western Aid
      • The attitude of catholic church towards FRELIMO was hostile –labelled them terrorists
      • Assassinations of the movement leaders e.g. EDUARDO MONDLANE
      • Ethnicity due to existence of many tribes
      • The south African apartheid regime reinforced the Portuguese government

SECTION C

  1.     
    1. State 5 factors for the growth of the Buganda kingdom in the 19th Century. 5mks
      • Decline of Bunyoro Kitara
      • Good leadership
      • Small cohesive kingdom
      • Highly centralized kingdom under kabaka
      • Availability of food due to plenty of rainfall and fertile soil.
      • Conquest of other neighbouring areas.
      • Trade link with the coast.
      • Strong standing army
      • Strategic location along L. Victoria
      • Contact with Europeans.
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona in the pre-colonial period. 10mks
      • were ruled by an emperor, Changamire of the Rwozi clan.
      • The emperor was assisted by the queen mother, the queen sister, the five principal wives, army commander , the head drummer , head door keeper and head cook.
      • There was an advisory council.
      • The chiefs maintained law and order, collected tax and contributed warriors to the imperial standing army.
      • Religion was central in administration e.g clan spirits and national spirits settled disputes and maintained peace and stability.
      • Priests informed the emperor of major developments
      • Had a standing army.
      • Emperor controlled trade activities
      • Empire was divided into providences with lesser kings
      • Provinces were further divided into chiefdoms under chiefs and headmen were Incharge of villages.
  2.               
    1. State 3 reasons why USA stayed neutral in the World War 1 upto 1917. 3mks
      • U.S.A did not want to involve her self in European quarrels.
      • Fear that Germans in US.A. could fight nationals of other descent in the American soil.
      • U.S.A had commercial interest with both sides
      • The war had not interfered with her interests.
    2. Explain six political consequences of the World War 2. 12mks
      • it led rise of 2 superpowers U.S.A and USSR
      • The communist zone was extended to nearly half of the continent of Europ
      • It led to development of the Cold war.
      • It led the formation of the United Nations .
      • It led to creation of nation of Israel .
      • It led to division of Germany into two. That is West and East Germany
      • It led to the introduction of Marshall plan.
      • It catalyzed decolonization
      • It led to production of nuclear weapons. 12mks
  3.              
    1. State 3 organs of the Common Wealth. 3mks
      • Heads of state summit
      • Ministerial meetings
      • The Common Wealth Secretariat
    2. Explain the achievements of the Non –Aligned Movement. 12mks
      • provide members with a firm to discuss issues related to arms race.
      • Addressed issues related to trade practices
      • Discussed global problems e.g Health, education, pollution and terrorism
      • Helped in the struggle for independence among African countries
      • Prevented the outbreak of war between the super powers. Promoting global security and peace.
      • Helped members to speak in one voice on the international arena.
      • Allow members to have economic ties with the Eastern and Western bloc creating new world economic order.
      • It set up a solidarity fund to give assistance against apartheid rule.
      • Encouraged members to articulate their national interest before those of the super powers.

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