Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Exams 2021/2022

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AGRICULTURE
PAPER 2 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • Write your name, admission number and class in the spaces provided above.
  • Sign and write the date of the examination in the spaces provided above.
  •  This paper consists of three sections : A, B and C.
  • Answer all question in section A and B.
  •  Answer any two questions in section C.
  • All answers should be written in the spaces provided.
  • Candidates must answer all the questions in English.

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section in the space provided.

  1. Name one breed of livestock under each of the following categories. (2mks)
    1. Dairy cattle breeds.
    2. Dual purpose sheep breeds.
    3. Dual purpose cattle breeds.
    4. Hair goat.
  2. State two importance of litter in a poultry house. (1mk)
  3. State one way of connecting a trailer to a tractor. (1mk)
  4. State two functions of the crop in the digestive system of poultry. (1mk)
  5. State the functional differences between the following. (2mks)
    1. Cross cut saw and rip saw.
    2. Wood chisel and cold chisel.
  6. State four functions of the worker bees in a bee colony. (2mks)
  7. State four maintenance practices carried out on a fish pond. (2mks)
  8. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock breeding.
    1. Close breeding. (2mks)
    2. Line breeding
    3. Out crossing.
    4. Cross breeding.
  9. State four egg abornomalities observed during egg candling. (2mks)
  10. Give four reasons why an animal may be culled. (2mks)
  11. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health. (2mks)
    1. Predisposing factors.
    2. Incubation period.
  12. Name two appropriate hand tools needed to finish the handle of a jembe. (1mk)
  13. State four ways of controlling lice in poultry. (2mks)
  14. State four limitations of a tractor as a source of power on the farm. (2mks)
  15. State four reasons for feeding a lamb on colostrum. (2mks)
  16. State four disadvantages of fold systems in poultry rearing. (2mks)
  17. State four ways in which disease causing organism can gain access into an animal. (2mks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in the spacaes provided .

  1.          
    1.  A farmer is required to prepare 200kg of dairy meal containing 16% DCP. Using the pearson’s square method, Calculate the quantity of sunflower seed cake (28% DCP) and maize germ (8 % DCP) the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (Show your working). (4mks)
    2. Apart from the method used above, name the other method used in computation of feed rations. (1mk)
  2. The diagrams below illustrate behavior of chicks in a brooder.
    AgriMEcp2q19
    1. Describe the behavior of chicks in brooders labeled Q,R and S. (3mks)
    2. State two other observable behavior of chicks in brooder labeled P other than the behavior shown above. (2mks)
  3. The diagram below represents part of a roof. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow
    AgriMEcp2q20
    1. Name the parts G, H, J and K. (2mks)
    2. State two functions of the roof illustrated above. (1mk)
    3. Give the collective term for the parts labeled H, J and L. (1mk)
  4. Study the illustration below and answer the questions that follow.
    AgriMEcp2q21
    1. Identify the implement illustrated above. (1mk)
    2. Name the part labeled E,F,G and H. (2mks)
    3. State two ways in which the depth of ploughing can be increased when using the implement above. (2mks)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1.            
    1. Outline the daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on a farm tractor. (10mks)
    2. Describe the body conformation features of a dairy cattle. (5mks)
    3. State five reasons for maintaining livestock healthy. (5mks)
  2.        
    1. Describe how a four stroke cycle petrol engine works. (8mks)
    2. State and explain any six factors that should be considered when sitting farm structures. (12mks)
  3.      
    1. Describe mastitis in dairy cattle under the following subheadings.
      1. Predisposing factor. (4mks)
      2. Symptoms of attack. (3mks)
    2. Outline eight symptoms of tape worm infestation in cattle. (8mks)
    3. State five ways of stimulating a cow for milk let down. (5mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Name one breed of livestock under each of the following categories. (2mks)
    1. Dairy cattle breeds.
      • Fresiah.
      • Ayshire.
      • Guernsey
      • Jersey

    2. Dual purpose sheep breeds.
      • Romney marsh
      • Corriedase
      • Hampshire Down

    3. Dual purpose cattle breeds.
      • Sahiwal
      • Redpoll
      • Simmental

    4. Hair goat.
      • Angora.

  2. State two importance of litter in a poultry house. (1mk)
    • To absorb moisture.
    • To maintain warmth.
    • Keeps birds busy scratching thus reducing cannibalism.

  3. State one way of connecting a trailer to a tractor. (1mk)
    • By use of drawbar.

  4. State two functions of the crop in the digestive system of poultry. (1mk)
    • Moisten the food with water.
    • Store the food temporarily.

  5. State the functional differences between the following. (2mks)
    1. Cross cut saw and rip saw.
      • Cross cut saw is used for cutting wood across the grains while the rip saw is used for cutting wood along the grains.
    2. Wood chisel and cold chisel.
      • Wood chisels are used for cutting grooves, chopping off rough wood surfaces while a cold chisel is used for cutting thick sheets of metal

  6. State four functions of the worker bees in a bee colony. (2mks)
    • Feed the queen, the drones and the brood.
    • Protect the hive from intruders.
    • Collect nectar, pollen, tree resins, gums and water.
    • Build combs and seal the cracks and crevices in the hive.
    • Clean the hive.
    • Make honey and bees wax.

  7. State four maintenance practices carried out on a fish pond. (2mks)
    • Repairing the dyke or any structure on it.
    • Cleaning the pond and removing all foreign materials.
    • Planting grass where necessary.
    • Removing undesirable vegetation.
    • Removing the silt.

  8. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock breeding. (2mks)
    1. Close breeding.
      • Is the breeding of very closely related animals.
    2. Line breeding
      • Is the mating of distantly related animals that share a common ancestor.
    3. Out crossing.
      • Is the mating of unrelated animals within the same breed.
    4. Cross breeding.
      • Mating between animals of different breeds.

  9. State four egg abornomalities observed during egg candling. (2mks)
    • Hairs cracks on the shell.
    • Double yolk.
    • Absence of yolk.
    • Blood spots/ meat spots.
    • Death of the embryo.
    • Inappropriate size of the airspace.

  10. Give four reason why an animal may be culled. (2mks)
    • Poor health.
    • Old age
    • Physical deformities.
    • Hereditary defects.
    • Infertiltiy
    • Poor mothering ability.
    • Poor quality products.
    • Low production
    • Bad temperament.

  11. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health. (2mks)
    1. Predisposing factors.
      • These are conditions inside or outside the animals body which make it to contract a disease.
    2. Incubation period.
      • This refers to the duration between the time of infection and time the first symptoms show up.

  12. Name two appropriate hand tools needed to finish the handle of a jembe. (1mk)
    • Cross cut saw.
    • Spoke shave.

  13. State four ways of controlling lice in poultry. (2mks)
    • Smear perches in poultry house with volatile insectides.
    • Spraying, washing or dusting animals with appropriate insecticides.
    • Keeping animal houses clean.
    • Dusting the birds with sodium fluoride.

  14. State four limitations of a tractor as a source of power on the farm. (2mks)
    • Requires skilled labour to operate.
    • Expensive to buy and maintain.
    • Requires support services.
    • Their use is limited in certain areas e.g slopy areas.
    • Not readily available.

  15. State four reasons for feeding a lamb on colostrums. (2mks)
    • It is highly digestible.
    • It is highly nutritious and contains vitamin for growth and disease resistance.
    • It has antibodies that enable the lamb to resist early disease infection.
    • It is good in cleaning the bowels of the lamb.
    • It is highly palatable.

  16. State four disadvantages of old systems in poultry rearing. (2mks)
    • Few birds are kept per fold.
    • It is laborious as the folds have to be moved from one place to another.
    • Individual egg production record is difficult to keep.
    • The fold is not long lasting and may not be adequate for raising a large number of birds.

  17. State four ways in which disease causing organism can gain access into an animal. (2mks)
    • Through vectors.
    • Ingestion of contaminated feed & water.
    • Through contact.
    • Through inhalation of contaminated air.
  18.                   
    1. farmer is required to prepare 200kg of dairy meal containing 16% DCP. Using the pearson’s square method, Calculate the quantity of sunflower seed cake (28% DCP) and maize germ (8 % DCP) the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (Show your working). (4mks)
      Sunflower seed 28% 12 part of sunflower
      DCP cake seed cake
      Maize germ 8 %
      AgriMEcp2qa18a
      Sunflower 28%
      8 Parts of maize DCP germ 20 Total parts.
      Maize germ = 8/20 x 200kg = 80kg.
      Sunflower cake = 12/20 x 200
      = 120kg.
    2. Apart from the method used above, name the other method used in computation of feed rations. (1mk)
      • Trial and error method.

  19. The diagrams below illustrate behavior of chicks in a brooder.
    1. Describe the behavior of chicks in brooders labeled Q,R and S. (3mks)
      • Q- chicks crowd at one place due to cold air on the other side of the brooder.
      • R- Chicks are evenly spread within the brooder since temperatures are ideal.
      • S – chicks crowd around the heat source due to low temperature.

    2. State two other observable behavior in chicks in brooder labeled P other than the behavior shown above. (2mks)
      • Chicks drink too much water.
      • Reduced feeding.
      • Spreading their wings.
      • Chicks sleep with head and neck stetched on the floor.
      • Panting
      • Chicks make abnormal sounds.

  20. The diagram below represents part of a roof. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts G1, H1, J and K. (2mks)
      • G Wall
      • H Cross tie.
      • J Strut
      • K Purlin.

    2. State two functions of the roof illustrated above. (1mk)
      • Harvest water.
      • Provide protection from weather elements e.g rainfall, strong sun.

    3. Give the collective term for the parts labeled H, J and L. (1mk)
      • Truss.

  21. Study the illustration below and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the implement illustrated above. (1mk)
      • Disc plough.

    2. Name the part labeled E,F,G and H. (2mks)
      • E - Beam
      • F - Depth/ furrow wheel/rear thrust wheel.
      • G - Disc/ concave disc.
      • H – Scrapper.

    3. State two ways in which the depth of ploughing can be increased when using the implement above. (2mks)
      • Adjusting the angel of the disc.
      • Lengthen the top link.
      • Adding weight to the plough beam.
      • Adjusting by raising the depth wheel.
  22.            
    1. Outline the daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on a farm tractor. (10mks)
      • Check on engine oil level using dip stick and top up if low.
      • Check the fuel level at the starts of everyday’s work and top up if low.
      • Check on the water level in the radiator and top up if low.
      • Check on the level of battery electrolyte and top up with distilled water if low.
      • Replace lost bolts and nuts.
      • Tighten lose bolts and nuts.
      • Grease all moving parts by use of a grease gun through the nipples.
      • Remove large sediments from the sediment bowl.
      • Maintain the brake fluid level at the recommended level.
      • The brake shaft bearing should be greased.
      • Check on engine oil level using dip stick and top up if low.
      • Check the tyre pressure by use of a pressure gauge inflate or deflate as required.
      • Check fan belt tension and adjust to ensure it deflects between 1.9cm – 2.5 cm when pushed.

    2. Describe the body conformation features of a dairy cattle. (5mks)
      • Has a straight top line.
      • Has a well set apart lind quarters to allow room for the big udder.
      • Has large and well developed udders with large teats that are well spaced.
      • Has prominent milk veins.
      • Has a lean body that carry little flesh.
      • Has a large stomach capacity.
      • Docile with mild temperament.

    3. State five reasons for maintaining livestock healthy. (5mks)
      • Healthy animals grow well and fast to reach maturity quickly.
      • Good health gives animals a longer economic and productive life.
      • Healthy animals produce give maximum production or performance/ they maintain high productivity.
      • Healthy animals good quality products that command high market prices.
      • Healthy animals do not spread diseases to either animals or human beings.
      • Healthy animals are economical and easy to keep as the farmer spends less money on disease treatment.

  23.            
    1. Describe how a four stroke cycle petrol engine works. (8mks)
      • Induction stroke.
        • The piston moves down the cylinder causing the inlet valve to open drawing in fresh supply of petrol vapour and air into the cylinder.
      • Compression Stroke.
        • The inlet valve closes and the piston moves up the cylinder.
        • This compresses the fresh air fuel mixture into the combustion chamber.
      • Power Stroke.
        • A spark is produced at the spark plug. This causes the fuel mixture to ignite and expand resulting in pressure that forces the piston to move down the cylinder.
        • During this stroke both the inset & outset valves are closed.
      • Exhaust stroke.
        • The piston moves up the cylinder to eliminate the burnt fuel mixture through the open exhaust valves.

    2. State and explain any six factors that should be considered when sitting farm structures. (12mks)
      • Location of the homestead.
        • This should be decided first because it influences the sitting of the other structures.
      • Accessibility.
        • The structure should be easy to reach from most parts of the farm.
      • Security
        • The structure should be safe from predators, thieves and trespassers.
      • Drainage
        • The area should have good drainage to prevent the structures from being destroyed by water.
      • Relationship between the structures.
        • Structures with related uses should be constructed close to each other so as to save on time and labour.
      • Farmers taste and preferences.
        • Some farmers might prefer to have the homestead in sheltered place while others might not.
      • Topography of the area.
      • Structures should be constructed in a gentle slope to save costs on leveling and to facilitate drainage.
      • Proximity of amenities such as electricity and water supply.
      • Direction of the prevailing wind.
      • Structures that release foul smell such as pigsty and latrines should be constructed on the leeward side of the homestead.

  24.              
    1. Describe mastitis in dairy cattle under the following subheadings.
      1. Predisposing factor. (4mks)
        • Age.
          • Older animals are more likely to be infected as compared to younger ones.
        • Stage of lactation period.
          • Animals are likely to suffer from mastitis at the beginning and at the end of lactation.
        • Udder attachment.
          • Animals with a large pendulous or loosely hanging udders and long teats are more susceptible to mastitis infection.
        • Incomplete milking.
          • When milk is left in the teat canal, it acts as a culture media for bacteria.
        • Mechanical injuries.
          • Wounds on the teats or udder allow micro – organisms entry into the udder.
        • Poor sanitation.
          • This increases the multiplication of the bacteria causing mastitis.
        • Poor milking technique.
          • This may result in mechanical injury of the teats and weakening of the sphincter muscles of the teat.

      2. Symptoms of attack. (3mks)
        • Milk contains pus, blood, thick clots or turns watery.
        • When the udder and teats are swollen, an animal reject suckling or milking and also kicks due to pain.
        • Death of the infected quarter.
        • The milk has a salty taste and there are fine clots or flakes particularly the fore milk.

    2. Outline eight symptoms of tape worm infestation in cattle. (8mks)
      • General emaciation – animals get thin, ribs and backbone show prominently.
      • Staring coat or rough coat.
      • Scouring and sometimes constipation due to digestive disturbance.
      • Pot bellies especially in calves.
      • Swelling under the jaw/ edematous swelling.
      • Cause obstruction or blockage of intestines when in large numbers.
      • Parasite segments (proglottids) are seen in faeces.
      • Anaemic condition especially where animals are heavily attacked.
      • Excessive appetite, animals tend to be ravenous.

    3. State five of stimulating a cow for milk let down. (5mks)
      • Massaging the udder with warm water.
      • Putting feed on the feed troughs.
      • Appearance of the calf where natural feeding is practiced.
      • Appearance of the milkman.
      • Suckling by the calf.
      • Whistling / familiar noises.

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Read 4903 times Last modified on Tuesday, 25 January 2022 07:40
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