History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Asumbi Girls Highschool Pre-Mock Exams May-June 2022

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Instructions to candidates 
  1. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C. 
  2. Answer all the questions in section A.
  3. Answer any three questions in section B. 
  4. Answer two questions in section C. 
  5. This paper consists of 3 printed pages. 
  6. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  7. Candidates should answer the questions in English. 
For Examiner’s Use Only.















Total score



Answer all the questions from this section. 
  1. Identify two ways in which early man used stone tools. (2mks)
  2. State two factors that facilitated development of agriculture in river valleys. (2mks)
  3. Give one feature of local trade in Africa. (1mk)
  4. State the main function of the Golden stool in the Asante Empire during the pre-colonial period. (1mk)
  5. Identify two ways in which the industrial revolution in Europe promoted colonization of Africa. (2mks)
  6. Give the contribution of Louis Pasteur in the field of medicine. (1mk)
  7. Give two ways in which poor transport system has contributed to food shortage in Africa. (2mks)
  8. State one political reason for the coming of Europeans in the 19th century. (1mk)
  9. State two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in Southern Nigeria (2mks)
  10. Identify two positive results of Lewanika’s collaboration with the British. (2mks)
  11. Give the main cause of the cold war. (1mk)
  12. Give one achievement of COMESA. (1mk)
  13. Identify one administrative method used by the French in West Africa. (1mk)
  14. Name two military groups formed by Africa nationalist in South Africa. (2mks)
  15. Name the two camps that fought during the Second World War. (2mks)
  16. State the main function of the security council of the United Nations. (1mk)
  17. State the main failure of the League of Nation. (1mk)
Answer three questions from this section. 
    1. What were the benefits of domesticated crops and animals to early man? (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors that have led to rampant food shortage in third world countries. (10mks)
    1. State five ways by which the Trans-Saharan trade led to the growth of kingdoms in Western Sudan (5mks)
    2. Explain five negative effects of Trans-Saharan trade on African communities. (10mks)
    1. Identify five methods used by the European to acquire colonies in Africa during the 19th century. (5mks)
    2. What are the terms of Berlin conference of (1884-1885) (10mks)
    1. State three contributions of Marcus Garvey to Pan Africanism. (3mks)
    2. Explain six achievements of the organization of African unity since its formation. (12mks)
Answer two questions. 
    1. Identify five economic activities of the Shona during the 19th century (5mks)
    2. Explain the factors that led to the decline of the Buganda kingdom in the 20th century. (10mks)
    1. Give three reasons why the Central powers were defeated in the First World War. (3mks)
    2. Describe six political results of the Second World War. (12mks)
    1. Name three political challenges that faced the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence (3mks)
    2. Describe social economic development in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence (12mks)


  1. Identify two ways in which early man used stone tools.
    • For protection against enemies/weapons
    • For hunting and gathering
    • For digging up roots
    • For constructing shelter/caves
    • Skinning/scaping/peeling
    • Cutting/chopping
    • Sewing
    • Making containers
    • Sharpening
  2. What factors facilitated development of agriculture in river valleys?
    • Availability of water from river George and Indus for irrigation farmlands
    • Existence of fertile soils which were deposition along the river valleys
    • Existence of indigenous crops in the area
    • Establishment of settlements along the river valleys created more demand for food/high population.
    • Decrease in the supply of food from the natural environment hence cultivation hence cultivating/man could no longer depend on hunting/gathering.
    • Existence of means of transport/car v
    • Storage facilities
    • Availability of farm labour
    • Immigrants from M. East Asia with the know-how
    • Use of improved methods of irrigation e.g. earth dams and dykes.
    • Availability of adequate rainfall certain times of the year promoted farming.
  3. Feature of local trade in Africa
    • Availability of capital for investments in trade - to generate more wealth.
    • Specialization and improved technology, e.g. specialization in production, in technology and in marketing. Sometimes people even exchanged their skills for money.
    • Demand and supply; the growing demand for goods and services was met by increase in supply.
    • Enterprise; many people began to take greater risk and invested more in trade.
    • Peace and stability. This enabled people to interact more and hence the growth and expansion of trade.
  4. Function of the golden stool in Asante Empire
    • It was the symbol of unity within the Asante Empire/ it united the Asante Empire.
  5. Identify two ways in which the industrial Revolution in Europe promoted European colonization of Africa.
    • The European nations wanted colonies as sources of raw materials for their industries.
    • The Europeans wanted markets for their manufactured goods
    • Wealthy industries wanted colonies where they could invest their excess capital.
      (Any 2 points, 1mk= 2mks)
  6. Contribution of Louis Pasteur in the field of medicine
    • Invention of pasteurizationprocess to kill bacteria which causes diseases.
  7. State two ways in which poor transport systems have contributed to food shortage in Africa.
    • Poor transports have led to high transportation costs, leading to high prices of food.
    • Poor transports have led to poor distribution of food.
    • Poor transport systems have led to delays in the transportation of food leading to waste and losses.
    • Poor transport systems discourage/demoralizes farmers and this in turn leads to officers.
    • Poor transport system undermines effectiveness of agricultural extension officers.
    • Agricultural inputs do not readily/reach/ leading to poor products.
      (Any 2 points, 1 mark (2 mks
  8. Political reasons for the coming of Europeans in the 19th Century.
    • 1. Unification of Germany after under Otto Von Bismarck after the Franco- Prussian war of 1870-71. The rise of Germany upset the balance of power in Europe and there was need to rebalance out through acquisition of colonies in Africa.
    • The rise of Public opinion in Europe. There was growth of public support towards the acquisition of colonies.
    • Militarism Army officers in Europe favoured colonial expansionist wars to give them greater opportunities for glory or promotion.
    • The rise of Nationalism. In Europe, there was the rise of a general feeling of civilians that their nations should acquire overseas colonies for national prestige. The Germans began feeling they belonged to a superior race that must be shown by acquiring colonies in Africa.
  9. State two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in southern Nigeria.
    • Southern Nigeria lacked centralized administration which could be used to implement the indirect rule.
    • African chiefs feared erosion and loss of their traditional authority/resistance from African rules.
    • The African elite resented British rule.
    • Existence of many ethnic groups and religions made it difficult to bring the people together under one rule.
    • The use of unpopular African rulers e.g. puppet/morans/unpopular chiefs/Obas made the people reject British rule. (Any 2 points, 1 mk (2mks)
  10. Positive Results of Lewanika collaboration.
    • Schools and health centres were put up in his kingdom.
    • He got British protection from Ndebele attacks.
    • The British recognized Lewanika as a paramount chief of Barotse and gave him necessary protection.
    • Lewanika received payment of £ 2000 yearly
    • The Lozi were employed in the civil service
    • The British South Africa Company developed infrastructure in Barotseland
  11. Give the main cause of the cold war.
    • Ideological differences between the USA and USSR/Division of the world into two opposing blocs, capitalist and communist.
  12. Achievements of COMESA.
    • It provides its members a wide, harmonized and more competitive market for internal and external trading.
    • It provides member states with a rational way of exploiting natural resources for their welfare.
    • COMESA has established harmonized monetary, banking and financial policies in the region.
    • It has improved the administration of transport and communication to ease movement of goods, services and people.
    • It has ensured cooperation in the promotion of peace, security and stability among member states in order to enhance economic development in the region.
    • COMESA has strengthened relations between the Common Market and the rest of the world while ensuring that the members adopt a common position in international fora.
    • Through the Authority of Heads of State and Government, COMESA directs and controls the affairs of the common market.
    • Customs cooperation has been achieved through a unified computerized customs network that operates across the region. The harmonization of macro-economic and monetary policies throughout the region has been achieved.
    • It has provided room for greater industrial productivity and competitiveness due to its large market.
    • It has encouraged member states to practice good governance, accountability and respect for human rights. Burundi and Rwanda were subjected to these demands before they were admitted to COMESA.
    • It has contributed to employment of many people in the region.
    • COMESA has promoted increased agricultural production and exploitation of natural resources.
    • The organization has ensured a more efficient and reliable transport and communication infrastructure.
  13. Administrative method used by the French
    • Assimilation
    • Association
    • Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation)
    • Poqo (Blacks Only)
    • Allied forces
    • Axis powers
  16. To maintain world peace and security.
  17. The League of Nations failed its Prime objective of maintaining world peace.
      1. Some of them like cattle, sheep and goats provided man with regular food i.e. Milk, meat.
      2. Animal Hides or skin were used as clothing and beddings
      3. The horns were used for communication.
      4. Hooves and bones of animals were used as containers and as drinking vessels.
      5. Some of the domesticated animals like the camel, donkey and horses were used for transport.
      6. Domestic animals like the oxen and the donkey were used to plough land for farming.
      7. The dog protected man against dangerous animals.
      8. Some of the domesticated animals produced manure which greatly improved agricultural produce.
    2. Explain five factors leading to food shortages in third world countries.
      1. Many parts of Africa experience little or no rain at all over several years leading to crop failure and hence food shortages/natural hazards.
      2. The rapid population growth rate has overtaken food production rate resulting into food shortages.
      3. Inadequate/food storage facilities had contributed to food wastages as farmers cannot store store food for a long period.
      4. Poor state of roads in many African countries hinders transportation of food from the areas of surplus to those of deficit.
      5. Low prices of food stuff has discouraged many farmers who may have invested so much capital leading to food shortages.
      6. Many farmers in Africa lack enough capital to buy required farm inputs.
      7. Due to crop diseases and pest, a lot of food is destroyed either on the farms or in stores resulting to food shortages.
      8. The emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops has contributed to low food production leading to food shortages.
      9. Environmental degradation through deforestation/overgrazing of animals had led to soil erosion leading to wasteland, hence low food production/desertification.
      10. Civil wars in many African countries have displaced people from their farms and therefore diverted their attention from farming resulting in food shortages.
      11. Poor food policies have discouraged farmers as they are not given enough incentives in case of crop failure/poor economic planning.
      12. The young-able bodied persons migrate to urban centres thus leaving farming to the aged who are not able to contribute much towards food production.
      13. HIV and AIDS pandemic has impacted negatively on the labour force in food production.
      14. Poor land tenure system/land fragmentation has reduced the acreage that would have been used for production scarcity.
      15. Over reliance/dependence on famine relief food/other forms of aid has made people not to look for permanent solutions to food shortages.
      16. Lack of modern farming methods her led to low food production.Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
      1. Towns/cities developed along the trade routes
      2. The wealth acquired from the trade was used to expand states such as Ghana and Mali.
      3. Strong armies were formed due to the use of the horse as a means of transport.
      4. A wealth class of merchants developed due to their involvement in the trade.
      5. Berbers and Arabs from North African settled in Western Sudan and inter-married with the local people.
      6. The people of Western Sudan became Muslims/adopted Islamic culture.
      7. School, libraries and Universities were established by Muslims scholars thus many people received formal education.
      8. Arabic architectural designs were introduced in Western Sudan
      9. Islamic Law /sheria was introduced in administration
      10. Slave trading was encouraged
      11. The introduction of foreign goods led to decline in locally manufactured goods
      12. The Western Sudan was opened up to the rest of the world.
        Any 5x2= 10mks
    2. Negative impacts of the trans-Saharan trade;
      1. The trade increased warfare in the region as communities gained access to firearms and horses. Thousands of people lost their lives.
      2. Many people in the western Sudan belt were captured and taken into slavery to meet the demands of the trans-Saharan traders.
      3. The demand for ivory also led to the destruction of wildlife in western Sudan.
      4. Exhaustion of the salt and gold minefields as well as other like ivory. This discouraged traders from coming to West Africa.
      5. Increased political instability in the region due to so many wars of conquest created insecurity to the traders.
      6. The desert conditions e.g. harsh weather, dangerous insects, snakes and robbers discouraged many traders from the activity.
      7. Invasion of the region by the almorarids and the Tuaregs increased insecurity even more along the trade routes. Hence traders discontinued their involvement.
      8. Moroccan invasion of western Sudan in the 16th century undermined the trade.
      9. The growth of the trans-Atlantic trade attracted some of the trans-Saharan traders thus reducing the volume of commodities that were sold.
      10. Colonization of west and North Africa by Europeans who took over the resources hence African activities were undermined.
      11. Invasion of North Africa by the ottoman Turks created insecurity along the caravan routes leading to decline of the trade.
    1. Identify five methods used by European powers to establish colonial rule in Africa.
      1. Military conquest/expeditions
      2. They signed treaties/agreements with African rulers/diplomacy/collaboration
      3. Deception/treachery/luring Africans with European goods.
      4. Chartered trading companies
      5. Playing off communities against each other in order to weaken.
    2. Terms of the Berlin act of 1884-1885.
      1. That all signatories must declare their sphere of influence an area under each nation’s occupation
      2. That once an area is declared a sphere of influence, effective occupation must be
      3. established in the area through establishment of firm colonial infrastructures to be followed by colonial administration.
      4. That any state, laying claim to any part of Africa must inform other interested parties in order to avoid future rivalry.
      5. That any power acquiring territory in Africa must undertake to stamp out slave trade in favour of legitimate trade and safeguard African interests.
      6. That if a European power claims a certain part of the African coast, the land in the interior next to the coast became hers.
      7. That the Congo River and the Niger River basins were to be left free for any interested power to navigate.
      8. The European powers vowed to protect and safeguard European interests in Africa irrespective of their nationality.
    1. Contributions of Marcus Garvey to Pan Africanism
      1. He organized a black convention in 1924 in New York during which he launched the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) whose HQs were to be at Harlem, New York.
      2. Founded a Journal “The Negro World” and the African Orthodox Church under a black Patriarch or chief Bishop and a Black Madonna as the symbol of his church.
      3. Mobilizing Africans to take pride in their cultures and complexion.
    2. Achievements of OAU.
      • It offered solution to border disputes between member states like Kenya vs. Somalia, Ethiopia vs. Somalia, Libya vs. Chad, morocco vs. Algeria, Chad vs. Nigeria and the Rwanda -Burundi conflict.
      • The OAU achieved total liberation of African countries, with South Africa being the last one. It offered military support to the nationalistic struggles in Mozambique, Angola, Rhodesia, Namibia and South Africa.
      • It condemned human rights violation in countries like Namibia and South Africa. It encouraged economic sanctions against the apartheid regime of South Africa.
      • Through the OAU, African governments were able to speak with one voice on
      • Matters affecting Africa and they even attempted to formulate a common foreign policy.
      • It provided a forum for discussing Africa’s common problems like desertification, foreign interference, and dependency and at the same time sought for solutions to the problems.
      • The organization embarked on common economic ventures for Africa. For example creation of the African Development Bank (ADB) which represented the collective contribution by all Africans towards emancipation of Africans from economic backwardness.
      • It encouraged construction of roads and railways to link different regions. E.g. Tanzam, the Great North Road and the Trans-African Highway. This improved economic co-operation between member states.
      • It created a cultural identity for African countries sports and the All-African Games, which provided Africans with the opportunity to meet and socialize.
      • Through its refugee agency, it addressed itself to the refugee problem in the continent. E.g. refugees from countries like Rwanda, Burundi, Chad, Gambia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia have been assisted.
      • It was instrumental in the formation of regional organizations like ECOWAS, SADDC and COMESA.
    1. Economic activities of the Shona.
      1. They grew crops/ agriculture
      2. They kept livestock
      3. They traded with Arabs and Swahili traders/ took part in long distance trade/ trade
      4. They hunted elephants for ivory
      5. They were iron worked/ blacksmiths
      6. They made clothes from wild cotton/ bark fibres
      7. They mined gold
      8. They were fishermen
      9. They gathered/ gathering
      • After kabaka Mutesa’s death,kabaka mwanga was inconsistent and in compempetent in policy making.
      • Religious conflicts between christens, Muslims and traditionalists who were competing for influence in kabaka’s court.
      • Kabaka’s authority was undermined by the Christian court officials.
      • Kingdom came under British control after the Anglo-Buganda agreement.
      • The infant, Daudi Chwa couldn’t exert his authority hence kingdom was managed by court officials collaborating with the British.
    1. Give three reasons why the Central powers were defeated in the first world war.
      1. The allied forces control the sea routes and had powerful navy which they used to blocked supplies other central power.
      2. The allied forces had adequate supply of human resources for the war from the members against 4 for the Central powers.
      3. The allied forces had abundant wealth with which to finance the war
      4. The initial defeat of German led to mutinies in the Germany army. It also make other members of the Central Powers to surrender.
        Any 3 points, 1mk (3mks)
    2. Political results of the World War II.
      1. Defeat of axis powers led to government changes in Germany, Italy and Japan.
      2. The division of Europe into two opposing blocks led to the cold war, which was followed by an arms race between USA and USSR.
      3. Germany was divided into two. The communist East and the capitalist West. The city of Berlin was also divided between the east and the west.
      4. Germany and Italy were weakened especially with the loss of their colonies.
      5. U.S.A & U.S.S.R emerged as superpowers. The pre-war balance of power was destroyed and the power vacuum was filled by two new superpowers, the USA and USSR
    3. A weakness of the League of Nations to prevent the outbreak of war was demonstrated. This Led to UNO formation.
      • There was rise of nationalism in Asia and Africa. It led to Africans struggle for independence because they were confident knowing that Europeans were no superior to them. Nationalists among the Asians leading to attainment of independence in Pakistan and India in 1947, in Burma (Myanmar) in 1948, and in Ceylon (Sri Lanka.) in 1949.
      • The Japanese destroyed the myth of European military superiority due to the defeat of British and American forces in the Far East.
      • New states were created. In 1948, the state of Israel was established in the Middle East, to settle the Jews who were displaced during the war.
    1. Political challenges that the democratic republic of Congo has faced since independence.
      1. Political instability/military coup edentates
      2. Ethnic differerences/tribal clashes.
      3. Succession
      4. Civil Wars
      5. Political assassinations
      6. Foreign interference/intrigues
      7. Mutiny in the army
        Any 3x1=marks
    2. Economic developments in DRC since independence.
      • The political chaos inn DRC up to 1965 did not favour any economic progress. During the reign of the Belgians in Congo, no viable economic development was initiated. Little development was done in infrastructure in order to facilitate transportation of raw materials to the ports of Matadi etc.
      • At independence, the country was faced with the problems of shortage of manpower, skills and entrepreneurship.
      • When Mobutu took over, there was some slight economic progress. Transport and communication improved as more roads and railway were constructed to link major towns of Matadi, Kinshasa, Lubumbashi and Kisangani. Navigation on the river Congo was improved, which led go expansion of mining and agricultural sectors.
        Mining of diamonds resumed after the turbulent years and resulted in reduced inflation. Mobutu encouraged foreign investment in the mining sector.
      • However, the fall of world copper prices in 1970s again began to derail the economic growth in DRC.
      • In the 70s, the government nationalized foreign firms employed inexperienced people to control them.
      • In 1972, Mobutu enacted a law that placed state finances and expenditure under him, thus reducing the flow of capital to the provinces.
      • In 1976, he encouraged mutual cooperation between private firms and the government in the extraction of minerals such as copper, oil, diamond, cobalt and manganese in a bid to create employment opportunities.
      • He also emphasized on diversification of the economy which greatly boosted food production.
      • The entertainment industry has also grown to become an invisible export through repatriation of profits back home by the foreign based musicians.
      • Energy supply has been increased through the construction of the Luga hydro-electric power station.
    3. Social developments and challenges in DRC since independence.
      • Between 1961 and 1965, there was little improvement in the field of health and education in DRC due to constant power struggles and civil strife.
      • When Mobutu took over in 1965, he strived to expand schools and universities. For example, by 1970, he had established three universities. He also improved on the provision of health facilities. He banned religious education in schools in 1971, attempted to revive indigenous culture through the Authenticity programme that involved renaming places that had foreign names.
      • In the 1970’s, in an effort to improve the welfare of citizens, a national insurance programme was established.
      • Mobutu also gave prominence to music as part of the Congolese curriculum.
      • The independent government supported sporting activities through construction of stadium and other sporting facilities.
      • However, living standards in Zaire continued to fall as health services, water and sanitation continued to be inadequate.
      • The steady rise in population was without a commensurate growth of social services.
      • In summary, the common challenges socially were illiteracy, extreme poverty, famine and diseases caused by civil strife, massive unemployment, refugee problem and religious persecutions by Mobutu.
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