Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Mumias West Pre Mocks 2022

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Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1. List four environmental factors that affect crop distribution in a given area.(2mks) 
  2. Mention two methods of storing water on a farm (1mk)
  3. Give one reason why too much air in the silo is undesirable in the process of making silage.(½mk)   
  4. State two advantages of a grass-legume pasture over a pure grass pasture (1mk)   
  5. State two characteristics of a large scale farming system. (1mk)
  6. Give four reasons why farmers are encouraged to practice organic farming. (2mks)
    1. What is meant by the term land reform? (½mk)  
    2. State four steps followed in land adjudication. (2mks)   
    3. Mention any four pieces of information contained in a land title deed.(2mks) 
  8. State two ways how ridging controls soil erosion (1mk)  
  9. List down two determinants of national income(1mk)  
  10. State two possible causes of a hard pan. (1mk) 
  11. Differentiate between chitting and seed inoculation. (1mk)
  12. Mention four management practices that are carried out on  agro forestry trees from transplanting to maturity (2mks)  
  13. Give four possible causes of seed dormancy. (2mks)
  14. State four reasons for planting cereals early in the planting season.(2mks) 
  15. Give four functions of Young Farmers Clubs in Kenyan secondary schools and colleges. (2mks)
  16. Give one term used to explain a market condition where there is a:
    1. Sole seller (½mk) 
    2. Sole buyer (½mk) 
  17. Distinguish between the terms hybrid and composite as used in  maize breeding (1mk) 
  18. State two characteristics of green manure plants (1mk)
  19. Give four farming practices that may help in achieving minimum tillage (2mks)
  20. What is biological weed control (1mk)  

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.              

  1. A farmer can combine dairy meal and home made feeds in order to obtain 40kg of milk from a lactating cow as shown in the table below.
    Dairy meal(kg) Home-made feed(kg)  Marginal rate of subsistitution
    1 48 0
    2 39 V
    3 32 7
    4 27 W
    5 23 4
    6 21 X
    7 20 1
    8 19 Y
    1. Given the above information, calculate the Marginal Rate of Substitution and give the value of  V, W, X and Y. (4mks)
    2. Given that the price of dairy meal is Kshs.8.00 per kilogram and that of home-made feeds is Kshs.2.00 per kilogram, calculate the least cost combination. (1mk)
  2. The diagram below illustrates one of the arable field crops. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the field crop.(1mk)
    2. State two common diseases that attack the parts labeled G and H (2mks)
    3. Explain four cultural methods  of controlling the disease named H in (b) above (2mks) 
    1. Name the deficient nutrient element in plants showing the following symptoms;
      1. Stunted growth, die back of plant tips, leaves roll up and chlorosis along margins of younger leaves(1mk)
      2. Yellowing of leaves appears first on lower leaves; leaves turn brown and fall prematurely, stunted growth.(1mk)
      3. Leaf curling, yellowing of leaves tips and edges of leaves scorched and has small mottles.(1mk)
      4. Purpling of leaves, stunted growth, slender stalks and lateral buds remain dormant(1mk)
    2. The diagrams below show a practice out on various crops on the farm. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
      Identify the practice in diagram B
  4. The figure below is a diagram illustrating a method of crop propagation. Study it carefully then answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the method of propagation illustrated above (1mk) 
    2. Give two ways of initiating faster root development in the propagation method shown above (2mks)
    3. What would make it necessary for a farmer to choose the above method of propagation instead of using cuttings?(2mks) 

Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided.

    1. Describe the production of tomatoes under the following:-
      1. Transplanting: (5mks)
      2. Field Management practices. (5mks)
    2. Give six advantages of drip irrigation. (6mks)
    3. Explain four factors that determine the quality of hay. (4mks)
  2. Study the information provided carefully and use it to prepare a profit and loss account for Mr. Makunda farm for the year ending 2021 .His purchases and expenses were as follows:
    Goats -  4,000
    Poultry -  15,000
    Dairy meal -  25,000
    Pasture seeds -  50,000
    Transportation of farm produces -  15,000
    Casual workers -  12,000
    Ox-plough -  10,000
    Opening Valuation -  150,000
    His sales and Receipts.
    Mohair -  75,000
    Rabbits -  36,000
    Pigs -  70,000
    Groundnuts -  100,000
    Orange -  20,000
    Eggs -  15,000
    Closing valuation -  200,000
    1. Prepare profit and loss account         (15mks)                                                                                       
    2. Name Five methods of draining water in water logged / marshy areas. (5mks) 
    1. Explain five problems associated with credits? (5marks)
    2. Explain eight uses of farm records? (8marks)
    3. Explain seven effects of strong winds in agriculture(7marks)                       



    1. Temperature/altitude
    2. Prevailing wind
    3. sunlight
    4. Rainfall(4 x ½ = 2mks)
    1. Use of water tank/container
    2. Use of dams/ponds(2 x ½ = 1mk)
    • Too much air may cause overheating
    • Too much air may cause decomposition 1 x ½ = ½ mk
    • Grass legume pasture is more nutritious to livestock
    • It improves soil fertility through nitrogen fixation /economizes the use of N fertilizers
    • Total pasture yield is more per unit area
    • There is security against total pasture loss 2 x ½ =1mk
    • Requires large tracts of land
    • Requires high capital investment
    • Mechanization is common
    • Skilled labour is required
    • Processing of the product in the farm
    • Provides more employment 2 x ½ = 1mk
    • No pollution 
    • Conserve the soil e.g soil structure, PH e.t.c
    • Easily carried out
    • Produces/fetches higher prices in the international market.
    • Materials used are easily available/cheap
    • Produce healthy products  4 x ½ = 2mks
      • Specific integrated action to bring about more effective control and use of land
      • An organized action taken to improve the structure of land tenure and land use
      • Establishment of ownership- Description of the land
      • Recording/mapping of the land/registration
      • Checking of the register/objection
      • Settling of the objection case if any/establish boundary
    • Stops surface run off
    • Holds the water for infiltration instead of surface flow 2 x ½ = 1mk
    • Per capita income
    • Gross domestic product (GDP)
    • Gross national product (GNP) 2 x ½ = 1mk
    • Ploughing at the same depth season after season 
    • Deposition of insoluble precipitate of same mineral salts
    • Rolling of land with heavy machines e.g rollers
    • Lack of crop rotation with shallow rooted crops versus deep rooted crops 
  11. Chitting or sprouting is the breaking of irish potatoes/“setts” dormancy while seed inoculation is the coating of legume seeds with a nitro-culture to attract nitrogen fixing bacteria. Mark as a whole 1 x 1 = 1mk
    • Protecting – Erecting sticks around the seedling
    • Pruning to grow wide
    • Training to direct growth pattern
    • Grafting of the old trees
    • Old age/depleted food reserves
    • Impermeable testa/seed coat to water and oxygen
    • Damage by pests/broken
    • Damage by diseases
    • Lack of moisture, Oxygen in the soil.
    • Enables crops to establish early and withstand competition from weeds
    • To enable crops escape attacks by most pests and diseases.
    • Enables crops to use nutrients in the soil before they are leached/enables crops to utilize Nitrogen flash better.
    • For better utilization of the available rainfall in the season
    • In order to get good market
    • To reduce labour competition for various operations
    • For timely harvesting during the appropriate weather condition.   4 x ½ = 2mks
    • Organizing and participation in A.S.K show activities e.g. livestock judging
    • Participates in annual Y.F.C rallies, camps, holding symposiums
    • Planting trees/carrying out agricultural projects in schools
    • Organizing agricultural field days for the local community
    • Participating in agricultural exchange programmes both locally and internationally 4 x ½ = 2mks
    1. Sole seller- Monopoly 1 x ½ = ½mk
    2. Sole buyer- Monopsony 1 x ½ = ½mk
    • Hybrid- is bred by crossing inbred varieties under controlled pollination while
    • Composite- is bred by crossing a number of varieties under uncontrolled pollination
      Mark as a whole 1 x 1 = 1mk
    • Highly vegetative
    • Faster growth rate
    • High nitrogen content/legumes preferably
    • Quickly rotting plants
    • Hardy/can establish in poor conditions 2 x ½ =1mk)
    • Application of herbicides
    • Application of mulch
    • Timing cultivation e.g. early/late weeding leads to a clean seedbed
    • Establishing cover crops
    • Uprooting/slashing/grazing to control weeds
      Rej: grazing / uprooting / slashing alone 4 x ½ = 2mks
  20. A deliberate use of a living agent e.g. insects/virus/bacteria/fungi/animal to reduce the population of target weed. 1 x 1 = 1mk 
    1. V = 48 - 39 = 9
              2 - 1
      W = 32 - 27 = 5
               4 - 3
      X = 23 - 21 = 2
              6 - 5
      Y = 20 - 19 = 1
              8 - 7
    2. LCC = Δx2 = PX1
                 Δx1    PX2
      = 27 - 23 = 8/2 = 4
           5 - 4 
    1. Sorghum compact panicle  1 x 1 = 1mk
    2. Common diseases
      G- Smut, Head smut
      H- Streak virus diseases 1 x 1 = 1mk
      • Burn crop residues
      • Rogueing and burning affected crops 
      • Plant resisitant varieties
      • Field hygiene
      • Use certified seeds 4 x ½ =2mks
      1. Calcium=½mk
      2. Nitrogen=½mk
      3. Potassium  =½mk
      4. Phosphorous= ½mk
    2. Earthing up
    1. Tip layering / layering / ground layering / trench layering.
      • Apply hormones e.g I.A.A
      • Debarking / wounding the part of the plant buried in the ground / ring barking
      • Bending the part of the plant buried in the ground
      • Applying a rooting medium
      • Wetting the soil. (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    3. Used for plants whose cuttings do not root easily
      When a larger planting part (propagule) is required.   1 x 1 = 1mk
    1. Nursey bed should be watered well.
      • lift the seedlings with a lump of soil around the roots
      • select healthy and vigoursly growing seedlings.
      • plant one seedling per hole.
      • firm soil around the base of the plant
      • transplant late in the evening.
      • Gapping :done  to maintain the correct plant population.
      • Top dressing : top dress when the seedlings are 25-30cm with nitrogenous fertilizer such as CAN or SA 20KGN or 100kg/HA
      • Weeding : field should be kept weed free
      • Staking : Tall varieties should be staked.
      • Pruning : it should be pruned one to three shoots per plant.
      • Pest control: American bollworm should be controlled with appropriate pesticide
      • Disease control : they should be controlled 
      • little amount of water is required as compared to other types of irrigation.
      • water under low pressure can be used as long as it can flow along the pipe
      • it discourages fungal diseases such as blight, CBD
      • it does not encourage the growth of weeds between the rows.
      • forage species used .
      • Stage of harvesting hence the leaf to stem ratio
      • length of the drying period.
      • weather conditions during the drying process.
      • Conditions of the storage structure.
    1. The profit and loss account of Mr.Makunda for the year ending 31/12/2021
      Purchase and expenses Sales and receipt
        shs cts    shs  cts 
      Opening valuation
      Dairy meal 
      Pasture seeds
      Transportation of farm produce
      Casual workers
      Ox plough
      Net profit 
      Closing valuation 
      Total 516,000 00   516,000 00
      Awarding of marks
      Title - 1mk 
      Purchases & expenses – 1mk 
      Shs / Cts - 1mk 
      Valuation - 1mk 
      Sub-total -1mk
      Net profit -1mk
      Total balancing -1mk
      Any 15 x 1 = 15mks
      Sales & receipt -1mk
      Closing valuation -1mk
      Total -1mk
      Any four correct entries -4mks
      • open ditches
      • Underground drain pipes
      • French drains
      • cambered beds
      • pumping 
      • planting trees
      • lack of collaterals. Most farmers lack adequate security to enable them to obtain loans.
      • loans are diverted to other uses which they were not intended .
      • the interest rates are usually high such payment becomes a problem.
      • non payment of loan may lead to assets used as security being auctioned .
      • lack of knowledge and appropriate skills in the management of credits may lead to misappropriation or misuse of the funds.
      • Lack of proper farm proper farm records may disqualify farmers from getting funds.
      • Provide labour information like terminal benefits like NSSF dues.
      • help farmers in settling assets like farm animals and machinery.
      • records help to compare the performance of different enterprises within a farm or other farms
      • they show the history of the farm
      • they show the history of the farm
      • Guide a farmer in planning and budgeting farm operations
      • help to detect losses or theft on the farm
      • help in the assessment of income tax to avoid over or under taxation.
      • helps to determine value of the farm or determine assets and liabilities
      • make it easy to share profits and losses in partnerships
      • help in settling disputes among heirs to the estate when a farmer dies without leaving a will.
      • records help to show whether the farm business is making profits or losses
      • helps in  supporting insurance claims on death , theft and fire of assets 
      • increasing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the soil
      • causing lodging in cereals and damaging to crops
      • blowing away and bringing rain bearing clouds 
      • acting as agent of seed dispersal
      • acting as agent of soil erosion
      • increasing the spreading of pests and diseases
        Destroying farm structures
        Areas with humidity tend to be hotter , but when wind takes away atmospheric water ,  a cooling effect occurs. 
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