Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Mumias West Pre Mocks 2022

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SECTION A (30mks)
Answer all questions in the spaces provided.

  1. List the tool used for each of the following:
    1. Tightening barbed wires during fencing (½mk)
    2. Smoothening concrete floors during plastering (1/2mk)
    1. State two characteristics of goats that make them adapted to arid areas of Kenya (1mk)
    2. Give four majors features of exotic beef breeds (2mks)
  3. Give four ways in which diseases can spread from on animal to the other within the farm (2mks)
    1. Which livestock disease is transmitted by each of the following ticks? (1mk)
      1. Blue tick (Boophilus decoloratus)
      2. Brown ear tick ( Rhipicephalous appendiculatus)
    2. Name the intermediate host for the following internal parasites in livestock (1mk)
      1. Tape worm (Taenia solium)
      2. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)
  5. State four disadvantages of natural mating as a method of breeding in cattle production (2mks)
    1. What is the name given to the practice of trimming wool around the sheath of a ram to facilitate mating (1/2 mk)
    2. Use the diagram below to answer questions that follows:
      Identify the type of special feeding shown by the letters A, B and C (1 1/2mks)
    1. Give two reasons for treating timber to be used in construction of farm buildings. (1mk)
    2. Outline two routine maintenance practices carried out on water tanks. (1mk)
    1. Name two notifiable diseases in cattle. (1mk)
    2. Give two signs that would indicate that animal has died of anthrax. (1mk)
    1. Give three methods of controlling cannibalism in a flock of poultry. (1 1/2 mk)
    2. State three conditions that reduce the quality for hatching (1 1/2mks)
    3. State four observations on the behavior of chicks which would indicate that the temperature of the brooder is too high (2mks)
    1. Explain three characteristics that make colostrum suitable for newly born calves. (1 1/2 mks)
    2. State three qualities of clean milk (1 1/2 mks)
    1. Give the function of each of the following parts of a mowed board plough (1mk)
      1. Frog
      2. Landslide
    2. State two methods of increasing ploughing depth when using a disc plough (1mk)
    1. State three ways in which a production ration can be utilized by cattle (1 1/2 mks)
    2. Name three products of fermentation in the rumen of a ruminant. (1 1/2 mks)
  13. Give uses of a screen in the inlet pipe of a fish pond. (1mk)

Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. A farmer in Lusheya village wanted to prepare a 200kg of calf rearing ration containing 20% DCP. Using the Pearson’s Square Method, calculate the amount of maize containing 10% DCP and sunflower containing 35% DCP the farmer would need to prepare in the ration. (show your working) (5mks)
  2. The diagrams below represent farm tools used in agricultural production
    1. Identify the tools labelled E and F (2mks)
    2. State one use of the tools labelled F and G (2mks)
    3. State one advantage of the tool F has over tool E (1mk)
  3. The diagram below represents parts of a roof
    1. Identify the parts labelled A and C
    2. State two types of materials that may be used for the parts labelled D. (2mks)
    3. Give one disadvantage of using thatch for part labelled B. (1mk)
  4. The diagram below illustrates a tractor drawn implement
    1. Identify the implement (1mk)
    2. Name the part labelled
    3. State two functions of the part labelled K (2mks) 

Answer only two questions in this section.

    1. Explain five reasons for maintaining livestock healthy (5mks)
    2. Describe the life cycle of a three-host tick. (8mks)
    3. Describe the factors a farmer should consider when selecting a young female pig (Gilt) for breeding (7mks)
    1. State five management practice in fish rearing. (5mks)
    2. Describe the procedure of erecting wooden posts for fencing. (5mks)
    3. Describe Brucellosis disease in cattle under the following sub-headings;
      1. Causal organism (1mk)
      2. Signs of attack (4mks)
      3. Control measures (5mks)
    1. Describe the artificial rearing of layer chicks from a day old up to the end of brooding. (8mks)
    2. Describe the use of Seven material/ equipment required for hand milking (7mks)
    3. Describe the functions of the gear box of a tractor. (5mks)


    1. Tightening barbed wires- Monkey strainer/wire strainer.
    2. Smothering concrete floors- Steel float/wood float.
      • Good foragers hence survive on poor pastures;
      • Ability to eat dry feeds;
      • Have heat tolerant tissues;
      • Blocky/square/rectangular in shape.
      • Low set /short legs;
      • Thick neck;
      • Fleshy body;
      • Smaller udders;
    • Vectors/external parasites;
    • Ingesting contaminated water,feed/milk;
    • Inhaling contaminated air;
    • Contaminated surgical instruments eg scapels,needles,docking knives;
    1. Red water(Babesiosis);
      Gall sickness (Anaplasmosis)
    2. Tape worm (Taenia solium)
      Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica);
    • It is uneconomical to keep a bull.
    • It leads to uncontrolled mating/breeding;
    • High risk of transmission of breeding diseases.
    • Only small number of cows can be served;
    • Large bulls can injure small cows.
    1. Flushing
    2. Steaming up;
    3. Creep feeding     
      • To prevent warping/bending/twisting;
      • To prevent rotting/damage by fungi;
      • To protect them from pest attack;
      • To enable timber to achieve its maximum strength;
      • Paint metallic tanks;
      • Regular washing of the tank;
      • Repair any leakage;
      • Anthrax;
      • Rinderpest
      • Foot and mouth disease;
      • Lumpy skin disease.
      • Lack of stiffness of carcars/ lack of rigor mortis;
      • Production of tar like watery blood from all body openings;
      • Extensive bloating.
      • Debeaking;
      • Making laying nests/boxes dark;
      • Feeding balanced diet;
      • Hanging greens /vegetables to keep the birds busy;
      • Scatter grains on the floor to keep the birds busy.
      • Control of external parasites;
      • Keeping birds according to age/avoid introduction of new birds;
      • Provide adequate space;
    2. Dirt;
      • Abnormal size/undersize/oversize;
      • Irregular /broken/soft shells;
      • Internal abnormalities e.g double york,meaty spots,poor candling qualities;
      • Poor storage /long storage beyond 5 days;
      • Chicks move away from the heat source;
      • Panting/opening beaks;
      • Opening of wings /spreading of wings;
      • Making abnormal noise;
      • Drinking water excessively;
      • Chicks may lie flat on their bellies;
      • Has a laxative value and help to remove the faecal meconium/ first faecal matter/ open up the alimentary canal/ cleance the digestive system/prevent constipation;
      • It is rich in antibodies that offers temporary immunity against diseases;
      • It is highly digestible;
      • It is rich in digestible proteins/fats/minerals/vitamins/highly nutritious;
      • Free from disease causing organisms;
      • Free fro dirt/ foreign materials;
      • Appropriate smell and flavor;
      • Chemical composition within the expected standards;
      1. To make vertical cut into the soil that separate the furrow slice from the unploughed land;
      2. Cut trash which would prevent the share from penetrating deep into the soil;
      • Decreasing the angle of the cut;
      • Use of hydraulic / draught lever;
      • Adding weights on the plough beam;
      • Raising the land wheel;
      • Synthesis/ formation of various products e.g milk,eggs and meat;
      • Foetal development;
      • For work/ provide draft energy;
      • For growth;
      • Ammonia gas;
      • Volatile fatty acids;
      • Methane/Carbon(IV) Oxide/ hydrogen gas;
      • Vitamins B complex and K;
      • Amino acids;
    • Prevent entrance of strange/undesired species of fish;
    • Prevent fish from swimming away from the pond ;
    • Prevent predators e.g snakes from entering the pond;     

  13. 5
    Amount of maize (15/25 ×200)kg = 120kg
    Amount of sunflower (10/25 ×200)kg = 80kg
    1. E- Open ended spanner
      F- Ring spanner;
    2. Use of;
      F – Loosening and tightening specific sized nuts and bolts;
      G – Digging and collecting manure/trash;
    3. Provides a more firm grip on nuts and bolts;
      Can work on nuts and bolts in depressions;
    1. A- Purlin
    2. Timber
      Metal / metal bars;
    3. Fire risk;
      Prone to insect damage;
    1. Disc plough;
    2. H- Beam;
      J- Lower linlk attachment point;
    3. Counteracts the thrust by the discs to balance the plough;
      helps to adjust the depth of ploughing;
      • Health animals grow fast and mature early;
      • Produce good quality products;
      • Animals get longer productive life;
      • Give maximum production /performance;
      • Prevent spread of diseases;
      • Healthy animals are economical to keep.
    2. Requires three hosts to complete life cycle; Females lay eggs on ground; eggs hatch into larvae; larvae climb on the first host; suck blood and get engorged; fall on the ground and moult into nymphs; Nymphs climb onto the second host; suck blood ,get engorged; and fall on the ground and moult into adults; adults climb onto the third host ; suck blood and mate; females fall on the ground to lay eggs;
      • Good body conformation;
      • Should be well adapted to its environment/hardy;
      • Good mothering ability;
      • High production potential/yielding;
      • Good temperament /good behavior;
      • Lack of physical deformities e.g mono eyed;
      • Good offspring performance;
      • High growth rate/mature early;
      • Produce quality products;
      • Resistance to diseases and parasites;
      • Highly prolific/ high prolificacy;
      • Long life span/long productive life;
      • Control pollution;
      • Controlling water level;
      • Fertilizing the pond/manuring;
      • Cropping/ harvesting at the right age of maturity;
      • Removal of silt;
      • Clearing bushes around the pond;
      • Maintaining of continuous flow of water/ regular change of water;
      • Controll of predators;
      • Partial burning /charring of the posts;
      • Cut the top in sloping manner;
      • Cover the top with a plastic/ metal sheet;
      • Reinforce with concrete.
      1. Brucella arbutus/ Bacteria/Brucella ssp;
        • Premature birth occurs/arbotion;
        • Retained placenta;
        • Infertilty;
        • Inflamed testis/orchitis in males;
        • Yellow ,brown slimy discharge from the vulva at arbotion;
        • Low libido in bulls;
        • Use A.I;
        • Culling and slaughtering affected animals and proper disposal of carcars;
        • Stockman should avoid contact with arborted foetus;
        • Vaccination;
        • Blood test of all breeding animals to detect infected ones;
        • Proper hygiene;
      • Ensure brooder corners are rounded;
      • Provide enough brooding space accordingly;
      • Clean and disinfect the brooder house /equipment ;
      • Provide wood shavings/proper litter on the floor;
      • Temperature during first one week should 32-35, reduce accordingly;
      • Spread sheets of newspapers and sprinkle chick marsh o them;
      • Provide fire guard around the source of heat;
      • Maintain proper ventilation by adjusting the openings;
      • Provide fresh ,adequate and quality feeds/chick marsh;
      • Provide adequate and appropriate waters/feeders according to age/ number of birds;
      • Remove dead chicks from the brooder;
      • Control parasites by applying appropriate chemicals;
      • Control diseases appropriately;
      • Isolate and treat sick animals;
      • Keep proper recordings;
      • Gradually change the feed in the last one week in brooder;
      • Debeak (8-10) days toward the end of end of brooding;
      • Provide adequate water for chicks;
      • Udder cloths/towels –washing udder/drying udder;
      • Filtering pads –straining milk;
      • Milking jelly-applied to teats after milking to prevent cracking;
      • Warm water – washing the udder to remove dirt, stimulate milk let down;
      • Milking stool –sit on during milking;
      • Strip cup/Fore milk cup –necessary for detecting milk abnormalities e,g mastitis;
      • Milk can/milk churn –hold milk during milking and temporary storage;
      • Concentrates/feeds –to stimulate the milk let down;
      • Milking pails/milking bucket –used to hold milk during milking;
      • Weighing scale –Determine the amount of milk;
      • Help the driver to select any speed forward or reverse gear;
      • Adjust speed of the drive from the engine crank shaft to the drive shaft;
      • Helps alter the speed ratio;
      • Enables the power from the engine to be more easily applied to the work be done by the tractor;
      • Enables the driver to stop the tractor movement without stopping the engine or without foot pressing on the clutch all the time;

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