Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Cekena Pre Mocks 2022

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INSTRUCTION

  1. Write your name and index number
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the space provided above
  3. This paper consists of two section A and B
  4. Answer all section in the section A
  5. Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B
  6. Answers must be written in the spaces provided the end of question 10
  7. Candidates must check all the Questions to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and no question is missing
  8. Candidates should answer all questions in English


QUESTIONS

SECTION A
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1.                              
    1. Define the term human geography (2mks)
    2. Give three subdivision of human Geography (3 mks)
  2.                      
    1. Name two counties in Kenya in Eastern highlands where tea is grown (2mks)
    2. State three economic problems experienced by small scale tea famers in Kenya (3mks)
  3.                        
    1. What is mixed farming (2mks)
    2. Give three physical condition that favors wheat cultivation in Kenya (3mks)
  4.                  
    1. Name the river along which Bunyala swamp is found in Kenya (1mk)
    2. State four physical problem facing irrigation farming in Kenya (4mks)
  5.                  
    1. What is energy crisis (2mks)
    2. Give three limitations of using solar energy (3mks)
      ANSWER QUESTION 6 AND ANY OTHER TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION
  6.                    
    1. The table below shows beef producftion in varies counties in Kenya in metric tonnes(000) between 2018 and 2020. Use it to answer the questions that follows.

      County

      2018

      2019

      2020

      Baringo

      320

      340

      340

      Marsabit

      360

      360

      380

      Kajiado

      340

      320

      360

      Tana river

      380

      380

      400

      1. Identify the counties that had the highest beef production within the period (1mk)
      2. Name type of cattle breed reared by pastoralists in Kenya (2mks)
    2.                                        
      1. Using the scale of 1 cm representing 100,000 metric. Draw a comparative bar graph to represent the above data (7mks)
      2. Explain three measures that have been taken by the government of Kenya to improve beef farming (6mks)
      3. Outlines three ways in which the market of animals is done by the nomadic pastoralists in Kenya (3mks)
    3. Explain three environmental conditions that favor commercial beef farming in Argentina (6mks)
  7.                      
    1.                          
      1. Name two types of placer mining (2mks)
      2. Describe the processing of gold in South Africa (6mks)
      3. Give any three uses of gold in South Africa (3mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence exploitation of minerals
      1. Value of the mineral (2mks)
      2. Quality of the ore (2mks)
      3. Mining method (2mks)
    3. Explain four effects of open cast mining on the environment (8mks)
  8.                    
    1.                
      1. Distinguish between domestic and international tourism (2mks)
      2. State three effects of human encroachment in to wildlife habitats (3mks)
    2. Study the map of East Africa provided and use to answer the questions that follows
      b sfsfsfs
      Name
      1. The national parks labeled J,K and N (3mks)
        J –
        K –
        N –
      2. The game reserve named L (1mk)
        L –
    3. Give four measures that Kenyans should take in order to attract more tourism (4mks)
    4. Explain four factors why Switzerland receives more tourists than Kenya (8mks)
    5.                            
      1. Students of Narok high school intend to visit Maasai Mara game reserve
      2. Outline two objectives for their study (2mks)
      3. Give any two unique human activities they are likely to come across which is not in national park (2mks)
  9.          
    1.                                          
      1. Define the term fisheries (2mks)
      2. Give two factors that favors the growth of planktons (2mks)
    2. The map below shows the North-West Atlantic fishing grounds. Study it and answer questions that follow.
      b aadaddad
      1. Name ocean current named X and Y (2mks)
        X –
        Y –
      2. Explain the way in which convergence of ocean current marked X and Y favors fishing in the North – West Atlantic (4mks)
      3. Name the country marked Z (1mks)
      4. Name two examples of fish caught in the North-West Atlantic fishing (2mks)
    3. Explain four reason that discouraged East Africa from being a major producer of fish and fish products in the world (8mks)
    4. State four measures that Kenyan Government has undertaken to conserve fisheries (4mks)
  10.                    
    1. Differentiate between forestry and forest (2mks)
      1. Give two softwood tree spices which grow in the forest in Kenya (2mks)
      2. Give characteristics of planted forest in Kenya (3mks)
    2. Compare fishery in Kenya and in Canada under the following subheading
      1. Harvesting of trees (2mks)
      2. Marketing of trees products (2mks)
    3. Explain four measures taken by Kenyan government to control human encroachment on forested areas (2mks)
    4. The students of Mugoiri girls are planning too carry out a field study in forestry on the slope of Mt. Kenya
      1. Give three reasons why it would be necessary to sample part of the forest for the study (3mks)
      2. State two ways in which their findings would be useful to the community living near the forest (2mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.                    
    1. Define the term human geography (1x2)
      • Branch of Geography that studies human activities on the earth surface
    2. Give three subdivision of human Geography (3 x 1)
      • Pollutiongeography
      • Economicgeography
      • Historicalgeography
      • Agriculturalgeography
  2.                    
    1. Name two counties in Kenya in eastern highlands where tea is grown (2 x 1)
      • Meru
      • Embu
      • Kirinyaga
      • Nyeri
      • Murang’a
      • Nakuru
      • Kiambu
    2. State three economic problems experienced by small scale tea famers in Kenya (3 mrks)
      • Delay payments or low payment which lowers farmer’s morale
      • Mismanagements of funds by the officials which discourages farmers
      • Fluctuation of tea prices in the world markets making it difficult for farmers to plan ahead and discourages them.
      • High costs of farm input leading to low yields
      • Poor marketing strategies leading to low earning by farmers
      • Shor6tage and expensive labor for picking tea leading to low income/low profits margins to the farmers.
  3.                    
    1. What is mixed farming (2mks)
      • This is the growing of crops and rearing of livestock on the same farm
    2. Give three physical condition that favors wheat cultivation in Kenya (3mks)
      • Moderate rainfall/500mm-a170mm/to enhance growth of wheat
      • Temperature raging from 15º C – 20º C /warm condition to facilitate growth / maturity of wheat
      • A warm/dry/ sunny spell for ripening and harvesting
      • Deep volcanic soils to sustain high production
      • Gently sloping/undulating landscape to allow proper drainage / mechanize cultivation
  4.                        
    1. Name the river along which Bunyala swamp is found in Kenya (1mk)
      • River Nzoia
    2. State four physical problem facing irrigation farming in Kenya (4mks)
      • Stagnant water in the plots and canal which encourages breeding of snails and mosquitos that spread diseases(bilharzia & Malaria) that weakens the farmers hence causing low output
      • Some irrigation schemes are located in sparsely populated area far from urban centreswhere there ready markets (Pekerra, Hola)
      • Some irrigation schemes e.g. Hola and Bunyala are affected by floods during rainy season that destroys crops grown and road networks.
      • Crops planted in the schemes are often attacked by pests and diseases e.g. quelea birds, destroying the crops in the field thus lowering the quality and quantity of production
  5.                      
    1. What is energy crisis (2mks)
      • A situation when the demand for oil is higher than the supply leading to high prices of oil
    2. Give three limitations of using solar energy (3mks)
      • Solar energy is unable to run heavy machinery
      • Batteries used for storing solar energy are cumbersome and are to be replaces offenly
      • Quality solar panels are expensive to manyfacture
      • Restallationofsolar panels requires technical skilss whish are underdeveloped for most people
      • Solar energy depends on whether patterns which make it user unreliable
  6.                  
    1.                            
      1. Identify regions that had the highest beef production within the period (1mk)
        • Tana River
      2. Name type of cattle breed reared by pastoralists in Kenya (2mks)
        • Zebu
        • Boran
    2.                      
      1. Using the scale of 1 cm representing 100,000 metric. Draw a comparative bar graph to represent the above data (7mks)
      2. Explain three measures that have been taken by the government of Kenya to improve beef farming (6mks)
        • The government encourage research/cross breeding of traditional cattle breeds with exotic ones to improve the quality of animals/cross breed are resistant to diseases
        • Strengthen community education to teach beef cattle farmers on management practices
        • It has constructed roads to make it accessible to farmers/ make transportation of animals to the market easier
        • It encourages the replacement of coarse grass with nutrient pastures to increase quality of animals.
        • It has some boreholes/ dig wells/constructed dams to provide water for animals
        • It has survived Kmc a government parastal that brings animals from farmer for slaughter
      3. Outlines three ways in which the market of animals is done by the nomadic pastoralists in Kenya (3mks)
        • Some animals are sold to slaughter houses / individuals
        • Some sell their animals through community groups/ ranches
        • Some animals are sold to livestock and marketing departments
        • Some sell their animals to KMC
    3. Explain three environmental conditions that favor commercial beef farming in Argentina (6mks)
      • High quality natural pastures/ grass used to feed beef animals
      • Coarse grasses are replaced with alfafa& corn to improve the quality of pastures for feeding the animals
      • Extensive flat /gentle/ undulating pampas grass land which are suitable for grassing of cattle/beef ranching.
      • Maritime climate with warm condition and high well distributed rainfall for growth of pasture making grassing of cattle possible throughout the year
  7.                      
    1.                            
      1. Name two minerals that occurs on placer deposits (2mks)
        • Gold
        • Tin
        • Platinum
        • Diamond
      2. Describe deep shaft method of mining (6mks)
        • A vertical shaft is sunk to research the mineral
        • Horizontal tunnel are dug from the shaft to reach the mineral bearing rock
        • Props are eructed to support the roof of the tunnel
        • The rock ore is blasted by the use of explosives/ Dug out using mechanizes shards/pick axes
        • The ore is transported in light rails, truck/conveyer belts to the base of the shaft.
        • The ore is the loaded onto a lift on cage hoisted to the surface
      3. Give three problems associated with deep shaft method of mining (3mks)
        • Flooding of the mining with subterranean water
        • Emission of gases in the mines
        • The dust produced causes respiratory diseases
        • Sometime the tunnel collapses causing death of the miners
    2. Explain how the following factors influence exploitation of minerals
      1. Value of the mineral
        • Valuable minerals e.g. gold diamond silver and uranium are mined more compared to the other minerals since the fetch high prices of the market hence profitable
      2. Quality of the ore
        • It is economical to mine mineral, whose of of high quality since that yield high amount of minerals
        • Low quality ore are rarely mined unless their value is high. Minerals with low contents of miner are uneconomic to mine.
        • Mineral are with high content of metals are economical to mine as they are high economic value
      3. Mining method (2mks)
        • Some method of mining are cheaper hence mostly used e:g Open cast mining.
        • Underground methods are expensive to use unless the mineral is of value
    3. Explain four effects of open cast mining on the environment (8mks)
      • The land is left with gaping quarries which are ugly which interferes with beauty of the land scape
      • Cleaning of land before extraction of minerals encourages soil erosion
      • The dust, smoke and gases produced pollute the environment and are health hazard
      • Large scale blasting of rocks leads to instability of the basement rocks
      • It destroys the natural vegetation which is cleared before extraction of the minerals
      • Water collects in the hallows left by open cast which becomes a habitat for diseases vectors
      • Causes destruction of lowering of water table causing water shortage on the surface
      • Causes land dereliction/ waste agricultural, industrial and land for settlement
  8.                
    1.                      
      1. Distinguish between domestic and international tourism (2mks)
        • Domestic touring of a country for leisure and adventure by the residents of the country while international tourism is the visiting of person from one country to places of interest in another country;
      2. State three effects of human encroachment in to wildlife habitats (3mks)
        • Leads to dying of some animals / killing of some wild animals
        • Some animals and plants may get extinct
        • It may lead to wildlife predation/ competition may increase/set in
        • It may lead to fragmentation of wildlife conflict
        • It may lead to increased human wildlife conflict
        • It may lead to migration of some wild life
    2. Study the map of East Africa provided and use to answer the questions that follows
      Name
      1. The national parks labeled J,K and N (3mks)
        J – Sibiloi
        K –
        N –
      2. The game reserve named M (1mk)
        M –
    3. Explain the measures that Kenyans should take in order to attract more tourism (2mks)
      • Improving road / air/ railway/ airport/communication to all tourist sites in order to make it accessible.
      • Improving security to ensure safety of the tourists is guaranteed
      • Marketing the county more aggressively in order to make it more known/ improve the image of the country
      • Establishing a diversity of tourists attractions to avoid depending entirely on traditional attractions and reduce competition with other destinations
    4.  Explain four factors why Switzerland receives more tourists than Kenya (8mks)
      • Switzerland is located in central Europe making it easily accessible to tourists Of European origin while Kenya is far from Europe.
      • Some of the attraction in the two countries are similar, hence tourists prefer to visit those are nearer hole.
      • The peaceful atmosphere /political neutrality in Switzerland encourages tourists in appesed to Kenya where there are reports of insecurity which scare away tourists.
      • Switzerland mounts to more effective marketing promotion while Kenya making less.
      • The well-developed transport network in Switzerland provides easy access to tourists site while in Kenya many roads are poorly maintained.
      • In Switzerland tourists are charged fairly for service while in Kenya charges relatively high.
      • In Switzerland there are more encouragement to package tourists which lower the rate charged for tourists facilities which in Kenya this is rarely common.
    5. Students of Narok high school intend to visit Maasai Mara game reserve
      1. Outline two objectives for their study (2mks)
        • To find out the problems experienced in the game reserve
        • To find out the types of animal species in the game reserve
        • To identify the food chain system amongst the animals in the game reserve
      2. Give any two unique human activities they are likely to come across which is not in national park(2mks)
        • Grazing of livestock/cattle
        • Temporary settlements
        • Some people moving around the game reserve selling ornaments / artifacts
  9.                
    1.                                       
      1. Define the term fisheries (2mks)
        • These are water bodies where exploitation of aquatic organisms/life are carried out
      2. Give two factors that favors the growth of planktons (2mks)
        • Shallow water for sunlight penetration / 180M deep
        • Cool temperatures / waters / temperatures of about 20º C
        • Presences of mineral salts
    2.                    
      1. Name ocean current named X and Y (2mks)
        • X – Cold Labrador current
        • Y – Warm Gruf stream current
      2. Explain the way in which convergence of ocean current marked X and Y favors fishing in the North – West Atlantic (4mks)
        • The convergence of the two currents at grand banks modifies the temperatures of the water making the area ideal for fishing throughout the year.
        • The convergence of cold and warm currents causes upwelling of the ocean water which brings mineral of the surface for planktons attracting large numbers of fish species to the area.
        • The cool waters favours survival of wide variety of fish species which make the area an important fishing ground
      3. Name the country marked Z (1mks)
        • Z – Canada
      4. Name two examples of fish caught in the North-West atlantic fishing (2mks)
        • Cod
        • Halibut
        • Flounder
        • Hake
        • Shell fish
    3. Explain four reason that discouraged East Africa from being a major producer of fish and fish products in the world (8mks)
      • Narrow continental shelf with deep waters unsuitable Planktons and fish breeding hence few fish species.
      • Poor develop networks connecting fisheries discourages fishermen
      • Regular coastal line with few indentations which is unsuitable for fish breeding affect fishing due to few landing point
      • Too warm water for fish breeding and little/no upwelling to modify temperature discourages breeding of fishing.
      • Inadequate purchase of modern fishing and preservation facilitates limiting fishes activities
      • Low demand for salt water fish which discourages marine fishing
      • The stiff competition of the open sea from the industrial countries whose fisherman use modern fishery equipment discourages local fisherman.
      • Limited te8chnology makes it difficult to develop marine fishing
    4. State four measures that Kenyan Government has undertaken to conserve fisheries (4mks)
      • Standardizing the mesh/hole size [of fish nets used in fishing to ensure only the mature fish is caught
      • By ensuring the fish number/restock overfished areas by breeding fingerings in fish farms and the release them into sea
      • Restricting disposal of untreated into the sea to ensure that the water remain cleanfor survival of fish
      • Enforcing the international conviction in order to protect endangered fish species
      • Licensing of fishermen to control there number and to ensure that there is no over fishing
      • Restricting fishing to specific season to allow the breeding and maturing fish to regenerate
      • Monitoring the entry of foreign fishermen off the Indian ocean water
  10.                        
    1. Differentiate between forestry and forest (2mks)
      • Forestry is the science of developing and managing forests including cultivation and utilizing them while a forest is a large mass of tree occupying a large area/land
    2.                      
      1. Give two softwood trees which grow in the forest in Kenya (2mks)
        • Cedar
        • Douglas fir
        • Pin
        • Balsa fir
        • Henberk
        • Cypress
        • spruce
      2. Give characteristics of planted forest in Kenya (3mks)
        • Trees appear in rows
        • The tree species occurs in pure stands/ they have same species
        • Trees planted are mainly softwood and they mature faster or take short time to mature
        • Both exotic and indigenous forest are grown
        • There’s little / No under sprout
        • The trees appears in blocks / same, height
        • They are mainly located in high land areas
    3.  Compare fishery in Kenya and in Canada under the following subheading
      1. Hamesting of trees (2mks)
        • In Canada hamesting is done through clear cutting while in Kenya it is done by selective cutting
      2. Marketing (2mks)
        • Most of the Canada wood products are exported to USA/Britain/Europe while in Kenya wood products are sold local with few being exported to USA & Britain.
    4. Explain the measures taken by Kenyan government to control human encroachment on forested areas (2mk)
      • The government is gazetting forested areas to delimit the areas and reduces encroachment by the public
      • The government is evicting the people who have encroached into forest areas in order to rehabilitate the forest,.
      • By educating the public / creating awareness on the importance of conserving forest/ to gain their support on conserving measures, the government aims to control human encroachment
      • Government is enabling/ enforcing law to prohibit cutting of trees within the gazette areas and is also employs forest guards to patrol/ forest guard to patrol reserves to ensure that illegal activities are reported .
      • The government is encouraging people to use other alternative sources of energy in order to reduce the demand wood.
      • The government is also encourages people to practice agro-forestry to avoid depends on the products from forest.
  11.                                      
    1. The students of Mogoiri girls are planning too carry out a field study in forestry on the slope of Mt. Kenya
      1. Give three reasons why it would be necessary to sample part of the forest for the study (3mks)
        • To save time
        • To save energy since small area will be studied
        • Help reduce expenses/reduce on the cost of study
        • Help in reducing biasness
        • Suitable method since vegetative grows randomly
        • Conduct detailed study
        • Some part of the forest may not be accessible since roads ain’t possible
      2. State two ways in which their findings would be useful to the community living near the forest (2mks)
        • They will be able to identify the tree species that are suitable for the area
        • They will be able to work out on solution to the problems affecting the forest
        • The community will use the report to identify importance of conserving forests
        • People will be able to adapt appropriate methods of utilizing the forest

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