Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Cekenas Pre Mocks 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above.
  2. This paper consists of three sections;-A, B and C.
  3. Answer all questions in section A and B and any two questions in section C
  4. All answer must be written in the spaces provided.
  5. This paper consist of 13 printed pages.
  6.  Candidates should check the question papers to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  7. Candidates should answer the question in English.

For Examiners Use Only

Section

Question

Maximum Score

Candidates Score

SEC -A

1-15

30

 

SEC -B

16-19

20

 

SEC- C

20

20

 

21

20

 

22

20

 
 

TOTAL SCORE

90

 


QUESTIONS

SECTION A (30 marks)
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. State four reasons for practicing grafting in citrus production (2mks)
  2. Mention four types of soil erosion by water (2mks)
  3. Differentiate between coppicing and pinching out (2mks)
  4. Give four benefits of possessing certificate of land ownership (2mks)
  5. Give one reason why each of the following nursery management practices are carried out. (2mks)
    1. Hardening off
    2. Watering before transporting seedlings from the nursery bed
  6. Name four effects of excessive nitrogenous fertilizer application on tomatoes (2mks)
  7. State four early maturing varieties of cabbages (2mks)
  8. State four ways by which Agriculture contributes to national development (2mks)
  9. List four methods of land acquisition (2mks)
  10. State four roles of trees in soil and water conservation (2mks)
  11. State any four types of livestock farming (2mks)
  12.                              
    1. State two ways by which a soil of pH 3 can be raised to pH 5 (1 mk)
    2. Name any two types of soil structures (1mk)
  13. State four factors that determine the number of secondary cultivation to be done on a seedbed (2mks)
  14. Mention any four factors that should be considered when selecting site for making compost manure (2mks)
  15.                        
    1. Define the following terms:
      1. Opportunity cost (1/2 mk)
      2. Agricultural economics (1/2mk)
    2. Give two types of farm records that a large scale farmer should keep (1mk)

SECTION B (20 marks)
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. The diagram below shows a method of irrigation
    16 ayfdytada
    1. Identify the method (1 mark)
    2. State two advantages of the irrigation system named in (a) above. (2mks)
    3.  State any two factors to be considered when choosing the method of irrigation to use in an area (2mks)
  2. The diagram below is a tool used to harvest crops in the farm. Use it to answer the questions that follow
    17 sutgyuagdad
    1. Identify the tool represented above (1 mark)
    2. Name the crop harvested by use of the tool above. (1 mark)
    3. Name the part labeled A on the tool (1 mark)
    4. Give one reason why the crop named in (b) above should be cut at ground level (1 mark)
    5. Give a reason why the leaves of the crop should be removed after cutting (1 mark)
  3. An agronomist recommends application of 130kg N, 55kg P2O5 and 65kg K2O after testing a soil sample. Calculate the amount of urea (46%N), Single super phosphate (20% P2O5) and Potassium chloride (50% K2O) that should be applied on the land. (5mks)
  4. The diagram below illustrates a weed
    19 utfdytada
    1. Identify the weed (1 mark)
    2. State one competitive ability of the weed illustrated above. (1 mark)
    3. State two mechanical control measures for the weed above (2mks)
    4. Classify the weed above according to plant morphology (1 mark)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
ATTEMPT ANY TWO QUESTIONS IN THE SPACE PROVIDED

  1.                              
    1. Describe five qualities of mother plant that should be considered when selecting vegetative materials for planting (5 marks)
    2. List seven benefits of using organic matter for mulching (7 marks)
    3. Describe the field production of nappier grass under the following sub-headings
      1. Planting (3 marks)
      2. Fertilizer and manure application (3 marks)
      3. Utilization (2marks)
  2.                              
    1. Describe the procedure of silage making (8 marks)
    2. State and explain four factors that determine the depth of planting (8 marks)
    3. Outline four roles of Agriculture in Kenya’s economy (4 marks)
  3.                        
    1. Outline seven effects of land fragmentation and subdivision (7 marks)
    2. State and explain three methods of pruning (6 marks)
    3. Describe the establishment of vegetative propagation nurseries (7 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. State four reasons for practicing grafting in citrus production (2mks)
    • Plants with desirable root characteristics but with undesirable fruits can be used to produce desirable fruits.
    • Facilitates changing the top of the tree from being undesirable to desirable.
    • Makes it possible to grow more than one type of fruit on the same plant.
    • Repair of damaged trees.
    • Shorten maturity age.
    • Less thorny.
      (4 x ½ mks)=2mks
  2. Mention four types of soil erosion by water (2mks)
    • Splash/Raindrop erosion
    • Sheet erosion
    • Rill erosion
    • Gully erosion
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  3. Differentiate between coppicing and pinching out (2mks)
    • Coppicing is a method of harvesting trees by cutting the stem to leave about 15cm above the ground, while pinching out is a method of pruning where the terminal bud is removed to encourage lateral growth.
      (Mark as a whole)
  4. Give four benefits of possessing certificate of land ownership (2mks) - Can be used to secure credit facilities
    • Confer security of tenure
    • Encourages the farmers to invest on long term projects
    • Enable the land owner to lease part of whole of the land
      (4 x ½ mks)
  5. Give one reason why each of the following nursery management practices are carried out. (2mks)
    1. Hardening off
      • Prepares the seedlings to adapt to the ecological conditions of the seedbed
    2. Watering before transporting seedlings from the nursery bed
      • Enable lifting seedlings with a lump of soil
        (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  6. Name four effects of excessive nitrogenous fertilizer application on tomatoes  (2mks)
    • Blossom end rot
    • Too much vegetative growth
    • Cracking of fruits before maturity
    • Prolonged maturity
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  7. State four early maturing varieties of cabbages (2mks)
    • Sugar loaf
    • Mukuki
    • Golden acre
    • Gloria hybrid
    • Copenhagen market
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  8. State four ways by which Agriculture contributes to national development (2mks)
    1. Food supply
    2. Market for industrial goods
    3. Foreign exchange
    4. Source of raw materials
    5. Tax to government
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  9. List four methods of land acquisition (2mks)
    • Inheritance
    • Buying
    • Settlement and resettlement by government
    • Compensation
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  10. State four roles of trees in soil and water conservation (2mks)
    • Protects soil against strong rain drops
    • Act as windbreakers
    • Roots bind soil particles together preventing soil erosion
    • Reduce speed of surface run-off
    • Leaves decay to supply humus
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  11. State any four types of livestock farming (2mks)
    • Pastoralism
    • Fish farming
    • Bee keeping
    • Poultry keeping
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  12.                              
    1. State two ways by which a soil of pH 3 can be raised to pH 5 (1 mk)
      • Application of lime
      • Application of basic fertilizer
    2. Name any two types of soil structures (2mks)
      • Single-grained
      • Crumby
      • Granular
      • Prismatic/columnar
      • Platy
      • Blocky
        (2x ½=1mk)
  13. State four factors that determine the number of secondary cultivation to be done on a seedbed (2mks)
    • Size of planting materials
    • Slope of land
    • Moisture content of soil
    • Condition of land after primary cultivation
      (4 x ½ mks) =2mks
  14. Mention any four factors that should be considered when selecting site for making compost manure (2mks)
    • Well drained place
    • An accessible area
    • Located at the centre of the farm
    • Away from the direction of prevailing wind
  15.                        
    1. Define the following terms:
      1. Opportunity cost (1/2 mk)
        • Is the value of the foregone alternative
      2. Agricultural economics (1/2mk)
        • A branch of Agriculture that deals with utilization of scarce resources
    2. Give two types of farm records that a large scale farmer should keep (1mk)
      • Health records
      • Breeding record
      • Inventory record
      • Production record
        (2 x ½ = 1mk)
  16. The diagram below shows a method of irrigation
    1. Identify the method (1 mark)
      • Drip/Trickle irrigation
    2. State two advantages of the irrigation system named in (a) above. (2mks)
      • Minimizes labour requirement
      • No need to construct dykes
      • Practised on both sloppy and flat lands
      • Water does not cause erosion
      • Reduce incidences of fungal diseases
      • Economises on use of water
      • Minimizes possible theft of pipes
        (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    3. State any two factors to be considered when choosing the method of irrigation to use in an area (2mks)
      • Capital availability
      • Topography of land
      • Water availability
      • Type of soil
      • Type of crops to be irrigated
        (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  17. The diagram below is a tool used to harvest crops in the farm. Use it to answer the questions that follow
    1. Identify the tool represented above (1 mark)
      • Cane harvesting matchet
    2. Name the crop harvested by use of the tool above. (1 mark)
      • Sugarcane
    3. Name the part labeled A on the tool (1 mark)
      • Cane felling hook
    4. Give one reason why the crop named in (b) above should be cut at ground
      • level (1 mark)
      • To avoid loss of yield
      • To ensure proper establishment of ratoon crop
        (1 x 1mk)
    5. Give a reason why the leaves of the crop should be removed after cutting (1 mark)
      • To avoid some growth substances from flowing back
      • To avoid lowering the quality of sugar
  18.  An agronomist recommends application of 130kg N, 55kg P2O5 and 65kg K2O after testing a soil sample. Calculate the amount of urea (46%N), Single super phosphate (20% P2O5) and Potassium chloride (50% K2O) that should be applied on the land. (5mks)
    1. Urea (46% N)
      • 100kg Urea →  46kg N
        ? ← 130kg N
        130 x 100 = 282.6 = 283kg Urea
             46
    2. SSP (20% P2O5)
      100kg SSP → 20kg P2O5
      ? ← 55kg P2O5
      100 x 55 = 275kg SSP
            20
    3. KCL (50% K2O)
      100kg KCL → 50kg K2O
      ? ← 65kg K2O
      100 x 65  = 130kg KCL
          50
  19. The diagram below illustrates a weed
    1. Identify the weed (1 mark)
      • Oxalis/Oxalis latifolia/Oxalis spp
    2. State one competitive ability of the weed illustrated above. (1 mark)
      • Underground structures (bulbs) that regenerate
    3. State two mechanical control measures for the weed above (2mks)
      • Digging out/ tillage
      • Slashing
      • Uprooting
        (2 x 1= 2mks)
    4. Classify the weed above according to plant morphology (1 mark)
      • Broad-leafed
  20.                        
    1. Describe five qualities of mother plant that should be considered when selecting vegetative materials for planting (5 marks)
      • High yielding
      • Resistant to pests and diseases
      • High quality produce
      • High rooting ability
      • Early maturing
    2. List seven benefits of using organic matter for mulching (7 marks)
      • Improves soil aeration upon decomposition
      • Reduced toxicity of plant poisons upon decomposition
      • Reduces soil erosion
      • Improves soil structure on decomposition
      • Modifies the soil temperature
      • Adds nutrients on decomposition
      • Improves water infiltration
      • Increases microbial activity
      • Controls weeds
      • Reduces evaporation of water
      • Buffers soil pH upon decomposition
        (7 x 1-7mks)
    3. Describe the field production of nappier grass under the following sub-headings
      1. Planting (3 marks)
        • Plant at the onset of the rains/early planting
        • Select desirable nappier grass variety for the ecological area
        • Use healthy planting materials
        • Use cuttings/canes or splits for planting
        • Cuttings/canes should have 3-5 nodes
        • Select cutting from mature canes/stems
        • Place planting materials in furrows/holes
        • Cover the planting materials with soil to appropriate depth
      2. Fertilizer and manure application (3 marks)
        • Apply phosphatic fertilizer during planting
        • Apply farmyard/compost manure for planting
        • Rate of organic manure should be 7-10 tons/ha
        • Apply organic manure after harvest and incorporate into the soil
        • Top-dress with nitrogenous fertilizer (CAN) 6-8 weeks after planting
      3. Utilization (2marks)
        • Cut and feed to the ruminants
        • Defoliate/cut at the right stage of growth 3-5 months old whne stems are 1-1.5high
        • Cut the stems at 2.5-5cm above the ground surface
        • Use a sharp panga for cutting
        • Conserve excess as silage
        • Chop napier grass into small pieces
        • It can be dried and used as mulch
  21.                              
    1. Describe the procedure of silage making (8 marks)
      • Prepare the silo before harvesting the crop
      • Cut the crop at the appropriate stage
      • Chop up the crop and put into a silo compacting it every 10-12cm layer
      • Fill the silo rapidly (preferably 2 days)
      • Check the temperature regularly and maintain it at appropriate range
      • Cover with polythene to protect it from water and air
      • Cover the silo with a thick layer of soil to maintain the ridge appearance
      • Dig a trench around the silo to drain off rain water
        (8 x 1=8mks)
    2. State and explain four factors that determine the depth of planting (8 marks)
      • Soil type – plant deeper in light soils such as sands and shallower in heavy soils e.g. clay
      • Soil moisture content – plant deep in dry soils to place the seeds in a moist zone
      • Size of the seed – larger seeds are planted deeper in soils than the smaller ones
      • Type of germination – seeds with epigeal type of germination should be planted shallower than those with hypogeal type
    3. Outline four roles of Agriculture in Kenya’s economy (4 marks)
      • Food supply
      • Source of employment
      • Provision of foreign exchange
      • Source of raw materials for industries
      • Provision of market for industrial goods
      • Source of money or capital
  22.                                  
    1. Outline seven effects of land fragmentation and subdivision (7 marks)
      • Time is wasted while travelling from one holding to another
      • Difficult to control weeds and pests
      • Difficult to follow a sound farm plan
      • Difficult to supervise the scattered plots
      • Difficult to control parasites and diseases
      • Difficult to carry out soil conservation measures
      • Impossible to control grazing
        (7x1=7mks)
    2. State and explain three methods of pruning (6 marks)
      • Annual pruning
        • Involves the removal of branches that have borne two crops and have undesirable characteristics
      • Pinching out
        • Involves the removal of terminal buds
      • Coppicing or pollarding
        • Carried out in tree crops where branches are cut at specified points in order to achieve a desired shape
          Stating – 1mk explaining – 1mk = 6mks
    3. Describe the establishment of vegetative propagation nurseries (7 marks)
      • Select the suitable site
      • Clear and level the site
      • Establish vegetative propagation unit measuring 3.66m by 1.22m
      • Fill polythene sleeves measuring 7-10cm in diameter and 20-30cm long with a rooting mixture
      • Water the sleeves
      • Insert the cuttings seedlings at the centre of each sleeve
      • Arrange the sleeves in the propagation unit
      • Erect wooden loops over the sleeved cuttings
      • Place polythene sheet on the loops
      • Burry the polythene sheet into the ground at the edges
        (7x1=7mks)

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