Instructions to Candidates
 Write your name, admission number, class and signature in the spaces provided at the top of the page. This paper consists of two sections; A and B.
 Answer ALL the questions in the spaces provided.
 Mathematical tables and electronic calculator may be used.
 All working MUST be clearly shown.
 Candidates should answer the questions in English and check to ensure that no question(s) is missing.
FOR EXAMINER’S USE ONLY
SECTION  QUESTIONS  MAXIMUM SCORE  CANDIDATE’S SCORE 
A  1 – 10  25  
B  11  10  
 12  11  
 13  13  
 14  09  
 15  07  
 16  05  
TOTAL SCORE  80 
QUESTIONS
SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Attempt all the questions in the spaces provided.
 Define mechanics as used in Physics (1 mark)
 The mass of an empty density bottle is 15g and 60g when full of oil of density 0.8gcm3. Determine volume of water that would fill the density bottle completely. (3marks)
 Give the molecular explanation of surface tension (2 marks)

 The diagram below shows a flask with common salt and water. The adjacent diagram shows the same flask after it has been shaken and the salt has dissolved. State the purpose of experiment and explain what is observed. (2 marks)
 A drop of milk when carefully put in a glass of water turns the water white after sometimes, explain this observation (1mark)
 The diagram below shows a flask with common salt and water. The adjacent diagram shows the same flask after it has been shaken and the salt has dissolved. State the purpose of experiment and explain what is observed. (2 marks)
 The figure below shows two glasses of different thickness
Hot water was poured in both glasses. State and explain what observed. (2 marks)  The diagram below shows a heater immersed in water in a test tube coated with uniform layer of candle wax
 State and explain the observation after the switch is closed. (2marks)
 What observable changes would be made if water was replaced with mercury (1mark)
 State the conditions of equilibrium when the body is acted upon by a number of parallel forces (2marks)
 The figure below shows two light sheets of paper arranged as shown.
Explain the observation made when air is blown at the same speed at the same time at point A and B. (2marks)  The figure below shows a graph of Force against extension of two springs made from different materials
 Compare the spring constants of the springs above (1 mark)
 State two ways in which the spring constant can be increased (2 marks)

 State Charles law for an ideal gas. (1mark)
 A gas has a volume of 20cm^{3} at 27ºC and normal atmospheric pressure. Calculate the new volume of the gas if it is heated to 54ºC at the same pressure. (3marks)
SECTION B (55 MARKS)
Attempt all the questions in the spaces provided.

 The figure below shows part of a scale of a vernier caliper with an error of +0.03cm. What is the actual reading? (2 marks)
 In an experiment to estimate the thickness of an oil drop of diameter 0.1cm spread onto a circular patch of diameter 10cm.
 Determine the volume of the oil drop (2marks)
 Calculate the area covered by the oil patch (2marks)
 Determine the thickness of the oil molecule (2marks)
 State one assumptions made in c(iii) above (1mark)
 State one possible sources of errors in this experiment (1mark)
 The figure below shows part of a scale of a vernier caliper with an error of +0.03cm. What is the actual reading? (2 marks)

 State Pascal’s Principle of transmission of pressure in liquids (1mark)
 The figure below shows an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
State with a reason the modification that would be required in a similar setup if mercury was to be replaced with water (2marks)  The barometric height of a town is 640mmHg. Given that the standard atmospheric pressure is 70cmHg and density of mercury is 13.6gcm^{3}, determine the altitude of the town in metres (density of air = 1.3kgm^{3}) (3marks)

 State two factors that affect the moment of a force (2marks)
 An aluminum beam 5.0m long and whose mass is 200g is suspended by a steel cable from a concrete beam and pivoted on a stool pole as shown below
Calculate the tension T in the steel cable (3marks)

 Define displacement and state its SI Unit (2marks)
 A body is projected horizontally at a velocity of 120cms^{1} from a cliff 90m tall
Draw a displacement–time graph to show the motion (1mark)  Calculate
 The time taken to hit the ground (2marks)
 The horizontal range. (2marks)
 A stone is whirled with a uniform speed in horizontal circle having a radius of 12cm. It takes the stone 9seconds to describe an arc of length 6cm. Calculate:
 The angular velocity (2marks)
 Linear velocity of the stone (2marks)
 Its periodic time T (2marks)

 State Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (1mark)
 A bus of mass 2000kg initially moving at 20ms^{1} is brought to rest over a distance of 40m. Determine the force required to achieve this. ( 3marks)
 A mason uses six wheel pulley system to raise stones to a storey building for construction. He raises a weight of 3000N through a vertical height of 5m using the machine. If the mason pulls using an effort of 500N, calculate;
 The velocity ratio of the pulley system. (1 mark)
 The work done by the mason. (2 marks)
 The useful work done by the pulley system. (2marks)

 State two ways in which the melting point of a substances can be raised(2marks)
 A 200g mass of ice at 20ºC was slowly heated by an element heater of power 30W. The figure below shows the graph of temperature against time.
Use the values given below to calculate the time in minutes corresponding to; The line QR in the graph (specific latent heat of fusion is 357000Jkg^{1}) (3marks)
 The line RB in the graph (specific heat capacity of water is 4200Jkg^{1}k^{1}) (1mark)
 Calculate the specific heat capacity of ice (1mark)

 State the law of floatation. (1mark)
 A solid of mass 100g and density 2.5g/cm^{3} weighs 0.5N when totally submerged in a liquid. Determine the density of the liquid. (2marks)
 The figure below shows a burning candle, weighted, dripless candle floating upright in water. Explain what happens after the candle burns for sometimes.(2marks)
MARKING SCHEME
SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Attempt all the questions in the spaces provided.
 Define mechanics as used in Physics (1 mark)
 study of motion of bodies under the influence of force
 The mass of an empty density bottle is 15g and 60g when full of oil of density 0.8gcm3. Determine volume of water that would fill the density bottle completely. (3marks)
 mass of oil = 60g  15g
= 45g
volume = m/f
= 45g/0.8
volume = 56.25cm^{3}
 mass of oil = 60g  15g
 Give the molecular explanation of surface tension (2 marks)
 deep in the liquid , molecules have a net force of zero. While molecules of the surfacae have fewer molecules on upper side hence experience net inward force causing tension

 The diagram below shows a flask with common salt and water. The adjacent diagram shows the same flask after it has been shaken and the salt has dissolved. State the purpose of experiment and explain what is observed. (2 marks)
 the experiment shows that; matter is made tiny particles / matter is particulate / volume of liquid is not constituent
 A drop of milk when carefully put in a glass of water turns the water white after sometimes, explain this observation (1mark)
 the particulate of milk spread throughout water by diffussion
 The diagram below shows a flask with common salt and water. The adjacent diagram shows the same flask after it has been shaken and the salt has dissolved. State the purpose of experiment and explain what is observed. (2 marks)
 The figure below shows two glasses of different thickness
Hot water was poured in both glasses. State and explain what observed. (2 marks) thick one will break, this is because of unequel expansion or/anad glass is a poor conductor of heat hence heat does not reach outter parts
 The diagram below shows a heater immersed in water in a test tube coated with uniform layer of candle wax
 State and explain the observation after the switch is closed. (2marks)
 wax near the top will melt due to heat transfer by convection while the wax down the tube does not melt because water is a poor conductor of heat
 What observable changes would be made if water was replaced with mercury (1mark)
 all the wax on the test tube will melt off with a shorter time than that of water
 State and explain the observation after the switch is closed. (2marks)
 State the conditions of equilibrium when the body is acted upon by a number of parallel forces (2marks)
 The figure below shows two light sheets of paper arranged as shown.
Explain the observation made when air is blown at the same speed at the same time at point A and B. (2marks) paper move apart. increase in velocity at A and B causes decrease in pressure. Th greater the atmospheric pressure in between pushes them apart.
 The figure below shows a graph of Force against extension of two springs made from different materials
 Compare the spring constants of the springs above (1 mark)
 spring B has a higher spring consant that A
 State two ways in which the spring constant can be increased (2 marks)
 less number of turns per unit length
 smaller diameter of the spring
 larger diameter of the wire used
 smaller length of the spring
 Compare the spring constants of the springs above (1 mark)

 State Charles law for an ideal gas. (1mark)
 A gas has a volume of 20cm^{3} at 27ºC and normal atmospheric pressure. Calculate the new volume of the gas if it is heated to 54ºC at the same pressure. (3marks)
SECTION B (55 MARKS)
Attempt all the questions in the spaces provided.

 The figure below shows part of a scale of a vernier caliper with an error of +0.03cm. What is the actual reading? (2 marks)
 reading 5.0 + 8 x 0.01
total reading = 5.08 cm
actual reading = 5.08
 0.03
5.05 cm
 reading 5.0 + 8 x 0.01
 In an experiment to estimate the thickness of an oil drop of diameter 0.1cm spread onto a circular patch of diameter 10cm.
 Determine the volume of the oil drop (2marks)
 v = 4/3πr3
4/3 x 3.142 x (0.05)^{3}
v = 0.00052367 cm^{3}
v = 5.24 x 10^{4} cm^{3}
 v = 4/3πr3
 Calculate the area covered by the oil patch (2marks)
 A = πr^{2}
= 3.142 x 5^{2}
A = 78.5 cm^{2}
 A = πr^{2}
 Determine the thickness of the oil molecule (2marks)
 t = v/A
t = 5.24 x 10^{4}
78.5
t = 6.67 x 10^{6} cm
 t = v/A
 State one assumptions made in c(iii) above (1mark)
 the oil path is one molecule thick (monolayer)
 the oil drop is a perfect sphere
 State one possible sources of errors in this experiment (1mark)
 measurement of diameter of oil drop
 measurement of diameter of patch
 Determine the volume of the oil drop (2marks)
 The figure below shows part of a scale of a vernier caliper with an error of +0.03cm. What is the actual reading? (2 marks)

 State Pascal’s Principle of transmission of pressure in liquids (1mark)
 pressure applied at one part in liquids is transmitted equally to all other parts of the enclosed liquid
 The figure below shows an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
State with a reason the modification that would be required in a similar setup if mercury was to be replaced with water (2marks) a longer tube would be required
 atmospheric pressure supports a long column of water due to its lower density
 The barometric height of a town is 640mmHg. Given that the standard atmospheric pressure is 70cmHg and density of mercury is 13.6gcm^{3}, determine the altitude of the town in metres (density of air = 1.3kgm^{3}) (3marks)
h1p1g = h2p2g
6/100 x 13600 x 10 = h x 1.3 x 1.0
h = 816/1.3
h = 627.7m 
 State two factors that affect the moment of a force (2marks)
 magnitude of force applied
 perpendicular distance between the force is pivoted
 An aluminum beam 5.0m long and whose mass is 200g is suspended by a steel cable from a concrete beam and pivoted on a stool pole as shown below
Calculate the tension T in the steel cable (3marks) C.M = A.C.M
(T x 3/100) = (0.5/100 X 200/1000 x 10)
T = 2 x 0.5
3
T= 0.3333 N
 C.M = A.C.M
 State two factors that affect the moment of a force (2marks)
 State Pascal’s Principle of transmission of pressure in liquids (1mark)

 Define displacement and state its SI Unit (2marks)
 distance covered in specified direction
SI unit metre (m)
 distance covered in specified direction
 A body is projected horizontally at a velocity of 120cms^{1} from a cliff 90m tall
Draw a displacement–time graph to show the motion (1mark)  Calculate
 The time taken to hit the ground (2marks)
 S = 1/2 gt
90 = 1/2 x 10 x t^{2}
90 = 5t^{2}
t2 = 18
t = 4.245
 S = 1/2 gt
 The horizontal range. (2marks)
 R = UT
R = 120 x 4.25
R = 508.8m
 R = UT
 The time taken to hit the ground (2marks)
 A stone is whirled with a uniform speed in horizontal circle having a radius of 12cm. It takes the stone 9seconds to describe an arc of length 6cm. Calculate:
 The angular velocity (2marks)
 W = θ/t
= s/rt
w = 6
12 x 9
w = 0.05556 rads^{1}
w = 5.556 x 10^{2} rads^{1}
 W = θ/t
 Linear velocity of the stone (2marks)
 v = wr
v = 0.05556 x 12/100
v = 0.006667m/s
 v = wr
 Its periodic time T (2marks)
 T = 2π
w
= 2 x 3.142
0.05556
T = 113.15
 T = 2π
 The angular velocity (2marks)
 Define displacement and state its SI Unit (2marks)

 State Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (1mark)
 the law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultnt external force produced in the change and takes place in the direction of force.
 A bus of mass 2000kg initially moving at 20ms^{1} is brought to rest over a distance of 40m. Determine the force required to achieve this. ( 3marks)
 v^{2} = u^{2} + 2as
o^{2} = (20)^{2} + 2 x a x 40
o = 400 + 80a
80a = 400
80 80
a = 5m/s^{2}
f = ma
f = 2000 x (5)
f = 10000 N
 v^{2} = u^{2} + 2as
 A mason uses six wheel pulley system to raise stones to a storey building for construction. He raises a weight of 3000N through a vertical height of 5m using the machine. If the mason pulls using an effort of 500N, calculate;
 The velocity ratio of the pulley system. (1 mark)
 V.R = 6
 The work done by the mason. (2 marks)
 distance moved by the effort = 5m x b = 30m
work done = effort x effort distance
= 500 x 30 = 15000 J
 distance moved by the effort = 5m x b = 30m
 The useful work done by the pulley system. (2marks)
 useful work done = load x distance
= 5 x 3000
= 150000J
 useful work done = load x distance
 The velocity ratio of the pulley system. (1 mark)
 State Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (1mark)

 State two ways in which the melting point of a substances can be raised(2marks)
 increasing the pressure
 adding of impurities
 A 200g mass of ice at 20ºC was slowly heated by an element heater of power 30W. The figure below shows the graph of temperature against time.
Use the values given below to calculate the time in minutes corresponding to; The line QR in the graph (specific latent heat of fusion is 357000Jkg^{1}) (3marks)
 pt = mlf
30 x t = 0.2 x 357000
30 30
t = 2380 s
 pt = mlf
 The line RB in the graph (specific heat capacity of water is 4200Jkg^{1}k^{1}) (1mark)
 pt = mcdθ
30t = 0.2 x 4200 x 100
t = 84000
30
t = 2700s
 pt = mcdθ
 The line QR in the graph (specific latent heat of fusion is 357000Jkg^{1}) (3marks)
 Calculate the specific heat capacity of ice (1mark)
 30 x 140 x 3 = 0.2 x c x 20
c = 12600
4
c = 3150J/kg/k
 30 x 140 x 3 = 0.2 x c x 20
 State two ways in which the melting point of a substances can be raised(2marks)

 State the law of floatation. (1mark)
 a floating object displaces its own weight on the fluid in which it floats on
 A solid of mass 100g and density 2.5g/cm^{3} weighs 0.5N when totally submerged in a liquid. Determine the density of the liquid. (2marks)
 vol = m/f
= 100/2.5
vol = 40cm3
mass of liquid = 0.5N
10
= 0.05kg = 50g
f = m/v
= 50/40
f = 1.25g/cm^{3}/1250kg/m^{2}
 vol = m/f
 The figure below shows a burning candle, weighted, dripless candle floating upright in water. Explain what happens after the candle burns for sometimes.(2marks)
 as a candle burns, its weight reduces hence weight displaced reduces (upthrust reduces)
 State the law of floatation. (1mark)
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