Biology Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Pre Mock Exams 2022

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  1. Identify the characteristics of living organisms shown by the following; (2marks)
    1. Bursting of the sporangium in Rhizopous.
    2. A cheetah chasing after a gazelle.
  2. Define the following terms as used in biology;
    1. Entomology.(1mark)
    2. Histology.  (1mark)
  3. State three significance of Osmosis to plant nutrition.  (3marks)
  4. The diagram below represents amoeba. Study it and answer the questions that follow;
    1. Name the respiratory surface found in the above organism. (1mark)
      1. Identify the structures labeled J.  (1mark)
      2. State two functions of the structure named in (b) (i) above. (2marks)
  5. Below is a diagram of a mammalian cell. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the structures labeled;  (2marks)
    2. State the function of the structure labeled M. (1mark)
  6. Give two roles of the colon in human digestive system. (2marks)
  7. Distinguish between dentition and dental formula.(2marks)
  8. Name a carbohydrate that is abundance in the following;
    1. Ripe fruits.(1mark)
    2. Blood of vertebrates. (1mark)
  9. Apart from photosynthesis identify one other function of chloroplast in plants. (1mark)
  10. Below is a transverse section of a root. Study the diagram and answer the question that follows.
    1. Identify the class from which the section was obtained.(1mark)
    2. Give a reason for your answer in (a) above. (1mark)
    3. State one adaptation of endodermis to its function
    4. Name two tissues found in the cortex. (2marks)
  11. Distinguish between Guttation and transpiration.
  12. During a field study, students from Kenya high school found a woody plant as illustrated below.
    1. Identify the above structure.
    2. Give two adaptations of the structure named in (a) above.(2marks)
    3. Where is the above structure located in halophytes?
  13. State two structural differences between a cell wall and a cell membrane. (2marks)
    1. Identify the cells that secrete the following along the alimentary canal. 
      1. Hydrochloric acid. (1mark)
      2. Rennin.(1mark)
    2. State two significance of smooth muscles in the digestive system. (2marks)
  15. During an investigation of a certain metabolic reaction, students set up the apparatus as shown below.
    1. Identify the physiological process being investigated. (1mark)
    2. Account for the observation made in the conical flask after 30 minutes(2marks)
    1. State three ways in which human skin protects the body against bacterial infection(3marks)
    2. Name the protein found in the Malpighian layer of the skin and state its function.                                                                            Name. …………………………………………………………………….             (1mark)
      Function. …………………………………………………………...................      (1mark)
  17. A student mixed a sample of urine from a person with Benedict’s solution and heated, the colour changed to orange.
    1. What did the student conclude on the health status of the person? (1mark)
    2. Which organ in the person may not be functioning properly? (1mark)
  18. An investigation was carried out on a mammalian kidney.
    1. Name the structure labeled T.  (1mark)
    2. What is the function of the structure named in (i) above in the kidney. (1mark)
    3. Identify the disease shown in the kidney above. (1mark)
  19. State the importance of Saprophytic fungi in an ecosystem.(1mark)
  20. List two assumptions made when using Capture-recapture as a method of estimating population.(2marks)
  21. Give two reasons why Pteridophytes are considered more advanced than Bryophytes.(2marks)
  22. Study the diagram below and answer the following questions.
    1. State the function of the part labeled Q. (2marks)
    2. State the role of the part labeled R.(1mark)
    3. Identify a hormone produced by part labeled P. (1mark)
  23. Give the function of Prolactin in female reproductive cycle. (1mark)
  24. Below is a photograph illustrating a germinating seedling.
    1. Identify the type of germination. (1mark)
    2. Give two functions of the structure labeled Z? (2marks)
    3. What the name given to the part labeled W? (1mark)
    4. Explain how seedling H responds to light causing it to straighten.(2marks)
    1. Define vestigial structures?(1mark)
    2. State two examples of vestigial structures in man.  (2marks)
  26. The figure below shows some cells from parts of mammalian respiratory tract
    1. Identify the part of the respiratory tract where the cells were obtained from(1mark)
    2. Explain the role of: (2marks)
      1. The mucus
      2. The cilia.
  27. Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between two organisms. Name the two organisms that make this association.(2marks)
  28. State the significance of diffusion in the following;
    1. Pollination.(1mark)
    2. Skeletal muscle cell. (1mark)
  29. Explain the significance of the following;
    1. The cardiac muscle is myogenic. (1mark)
    2. The left ventricle of a mammalian heart is more muscular than right ventricle(1mark)
    3. Most of carbon (IV) oxide is not dissolved in the blood plasma. (1mark)


    1. Bursting of the sporangium in Rhizopous.
    2. A cheetah chasing after a gazelle.
      Movement and Locomotion
      1. Entomology.(1mark)
        Study of insects
      2. Histology. (1mark)
        Study of tissues
    • Absorption of water from the soil, water used for photosynthesis;
    • When the guard cell gain water by osmosis, becomes turgid ,stomata open and carbon (IV) oxide diffuse into the leaf to carryout photosynthesis
    • Cells of herbaceous plant gain water become turgid obtaining mechanical support and are able to grow upright to receive maximum sunlight for photosynthesis.
    • Change in turgor pressure in insectivorous plant enables these plants to trap insect and obtain nutrients through nastic response.
    1. Cell membrane.
      1. Pseudopodia.
        Rej; Pseudopodium.
      2. Used for feeding by engulfing. 
        Used for locomotion.
    1. G. Nucleus
      M. messenger Ribonucleic acid.
    2. It carries genetic information from DNA to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
  6. Have bacteria that synthesis vitamin K;
    Absorption of water;
  7. Dentition is description of the type, arrangement and specialization of the teeth while dental formula is the description of the number, type and position of the teeth in the jaws of the animal.
    1. Fructose 
    2. Glucose 
  9. Storage of starch.
    Storage of chlorophyll pigment
    1. Dicotyledonae. 
      Rej. dicotyledonae/dicot/Dicotyledonous 
    2. A star shaped xylem 
    3. Have starch grains that are broken down to produce energy for active pumping of water across the endodermis into the xylem tissue.
    4. Collenchyma; 
      Any two
  11. Guttation is the loss of water inform of water droplets through hydathodes while transpiration is the loss of water inform of water vapour through the stomata, lenticel or cuticle.
    1. Lenticel;
    2. Loosely packed cork cells for proper circulation of respiratory gases;
      Moist surface to dissolve respiratory gases;
    3. Pneumatophores;
    Cell wall Cell membrane
    Made up of cellulose Made up of protein and phospholipid;
    Fully permeable

    Semi-permeable/selectively permeable; 

      1. Parietal cell/ oxyntic cell;
      2. Chief cells;
    2. Bring about Peristalsis;
      Contraction of the muscles in the stomach brings up Churning;
    1. Respiration;
    2. The grasshopper respire producing carbon IV oxide; which reacts with bicarbonate indicator solution making it turn from red yellow
    1. Sebaceous gland secretes sebum that is antiseptic preventing infection;
      Cornified layer has keratin that protects entry of bacteria;
      The sweat on skin surface creates acidic pH preventing bacterial infection; 
    2. Name. Melanin;   (1mark)
      Function. Absorb the harmful ultra violet rays; (1mark)
    1. Person was suffering from diabetes mellitus;
    2. Pancreas; 
      Rej; pancrease
    1. Adrenal gland;
    2. Produce aldosterone hormone for reabsorption of sodium ion in the kidney tubules;
    3. Kidney stones;
  19. Cause decomposition of organic matter hence release of nutrients back to the ecosystem;
  20. No immigration or emigration of the organism from the area of study;
    Organisms mix freely both the marked and unmarked;
    No death of organism during the period of study
  21. Have well developed vascular bundles for transport; 
    Have a differentiated body unlike the bryophyte with a thallus body;
    Have root system, adventitious root for absorption;
    1. Umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood rich in in nutrients from the placenta to the fetal circulation;
      Umbilical artey carry deoxygenated blood together with metabolic waste from the fetal circulation to the placenta;
    2. Absorb shock protecting the foetus;
    3. Progesterone;
  23. Stimulates production of breast milk;
    1. Epigeal germination;
    2. Store food for growth;
      Protects plumule during germination;
      For photosynthesis before formation of first foliage leaves;
    3. Epicotyl;
    4. Light makes auxins to diffuse to the dark side; causing the dark side to have rapid cell elongation than the lit side hence the shoot straightens;
    1. Are structures that ceased to be functional and over time have reduced in size;
    2. Appendix; 
    1. Trachea.
      1. The mucus 
        Trap solid particles and microorganisms preventing them from getting to the lungs;
      2. The cilia.
        Waft the trapped particles and microorganisms removing them from the trachea;
  27. Fungi;
    Roots of trees/plant;
    1. Pollination. (1mark)
      Scents from the flowers diffuse in the air attracting insect pollinators;
    2. Oxygen from the alveoli diffuses from the blood plasma into the skeletal muscle cells where it used for respiration;
      Carbon (IV) oxide from the muscle cells diffuse into the blood and taken to the lungs;
    1. Contraction and relaxation does not depend on nervous stimulation;
    2. Pump blood at higher pressure to all part of the body;
    3. To avoid altering the blood pH;

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