SECTION A: 25 MARKS
Answer all questions in this section.
- Identify two sources of information on the history of Kenya. (2 marks)
- State two social results of the migration and settlement of the Bantu in the 19th century. (2 marks)
- Identify two main exports during the Indian Ocean trade. (2 marks)
- State two reasons why the Christian missionaries came to Kenya in the 19th century. (2 marks)
- Name two main methods of conflict resolution. (2 marks)
- Name the section of the Constitution that was repealed that led to re-introduction of political pluralism in Kenya. (1 mark)
- Identify two groups that ensure human rights are not violated in Kenya. (2 marks)
- State two economic factors that led to the scramble and partition of Kenya. (2 marks)
- State the main reasons why the British government created reserves for Africans during the colonial period. (1 mark)
- Outline the main reason why Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) was formed in 1960. (1 mark)
- What was the main contribution of the late Professor Wangari Maathai (1mark)
- State the main function of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya (I.E.B.C).(1 mark)
- Identify one election official. (1 mark)
- Give one member of the County Executive Committee. (1 mark)
- Who is the head of the Judiciary? (1 mark)
- Give one importance of the rule of law. (1 mark)
- State two reasons why cultural activities are important in Kenya. (2 marks)
SECTION B: 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions from this section.
- State five reasons for the migration of the Eastern Cushites in the precolonial period. (5 marks)
- Describe the political organisations of the Maasai in the 19th century. (10 marks)
- State five reasons why the Nandi community resisted the British colonial rule. (5 marks)
- Explain five results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British. (10 marks)
- State five results of the construction of the Uganda Railway. (5 marks)
- Explain five factors that led to the growth of nationalism in Kenya between 1945-1963. (10 marks)
- Identify three main features of African socialism. (3 marks)
- Explain six challenges facing agricultural sector in Kenya since Independence. (12 marks)
SECTION C: 30 MARKS
Answer any two questions from this section.
- State three limitations of right to life. (3 marks)
- Explain six factors that promote national unity in Kenya. (12 marks)
- State three disadvantages of democracy. (3 marks)
- Describe the main six features of the New Constitution of Kenya (2010). (12 marks)
- State five factors that may lead to unfree and unfair elections. (5 marks)
- Explain five functions of the President of Kenya. (10 marks)
- Oral traditions
- Genetic study
- Written sources.
- Electronic sources.
- It led population increase
- It led to adoption of culture.
- It led to intermarriages.
- It led to redistribution of population.
- They came to spread Christianity.
- They came to abolish slave trade.
- They came to promote western culture.
- They came to introduce western education.
- They came to promote legitimate trade.
- They came to explore/adventure the area.
- Litigation/court action.
- Section 2A of the constitution.
- Free press
- Trade union movements.
- Special interest groups e.g Law Society of Kenya and religious organization.
- Judiciary and the Ombudsman.
- Non-governmental organizations.
- The Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission (KNHREC).
- Law enforcement officers (police).
- Need for market for European manufactured goods.
- The European nations came to get raw materials for their industries.
- Came to invest their surplus capital.
- Came to protect European merchants/traders.
- Came to stop slave trade and introduce legitimate trade. 2x1-2 marks
- To create room/ land for white settlement. 1x1=1 mark
- To cater for the interests of the minority communities. 1x1-1 mark
- Tree plant/conservation of the environment. Ixl-1 mark
- To organize/ conduct general elections/referenda. Ixl=l mark
- District election officers.
- Registration officers.
- Returning officers.
- Presiding officers.
- Polling clerks.
- Counting clerks.
- Party agents.
- The County governor.
- The deputy governor
- Members appointed by the county governor with the approval of the county assembly.
- The chief Justice.
- It protects rights of individuals/groups.
- It promotes fairness in the administration of justice/equality before the law.
- It creates peace and order in society.
- It gives direction on what is right or wrong.
- They entertain people.
- They educate the masses.
- They bring people from different parts of the country together/unity.
- They promote patriotism. They create employment opportunities.
- Population increase.
- Search for water and pasture for their animals.
- Extemal wars
- Internal conflicts/civil war/family feuds.
- Natural calamities/floods/drought.
- Outbreak of epidemic of diseases.
- Spirit of adventure,
- The Maasai were organized into clans, which were made from several families with a common ancestry.
- Each clan was headed by council of elders.
- The council of elders maintained law and order, declared wars, settled disputes etc.
- They were organized into several age sets and each age had a leader/spokesman. The age sets exercised leadership roles in town.
- There existed a class of warriors, the morans who carried out raids and defended the community
- There were virtual leaders and their function was to preside over religious functions and advise the community during crisis.
- In the 19 century, the institution of the Oloiboni had become very influential
- Wanted to maintain their independence.
- Wanted to protect their land.
- They did not want to lose their culture.
- They did not want the Uganda railway to pass through their territory.
- They hated the whites because according to mythology they were a sigh of bad omen.
- Wanted to protect their livestock.
- They had an able leader who inspired them to fight/resist.
- The Nandi were well equipped.
- They fought to vert the fulfillment of Kimnyole or Koiyot prophecy.
- The Maasai leader Lenana was made paramount chief.
- It led to disruption of the Maasai economic structure thereby causing loss of wealth.
- The Maasai lost their fertile land for settler farming
- They were rewarded with material wealth.
- Eventually the Maasai lost their independence.
- It led to division/separation between those who were against.
- The young Maasai were hired as mercenaries to assist the British subdue the resisting communities.
- The Maasai were evicted/displaced.
- It hastened transportation of goods and services.
- It promoted growth of trade,
- It opened up the interior for settler farming/agriculture.
- It led to growth of industries/mining.
- It led to growth/development of urban centres.
- It generated revenue for the colonial govemment.
- It created employment.
- It led to development of other means of transport and communication.
- It led to coming of Asians.
- It led to interaction of communities.
- It led to spread of Christianity.
- It led to loss of land.
- Acquisition of westem education by many Africans enabled them to understand political development at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.
- The experiences of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self-rule.
- The realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to administer hence the need to grant them self-rule.
- The rise of British Labour Party advocated for de-colonization.
- The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence.
- The support given by Pan Africanists in demanding for political independence.
- The formation of the United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.
- The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-World War II soldiers increased the agitation for independence.
- Signing of Atlantic in 1941.
- Outbreak of Mau Mau war.
- Formation of national wide political parties e.g. KAU, KANU, KADU etc.
- Charismatic role of Jomo Kenyatta.
- Political democracy.
- Mutual social responsibility.
- Various forms of ownership.
- Diffusion of ownership.
- Progressive taxation.
- Mixed economy was emphasized.
- Africanization of the economy.
- Poor transporte.. roads that lead to heavy losses of farm produce,
- The unstable prices of agricultural farm produce on the local/World market has discouraged farmers.
- Destruction of farm produce by pests after harvest poor storage facilities,
- Natural calamities c.g. floods, drought thus forcing the government to provide relief food.
- Poor technology use of traditional farming methods contributing to poor or low yields.
- The population of Kenya is higher than the food produced. Corrupt government officials have grabbed/ sold research land.
- Farming has become a costly venture/high cost of farm inputs.
- Over-production of similar agricultural produce leads to wastage.
- Shortage of agricultural extension officers to advise farmers on how to improve yields.
- Competition from COMESA/industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.
- Mismanagement of co-operatives has impoverished farmers/ delayed payment of farmers.
- When sentenced to death by a court of law.
- In self-defence defending one's property.
- When lite of law enforcing officer is in danger
- When the life of a pregnant mother is in danger/a qualified medical doctor can procure an abortion.
- During war.
- When preventing escape of lawfully detained person.
- When suppressing a riot/rebellion
- Education offers common curriculum.
- The Presidency promotes unity
- The constitution enhances equality before the law.
- Equal distribution of resources makes communities together.
- National currency i.e. the Kenya shilling enables people to transact business together.
- The National language i.e, Kiswahili enables communities to interact as they communicate freely
- National philosophies e.g. Harambee, African socialism and Nyayoism bring people together as they meet to raise funds.
- National symbols c.g. national flag, National Anthem etc. are recognized by every Kenyan
- Government institutions e.g. Parliament, Judiciary etc. are recognized by every Kenyan
- National celebrations e.g Mashujaa day, Jamhuri day etc. bring people together
- It is difficult to clect leaders who are honest, wise and morally upright.
- It promotes dictatorship by the majority. .
- It is the elected minority that rules. .
- May promote incompetency on the basis of leaders chosen
- It is slow and wasteful.
- Can encourage class struggle and corruption.
- It vests sovereign power on the people of Kenya.
- It comprises a comprehensive Bill of Rights, which has been expanded.
- It spells out national values and principles of governance, which guides/binds all people institutions.
- It contains affirmative action for women/youth/persons with disabilities/marginalized communities.
- It defines the power of the Executive.
- Provides a mechanism for its implementation
- It hai provision for transactional requirements that ensure a smooth transition of government.
- It provides stringent amendment procedures in order to safeguard people's interests.
- It provides for a devolved government by creating 47 counties.
- Citizenship-states two ways of acquiring citizenship.
- Outlines principles of land policy and classification.
- Leadership and integrity states the responsibilities, conduction and restriction on activities of state officers.
- National security establishing three national security organ,
- It establishes a bicameral legislature.
- It creates an independent judiciary.
- It provides for a public service.
- Incompetent election officials.
- Inadequate civic education
- Bad weather.
- Corruption among electoral officials.
- Election violence.
- Illiteracy of some voters.
- Rigging may interfere with elections.
- Poor physical infrastructure c.g poor roads.
- Harassment of voters by supporters.
- Electoral equipment eg BVR kits can breakdown
- Being the head of State, the President represents the people locally and interationally.
- The President determines the Parliamentary life/Calendar by opening prologuing/dissolving Parliament.
- He/she appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants.
- Chairs cabinet meetings of National importance/policies made.
- Appoints senior officers in the armed forces in his/her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces.
- He/she leads the people of Kenya during national celebrations'important national functions.
- Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally.
- Assents bills before they become laws.
- Receives heads/envoys foreign countries who visit.
- Can declare a state emergency for a maximum of 14 days when the security of the country is threatened.
- Confers honours on people who have rendered distinguished service.
- Ensures that the constitution is safeguarded so that Kenyans enjoy their rights