History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Maranda Pre-Mock Examinations 2022

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QUESTIONS 
SECTION A: 25 MARKS

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. Identify two sources of information on the history of Kenya. (2 marks) 
  2. State two social results of the migration and settlement of the Bantu in the 19th century. (2 marks) 
  3. Identify two main exports during the Indian Ocean trade. (2 marks) 
  4. State two reasons why the Christian missionaries came to Kenya in the 19th century. (2 marks)
  5. Name two main methods of conflict resolution. (2 marks) 
  6. Name the section of the Constitution that was repealed that led to re-introduction of political pluralism in Kenya. (1 mark) 
  7. Identify two groups that ensure human rights are not violated in Kenya. (2 marks) 
  8. State two economic factors that led to the scramble and partition of Kenya. (2 marks) 
  9. State the main reasons why the British government created reserves for Africans during the colonial period. (1 mark) 
  10. Outline the main reason why Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) was formed in 1960. (1 mark)
  11. What was the main contribution of the late Professor Wangari Maathai (1mark)
  12. State the main function of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya (I.E.B.C).(1 mark)
  13. Identify one election official. (1 mark)
  14. Give one member of the County Executive Committee. (1 mark)
  15. Who is the head of the Judiciary? (1 mark) 
  16. Give one importance of the rule of law. (1 mark)
  17. State two reasons why cultural activities are important in Kenya. (2 marks)

SECTION B: 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions from this section.

  1.      
    1. State five reasons for the migration of the Eastern Cushites in the precolonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organisations of the Maasai in the 19th century. (10 marks)
  2.    
    1. State five reasons why the Nandi community resisted the British colonial rule. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British. (10 marks)
  3.    
    1. State five results of the construction of the Uganda Railway. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that led to the growth of nationalism in Kenya between 1945-1963. (10 marks) 
  4.    
    1. Identify three main features of African socialism. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges facing agricultural sector in Kenya since Independence. (12 marks)

SECTION C: 30 MARKS
Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.    
    1. State three limitations of right to life. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that promote national unity in Kenya. (12 marks)
  2.    
    1. State three disadvantages of democracy. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the main six features of the New Constitution of Kenya (2010). (12 marks)
  3.    
    1. State five factors that may lead to unfree and unfair elections. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five functions of the President of Kenya. (10 marks)


MARKING SCHEME 

  1.    
    • Oral traditions
    • Archeology/paleontology.
    • Linguistics. 
    • Anthropology 
    • Genetic study 
    • Written sources.
    • Electronic sources.
      2x1=2 marks
  2.    
    • It led population increase 
    • It led to adoption of culture. 
    • It led to intermarriages. 
    • It led to redistribution of population.
      2x1-2 marks
  3.    
    • Ivory
    • Gold. 
    • Slaves
      2x1-2 marks
  4.    
    • They came to spread Christianity. 
    • They came to abolish slave trade.
    • They came to promote western culture.
    • They came to introduce western education. 
    • They came to promote legitimate trade. 
    • They came to explore/adventure the area.
      2x1=2 marks
  5.      
    • Arbitration. 
    • Diplomacy. 
    • Litigation/court action.
    • Negotiation. 
    • Mediation 
    • Legislation.
      2x1-2 marks
  6. Section 2A of the constitution.
    Ixl-1 mark
  7.      
    • Free press 
    • Trade union movements. 
    • Special interest groups e.g Law Society of Kenya and religious organization. 
    • Judiciary and the Ombudsman. 
    • Non-governmental organizations. 
    • The Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission (KNHREC). 
    • Law enforcement officers (police).
      2x1-2 marks
  8.      
    • Need for market for European manufactured goods. 
    • The European nations came to get raw materials for their industries.
    • Came to invest their surplus capital.
    • Came to protect European merchants/traders.
    • Came to stop slave trade and introduce legitimate trade. 2x1-2 marks
  9. To create room/ land for white settlement. 1x1=1 mark
  10. To cater for the interests of the minority communities. 1x1-1 mark
  11. Tree plant/conservation of the environment. Ixl-1 mark 
  12. To organize/ conduct general elections/referenda. Ixl=l mark
  13.        
    • District election officers. 
    • Registration officers. 
    • Returning officers. 
    • Presiding officers.
    • Polling clerks. 
    • Counting clerks.
    • Party agents. 
    • Observers.
      1x1=1 mark
  14.    
    • The County governor.
    • The deputy governor
    • Members appointed by the county governor with the approval of the county assembly.
      1x1=1 mark
  15. The chief Justice.
    1x1-1 mark
  16.        
    • It protects rights of individuals/groups. 
    • It promotes fairness in the administration of justice/equality before the law.
    • It creates peace and order in society. 
    • It gives direction on what is right or wrong.
      1x1=1 mark 
  17.        
    • They entertain people.
    • They educate the masses.
    • They bring people from different parts of the country together/unity.
    • They promote patriotism. They create employment opportunities.
  18.    
    1.        
      • Population increase. 
      • Search for water and pasture for their animals. 
      • Extemal wars 
      • Internal conflicts/civil war/family feuds. 
      • Natural calamities/floods/drought. 
      • Outbreak of epidemic of diseases. 
      • Spirit of adventure,
        5x1=5 marks
    2.    
      • The Maasai were organized into clans, which were made from several families with a common ancestry.
      • Each clan was headed by council of elders.
      • The council of elders maintained law and order, declared wars, settled disputes etc.
      • They were organized into several age sets and each age had a leader/spokesman. The age sets exercised leadership roles in town.
      • There existed a class of warriors, the morans who carried out raids and defended the community 
      • There were virtual leaders and their function was to preside over religious functions and advise the community during crisis.
      • In the 19 century, the institution of the Oloiboni had become very influential
        5x2-10 marks
  19.      
    1.    
      • Wanted to maintain their independence. 
      • Wanted to protect their land. 
      • They did not want to lose their culture. 
      • They did not want the Uganda railway to pass through their territory.
      • They hated the whites because according to mythology they were a sigh of bad omen. 
      • Wanted to protect their livestock. 
      • They had an able leader who inspired them to fight/resist. 
      • The Nandi were well equipped. 
      • They fought to vert the fulfillment of Kimnyole or Koiyot prophecy.
        =5 marks 
    2.    
      1. The Maasai leader Lenana was made paramount chief. 
      2. It led to disruption of the Maasai economic structure thereby causing loss of wealth. 
      3. The Maasai lost their fertile land for settler farming 
      4. They were rewarded with material wealth. 
      5. Eventually the Maasai lost their independence. 
      6. It led to division/separation between those who were against. 
      7. The young Maasai were hired as mercenaries to assist the British subdue the resisting communities.
      8. The Maasai were evicted/displaced.
        5x2-10 marks
  20.    
    1.      
      • It hastened transportation of goods and services.
      • It promoted growth of trade,
      • It opened up the interior for settler farming/agriculture. 
      • It led to growth of industries/mining.
      • It led to growth/development of urban centres.
      • It generated revenue for the colonial govemment. 
      • It created employment. 
      • It led to development of other means of transport and communication.
      • It led to coming of Asians.
      • It led to interaction of communities. 
      • It led to spread of Christianity. 
      • It led to loss of land.
        5x1=5 marks
    2.      
      • Acquisition of westem education by many Africans enabled them to understand political development at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.
      • The experiences of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self-rule. 
      • The realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to administer hence the need to grant them self-rule. 
      • The rise of British Labour Party advocated for de-colonization. 
      • The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence. 
      • The support given by Pan Africanists in demanding for political independence. 
      • The formation of the United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.
      • The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-World War II soldiers increased the agitation for independence. 
      • Signing of Atlantic in 1941. 
      • Outbreak of Mau Mau war.
      • Formation of national wide political parties e.g. KAU, KANU, KADU etc. 
      • Charismatic role of Jomo Kenyatta.
        5x2=10 marks
  21.      
    1.      
      • Political democracy. 
      • Mutual social responsibility.
      • Various forms of ownership. 
      • Diffusion of ownership. 
      • Equity 
      • Progressive taxation. 
      • Mixed economy was emphasized. 
      • Africanization of the economy.
        3x13 marks
    2.      
      • Poor transporte.. roads that lead to heavy losses of farm produce, 
      • The unstable prices of agricultural farm produce on the local/World market has discouraged farmers.
      • Destruction of farm produce by pests after harvest poor storage facilities, 
      • Natural calamities c.g. floods, drought thus forcing the government to provide relief food. 
      • Poor technology use of traditional farming methods contributing to poor or low yields.
      • The population of Kenya is higher than the food produced.   Corrupt government officials have grabbed/ sold research land. 
      • Farming has become a costly venture/high cost of farm inputs. 
      • Over-production of similar agricultural produce leads to wastage. 
      • Shortage of agricultural extension officers to advise farmers on how to improve yields. 
      • Competition from COMESA/industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.
      • Mismanagement of co-operatives has impoverished farmers/ delayed payment of farmers.
        6x2-12 marks
  22.      
    1.      
      • When sentenced to death by a court of law. 
      • In self-defence defending one's property. 
      • When lite of law enforcing officer is in danger 
      • When the life of a pregnant mother is in danger/a qualified medical doctor can procure an abortion.
      • During war. 
      • When preventing escape of lawfully detained person. 
      • When suppressing a riot/rebellion
        3x1=3 marks
    2.      
      • Education offers common curriculum. 
      • The Presidency promotes unity 
      • The constitution enhances equality before the law.
      • Equal distribution of resources makes communities together. 
      • National currency i.e. the Kenya shilling enables people to transact business together. 
      • The National language i.e, Kiswahili enables communities to interact as they communicate freely 
      • National philosophies e.g. Harambee, African socialism and Nyayoism bring people together as they meet to raise funds. 
      • National symbols c.g. national flag, National Anthem etc. are recognized by every Kenyan 
      • Government institutions e.g. Parliament, Judiciary etc. are recognized by every Kenyan 
      • National celebrations e.g Mashujaa day, Jamhuri day etc. bring people together
        6x2=12 marks
  23.      
    1.    
      • It is difficult to clect leaders who are honest, wise and morally upright. 
      • It promotes dictatorship by the majority. .
      • It is the elected minority that rules. .
      • May promote incompetency on the basis of leaders chosen
      • It is slow and wasteful.
      • Can encourage class struggle and corruption.
        3x1=3 marks
    2.    
      • It vests sovereign power on the people of Kenya. 
      • It comprises a comprehensive Bill of Rights, which has been expanded. 
      • It spells out national values and principles of governance, which guides/binds all people institutions. 
      • It contains affirmative action for women/youth/persons with disabilities/marginalized communities. 
      • It defines the power of the Executive. 
      • Provides a mechanism for its implementation
      • It hai provision for transactional requirements that ensure a smooth transition of government. 
      • It provides stringent amendment procedures in order to safeguard people's interests. 
      • It provides for a devolved government by creating 47 counties.
      • Citizenship-states two ways of acquiring citizenship.
      • Outlines principles of land policy and classification. 
      • Leadership and integrity states the responsibilities, conduction and restriction on activities of state officers. 
      • National security establishing three national security organ, 
      • It establishes a bicameral legislature. 
      • It creates an independent judiciary. 
      • It provides for a public service.
        6x2=12 marks
  24.      
    1.    
      • Incompetent election officials. 
      • Inadequate civic education 
      • Bad weather. 
      • Corruption among electoral officials.
      • Election violence. 
      • Illiteracy of some voters. 
      • Rigging may interfere with elections. 
      • Poor physical infrastructure c.g poor roads. 
      • Harassment of voters by supporters. 
      • Electoral equipment eg BVR kits can breakdown
        5x15 marks
    2.    
      • Being the head of State, the President represents the people locally and interationally.
      • The President determines the Parliamentary life/Calendar by opening prologuing/dissolving Parliament. 
      • He/she appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants. 
      • Chairs cabinet meetings of National importance/policies made. 
      • Appoints senior officers in the armed forces in his/her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces. 
      • He/she leads the people of Kenya during national celebrations'important national functions. 
      • Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally. 
      • Assents bills before they become laws. 
      • Receives heads/envoys foreign countries who visit. 
      • Can declare a state emergency for a maximum of 14 days when the security of the country is threatened. 
      • Confers honours on people who have rendered distinguished service.
      • Ensures that the constitution is safeguarded so that Kenyans enjoy their rights
        5x2=10 marks

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