History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Maranda Pre-Mock Examinations 2022

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QUESTIONS
SECTION:A
Answer all questions in this section.

  1. Identify two electronic sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks) 
  2. State two economic activities of the early human beings in the New Stone Age. (2 marks) 
  3. State one disadvantage of the land enclosure system in Britain. (1 mark)
  4. State one advantage of currency method of trade. (1 mark) 
  5. Give the main advantage of air transport. (1 mark) 
  6. State two traditional forms of communication during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks) 
  7. State two uses of electricity during the industrial revolution in Europe. (2 marks)
  8. State two reasons why early urban towns in Egypt grew along Nile valley. (2 marks) 
  9. Give the main aim of the Berlin conference of 1884-1885. (1 mark) 
  10. State two reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (2 marks) 
  11. Give the main factor for nationalism in Ghana. (1 mark) 
  12. State the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations. (1 mark) 
  13. Name two members of the UN Security Council with veto power. (2 marks) 
  14. Name two African participants who attended the fifth Pan-African Congress, Manchester, 1945. (2 marks)
  15. Identify one financial institution of the African Union (AU) (1 mark) 
  16. Name the East African Country that is not a member of the Common market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (1mark) 
  17. Outline the main political challenge of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has faced since Independence. (1 mark)

SECTION B: 45 MARKS
Answer three questions from this section.

  1.      
    1. State five factors that led to the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of agrarian revolution in the United States of America. (10 marks) 
  2.      
    1. State five factors for the growth and development of the Trans-Saharan trade. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that led to the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. State three reasons why early urban towns in Africa declined. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six problems facing Nairobi city. (2 marks)
  4.    
    1. State three reasons why King Lewanika collaborated with the British in the 19th century. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that undermined the assimilation policy in West Africa by the French (12 marks)

SECTION C: 30 MARKS
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.    
    1. State three economic activities of the Shona in the 19th century. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Buganda Kingdom in the 19th century. (12 marks)
  2.    
    1. Name three European countries that belonged to the Tripple Alliance during the First World War. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the Second World War (1939-1945). (12 marks)
  3.       
    1. State five characteristics of the Commonwealth of Nations. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). (10 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.      
    • Microfilms 
    • Films.
    • Videos 
    • Radio 
    • Television 
    • Computerized databases.
      2x1-2 marks
  2.    
    • He made tools and weapon 
    • He domesticated crops and animals. 
    • He hunted
    • He gathered.
    • He fished.
      2x1=2 marks.
  3.    
    • Poor peasant farmers lost their land.
    • It created rural-urban migration. 
    • Poor farmers were exploited, as they had to sell their labour to the rich farmers.
    • It led to migration to the USA, Canada etc.
      2x1=2 marks
  4.    
    • Its used where there is no currency. 
    • One is able to get what he/she wants.
      1x1-1 mark
  5. Its the fastest.
    1x1 mark
  6.      
    • Fire and smoke signals. 
    • Drum beats. 
    • Messengers. 
    • Horn blowing. 
    • Screams and cries.
      2x1-2 marks
  7.      
    • It was used to power machines. 
    • It was used to produce steel and iron. 
    • It was used by trains to transport bulky goods. 
    • It was used in communication as electric signals were used. 
    • It was used for lighting industries at night.
      2x1=2 marks
  8.      
    • Water from the Nile was used for transportation 
    • Water from the river was used for domestic/industrial use. 
    • Nile valley contained fertile soil for farming/availability of food. 
    • Nile valley had cool temperatures, which encouraged settlement. 
    • Vegetation along the river provided building materials
      2x1=2 marks
  9. To divide up Africa among European nations in a peaceful manner
    1x1=1 mark
  10.      
    • To directly control the mineral wealth in order to maximize, profit.
    • Britain had adequate personnel 
    • Zimbabwe lacked well established traditional systems of government
    • The British lost trust in the leadership of Africans due to past resistance. 
    • Had adequate finances.
      2x1=2 marks
  11. Loss of Independence.
  12. To promote International peace and security/prevent outbreak of another World War.
    1x1=1 mark
  13.      
    • United States of America
    • Britain/United Kingdom. 
    • France.
    • Russia.
    • China.
      2x1=2 marks
  14.    
    • Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) 
    • Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) 
    • Peter Abrahams (South Africa) 
    • Obafemi Awolowo (Nigeria) 
    • Hastings Kamuzu Banda(Malawi)
      2x1=2 marks
  15.    
    • The African Central Bank. 
    • The African Monetary Fund. 
    • The African Investments Bank.
      1x1-1 mark
  16. Tanzania
    Ix-1 mark
  17. Political instability/civil wars.
    1x1-1 mark
  18.    
    1.      
      • Availability of water from rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
      • Existence of fertile soils.
      • Availability of indigenous crops and animals.
      • Availability of labour both human and animal. 
      • There were farm tools e.g. sickles, sticks. 
      • Increase in population led to demand for food.
      • Invention of the wheel for transport. 
      • Political stability.
        5x1=5 marks
    2.      
      • Population increased due to increased food production. 
      • Production of surplus food led to increased trade.
      • Industries expanded due to agricultural raw materials.
      • Transport and communication developed to transport agricultural inputs and farm produce c.g. railways. 
      • Mechanization rendered human labour useless. 
      • Urban towns developed where agricultural activities took place.
      • Agriculture diversified through the introduction of new farm animals and crops. 
      • New inventions on farm machinery e.gsteel plough, which enabled many American farms to bring more land under cultivation. 
      • It led to enhancement of research and scientific invention, which resulted in improved crop varieties and animal breeds. 
      • It led to urbanization as towns grew where agriculture took place. 5x2-10 marks
  19.      
    1.    
      • Availability of trade items c. gold, salt etc. 
      • Demand for trade goods availability of market. 
      • Existence of local trade, which provide the base. 
      • Existence of a strong economy based on agriculture,
      • Existence of rich merchants/who provided capital. 
      • Strong and able leaders from West Africa 
      • The Tuaregs who provided both direction and security. 
      • Existence of wells/oasis. 
      • Existence of pack animals eg Camels
        5x15 marks
    2.      
      • Industrial revolution that was characterized with invention of machines rendered slave labour unnecessary.
      • Leading English economists eg Adam Smith argued that free labour was more productive than slave labour.
      • British philanthropists and Christian missionaries waged a strong war against slave trade.
      • The defeat of the British goverment during the America war of independence in 1776 persuaded Britain to seek for raw materials elsewhere particularly Africa
      • The Christian revival movement of the 19th century perceived slavery and slave trade as the height of evil in the society.
      • The attachment of independence of America in 1776 left Britain in dilemma since she had no colonies where she could take to slaves to work.
      • The French revolution of 1789 spread ideas on brotherhood, equality and as a result, many began to question slavery and slave trade.
      • The closure of the American slave trade left the slave dealers with no markets for slaves.
      • Britain abolished slave trade and other Europeans followed her.
      • Development of legitimate trade, which eventually replaced slave trade.
        5x2=10 marks
  20.      
    1.    
      • Exhaustion of minerals. 
      • Decline of trading activities. 
      • Wars of conquests. 
      • Decline of enpires. 
      • Water shortages
        3x1=3 marks
    2.      
      • Unemployment leading to high crime rates, 
      • Poor housing leading to development of slums. 
      • Inadequate social services e.g, inadequate schools, hospital/due to increase in population 
      • Congestion of roads due to increase in number of vehicles. 
      • Poor town plarning has led to poor drainage especially during heavy rains. 
      • Environmental pollution from industries and air. 
      • High rate of HIV/AIDS infection.
      • Water shortage due to high expansion in the town. 
      • High number of street children/families increasing crime rates. 
      • Inadequate waste disposal due to high population,
        6x2=12 marks
  21.      
    1.      
      • He wanted to be protected from external enemies eg. The Germans, Portuguese and Boers. 
      • He desired Western education and civilization for his people. 
      • He wanted the British to protect him from internal rebellion. 
      • He wanted protection from his neighbours the Ndebele and the Shona. 
      • He was encouraged by his friend Khama of Gwato.
      • He was influenced by European missionaries 
      • He wanted to preserve the economic structure of his people. 
      • He wanted to maintain the independence of his kingdom. 
      • He desired to promote trade in his kingdom.
        3x13 marks
    2. Opposition by local people who did not want the French to interfere with their culture.
      • The traditional rulers opposed the policy, as they did not want to lose their authority and influence over their people. 
      • The muslims did not want to be converted to Christianity. 
      • The missionary school system undermined the system as it only concentrated on spreading Christianity. 
      • Nationalism caught up with the policy of assimilation. 
      • It was expensive to implement it as a lot of money was required to construct schools, employ teachers etc.
      • The policy threatened their status quo.
      • There was inadequate personnel to supervise the huge area.
      • The French feared loss of labour on their farms.
      • The French politicians feared the Africans elected might out number them in the French Parliament.
        6x2=12 marks
  22.      
    1.      
      • They were blacksmiths/iron smelters. 
      • They grew crops. 
      • They kept livestock 
      • They traded. 
      • They hunted and gathered. 
      • They fished. 
      • They carved ivory and made soap stones.
        3x1=3 marks
    2.      
      • Buganda had a centralized system of government under the Kabaka. 
      • Kalbaka's position was hereditary. 
      • Kabaka was the head of government and state. 
      • Kabaka was assisted by the Katikiro (Prime minister). 
      • There was a council of ministers which constituted of the Katikiro (Prime minister) the Omuwanika (treasurer) and Omulamuzi(Chief Justice).
      • The council advised the Kabaka. 
      • The Lukiko was an assembly that made laws of the Kingdom. 
      • The Bataka comprised of minor chiefs who were guardians of clan land. 
      • To ensure loyalty, Kabaka married a wife from main clans. 
      • For effective administration, the kingdom was divided into counties (Saza) led by Saza chiefs. 
      • The counties were further sub divided into sub-counties the Gombolola under the Gombolala chiefs. 
      • The Gombolala were divided into smaller units called Miluka under the Miluka chiefs. 
      • The Kingdom had a strong and standing army for security.
        5x2=10 marks
  23.    
    1.      
      • Germany 
      • Austria-Hungary, 
      • Italy
    2.      
      • Many lives were lost. 
      • Properties were destroyed by bombs and fires. 
      • Economies of Europe were destroyed due to destruction of infrastructure, industries. 
      • It led to disruption of both internal and external trade. 
      • It led to developments of engineering. 
      • Many people were rendered homeless as homes were destroyed. 
      • A lot of money was used during war slowing down economic development led to huge debts 
      • The war created unemployment. 
      • It led to partition of Germany into East and West Germany. 
      • It led to emergence of the USA and USSR as superpowers. 
      • There were political changes in Europe eg. In Britain, the Conservative party lost to the Labour Party. 
      • Many people were displaced as they moved to look for safer places.
      • The Jews had to be resettled/creation of the State of Israel.
      • It led to rise of nationalism in Asia and Africa. 
      • It led to European economic cooperation which resulted to the European Economic community in 1957 and later changed to European Union. 
      • It led to production of nuclear weapons which were used on Heroshimo and Nagasaki. 
      • With introduction of the Marshal plan, USA. 
      • It led to formation of the United Nations to replace the League of Nations. 
      • It led to Cold War an ideological and economic struggle between the opposing blocs.
      • It led to bitter feelings and mistrust. 
      • It led to increased dependency on colonies
        6x2-12 marks
  24.      
    1.      
      • They use English as official language. 
      • They recognize the British Monarch as the head. 
      • The games sports Common Wealth games
      • They have onemic ties/trade. 
      • They share similar structure/administrative system/Parliamentary system/independent Judiciary. 
      • They have common military traditions,
      • They co-operate in the field of education through exchange programs. 
      • They enjoy universal adult suffrage. 
      • Members hold regular conferences of heads of States.
      • They maintain cultural ties.
        5x15 marks
    2.      
      • Political instability experienced by member States has underminedtheir contribu tion to the movement eg. Civil wars 
      • Ties between the Third World countries and their colonial masters has made it difficult for the members to pursue independent policy. 
      • Border disputes between neighbouring members. Countries has weakened their cooperation. 
      • Member States follow different ideological differences. 
      • Poverty/financial backwardness of some member States. 
      • Personality differences between leaders has undermined the Organization 
      • Nationalism/individual national interests have conflicted with the objectives of the movement. 
      • The Non-aligned members belong to other regional and international organizations divided loyalty. 
      • The movement was destabilized by the breakup of WSR.
      • NAM lacks permanent institutional framework eg. Has no secretariat/has no army of its own.
        6x2=12 marks

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