Answer all questions in this section.
- Identify two electronic sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)
- State two economic activities of the early human beings in the New Stone Age. (2 marks)
- State one disadvantage of the land enclosure system in Britain. (1 mark)
- State one advantage of currency method of trade. (1 mark)
- Give the main advantage of air transport. (1 mark)
- State two traditional forms of communication during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
- State two uses of electricity during the industrial revolution in Europe. (2 marks)
- State two reasons why early urban towns in Egypt grew along Nile valley. (2 marks)
- Give the main aim of the Berlin conference of 1884-1885. (1 mark)
- State two reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (2 marks)
- Give the main factor for nationalism in Ghana. (1 mark)
- State the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations. (1 mark)
- Name two members of the UN Security Council with veto power. (2 marks)
- Name two African participants who attended the fifth Pan-African Congress, Manchester, 1945. (2 marks)
- Identify one financial institution of the African Union (AU) (1 mark)
- Name the East African Country that is not a member of the Common market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (1mark)
- Outline the main political challenge of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has faced since Independence. (1 mark)
SECTION B: 45 MARKS
Answer three questions from this section.
- State five factors that led to the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia. (5 marks)
- Explain five results of agrarian revolution in the United States of America. (10 marks)
- State five factors for the growth and development of the Trans-Saharan trade. (5 marks)
- Explain five factors that led to the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade. (10 marks)
- State three reasons why early urban towns in Africa declined. (3 marks)
- Explain six problems facing Nairobi city. (2 marks)
- State three reasons why King Lewanika collaborated with the British in the 19th century. (3 marks)
- Explain six factors that undermined the assimilation policy in West Africa by the French (12 marks)
SECTION C: 30 MARKS
Answer any two questions from this section
- State three economic activities of the Shona in the 19th century. (3 marks)
- Describe the political organization of the Buganda Kingdom in the 19th century. (12 marks)
- Name three European countries that belonged to the Tripple Alliance during the First World War. (3 marks)
- Explain six effects of the Second World War (1939-1945). (12 marks)
- State five characteristics of the Commonwealth of Nations. (5 marks)
- Explain five challenges facing the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). (10 marks)
- Computerized databases.
- He made tools and weapon
- He domesticated crops and animals.
- He hunted
- He gathered.
- He fished.
- Poor peasant farmers lost their land.
- It created rural-urban migration.
- Poor farmers were exploited, as they had to sell their labour to the rich farmers.
- It led to migration to the USA, Canada etc.
- Its used where there is no currency.
- One is able to get what he/she wants.
- Its the fastest.
- Fire and smoke signals.
- Drum beats.
- Horn blowing.
- Screams and cries.
- It was used to power machines.
- It was used to produce steel and iron.
- It was used by trains to transport bulky goods.
- It was used in communication as electric signals were used.
- It was used for lighting industries at night.
- Water from the Nile was used for transportation
- Water from the river was used for domestic/industrial use.
- Nile valley contained fertile soil for farming/availability of food.
- Nile valley had cool temperatures, which encouraged settlement.
- Vegetation along the river provided building materials
- To divide up Africa among European nations in a peaceful manner
- To directly control the mineral wealth in order to maximize, profit.
- Britain had adequate personnel
- Zimbabwe lacked well established traditional systems of government
- The British lost trust in the leadership of Africans due to past resistance.
- Had adequate finances.
- Loss of Independence.
- To promote International peace and security/prevent outbreak of another World War.
- United States of America
- Britain/United Kingdom.
- Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya)
- Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana)
- Peter Abrahams (South Africa)
- Obafemi Awolowo (Nigeria)
- Hastings Kamuzu Banda(Malawi)
- The African Central Bank.
- The African Monetary Fund.
- The African Investments Bank.
- Political instability/civil wars.
- Availability of water from rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
- Existence of fertile soils.
- Availability of indigenous crops and animals.
- Availability of labour both human and animal.
- There were farm tools e.g. sickles, sticks.
- Increase in population led to demand for food.
- Invention of the wheel for transport.
- Political stability.
- Population increased due to increased food production.
- Production of surplus food led to increased trade.
- Industries expanded due to agricultural raw materials.
- Transport and communication developed to transport agricultural inputs and farm produce c.g. railways.
- Mechanization rendered human labour useless.
- Urban towns developed where agricultural activities took place.
- Agriculture diversified through the introduction of new farm animals and crops.
- New inventions on farm machinery e.gsteel plough, which enabled many American farms to bring more land under cultivation.
- It led to enhancement of research and scientific invention, which resulted in improved crop varieties and animal breeds.
- It led to urbanization as towns grew where agriculture took place. 5x2-10 marks
- Availability of trade items c. gold, salt etc.
- Demand for trade goods availability of market.
- Existence of local trade, which provide the base.
- Existence of a strong economy based on agriculture,
- Existence of rich merchants/who provided capital.
- Strong and able leaders from West Africa
- The Tuaregs who provided both direction and security.
- Existence of wells/oasis.
- Existence of pack animals eg Camels
- Industrial revolution that was characterized with invention of machines rendered slave labour unnecessary.
- Leading English economists eg Adam Smith argued that free labour was more productive than slave labour.
- British philanthropists and Christian missionaries waged a strong war against slave trade.
- The defeat of the British goverment during the America war of independence in 1776 persuaded Britain to seek for raw materials elsewhere particularly Africa
- The Christian revival movement of the 19th century perceived slavery and slave trade as the height of evil in the society.
- The attachment of independence of America in 1776 left Britain in dilemma since she had no colonies where she could take to slaves to work.
- The French revolution of 1789 spread ideas on brotherhood, equality and as a result, many began to question slavery and slave trade.
- The closure of the American slave trade left the slave dealers with no markets for slaves.
- Britain abolished slave trade and other Europeans followed her.
- Development of legitimate trade, which eventually replaced slave trade.
- Exhaustion of minerals.
- Decline of trading activities.
- Wars of conquests.
- Decline of enpires.
- Water shortages
- Unemployment leading to high crime rates,
- Poor housing leading to development of slums.
- Inadequate social services e.g, inadequate schools, hospital/due to increase in population
- Congestion of roads due to increase in number of vehicles.
- Poor town plarning has led to poor drainage especially during heavy rains.
- Environmental pollution from industries and air.
- High rate of HIV/AIDS infection.
- Water shortage due to high expansion in the town.
- High number of street children/families increasing crime rates.
- Inadequate waste disposal due to high population,
- He wanted to be protected from external enemies eg. The Germans, Portuguese and Boers.
- He desired Western education and civilization for his people.
- He wanted the British to protect him from internal rebellion.
- He wanted protection from his neighbours the Ndebele and the Shona.
- He was encouraged by his friend Khama of Gwato.
- He was influenced by European missionaries
- He wanted to preserve the economic structure of his people.
- He wanted to maintain the independence of his kingdom.
- He desired to promote trade in his kingdom.
- Opposition by local people who did not want the French to interfere with their culture.
- The traditional rulers opposed the policy, as they did not want to lose their authority and influence over their people.
- The muslims did not want to be converted to Christianity.
- The missionary school system undermined the system as it only concentrated on spreading Christianity.
- Nationalism caught up with the policy of assimilation.
- It was expensive to implement it as a lot of money was required to construct schools, employ teachers etc.
- The policy threatened their status quo.
- There was inadequate personnel to supervise the huge area.
- The French feared loss of labour on their farms.
- The French politicians feared the Africans elected might out number them in the French Parliament.
- They were blacksmiths/iron smelters.
- They grew crops.
- They kept livestock
- They traded.
- They hunted and gathered.
- They fished.
- They carved ivory and made soap stones.
- Buganda had a centralized system of government under the Kabaka.
- Kalbaka's position was hereditary.
- Kabaka was the head of government and state.
- Kabaka was assisted by the Katikiro (Prime minister).
- There was a council of ministers which constituted of the Katikiro (Prime minister) the Omuwanika (treasurer) and Omulamuzi(Chief Justice).
- The council advised the Kabaka.
- The Lukiko was an assembly that made laws of the Kingdom.
- The Bataka comprised of minor chiefs who were guardians of clan land.
- To ensure loyalty, Kabaka married a wife from main clans.
- For effective administration, the kingdom was divided into counties (Saza) led by Saza chiefs.
- The counties were further sub divided into sub-counties the Gombolola under the Gombolala chiefs.
- The Gombolala were divided into smaller units called Miluka under the Miluka chiefs.
- The Kingdom had a strong and standing army for security.
- Many lives were lost.
- Properties were destroyed by bombs and fires.
- Economies of Europe were destroyed due to destruction of infrastructure, industries.
- It led to disruption of both internal and external trade.
- It led to developments of engineering.
- Many people were rendered homeless as homes were destroyed.
- A lot of money was used during war slowing down economic development led to huge debts
- The war created unemployment.
- It led to partition of Germany into East and West Germany.
- It led to emergence of the USA and USSR as superpowers.
- There were political changes in Europe eg. In Britain, the Conservative party lost to the Labour Party.
- Many people were displaced as they moved to look for safer places.
- The Jews had to be resettled/creation of the State of Israel.
- It led to rise of nationalism in Asia and Africa.
- It led to European economic cooperation which resulted to the European Economic community in 1957 and later changed to European Union.
- It led to production of nuclear weapons which were used on Heroshimo and Nagasaki.
- With introduction of the Marshal plan, USA.
- It led to formation of the United Nations to replace the League of Nations.
- It led to Cold War an ideological and economic struggle between the opposing blocs.
- It led to bitter feelings and mistrust.
- It led to increased dependency on colonies
- They use English as official language.
- They recognize the British Monarch as the head.
- The games sports Common Wealth games
- They have onemic ties/trade.
- They share similar structure/administrative system/Parliamentary system/independent Judiciary.
- They have common military traditions,
- They co-operate in the field of education through exchange programs.
- They enjoy universal adult suffrage.
- Members hold regular conferences of heads of States.
- They maintain cultural ties.
- Political instability experienced by member States has underminedtheir contribu tion to the movement eg. Civil wars
- Ties between the Third World countries and their colonial masters has made it difficult for the members to pursue independent policy.
- Border disputes between neighbouring members. Countries has weakened their cooperation.
- Member States follow different ideological differences.
- Poverty/financial backwardness of some member States.
- Personality differences between leaders has undermined the Organization
- Nationalism/individual national interests have conflicted with the objectives of the movement.
- The Non-aligned members belong to other regional and international organizations divided loyalty.
- The movement was destabilized by the breakup of WSR.
- NAM lacks permanent institutional framework eg. Has no secretariat/has no army of its own.