SECTION A (40 marks)
Define the term History (1mk
- It is the study of man’s past chronological account and records of events.
State two periods in History. (2mks
- Pre- history (Unrecorded History)
- History (written history)
State two limitations of oral tradition as a source of History. (2mks
- The accuracy depends of one’s memory/ one can forget some information.
- Information may contain important omission.
- Method may be too expensive.
- Method may be affected by language barrier.
Give two forms of Government (2mks
Outline four characteristics of government (4mk
- Rules to govern members of the society
- Law of enforcement.
Name two sources of information used in oral tradition (2mks
- Fork tale
State three archaeological sites in Kenya. (3mks
- Rusinga Island
- Njoro- River-Cave
- Hyrax Hill
- Gambles Cave
Identify two sub species of Homo sapiens. (3mks
- Rhudesian man
- Neanderthal man
State and explain two theories that explain the origin of man. (4mks
- Creation theory. Religious explanation e.g. Bible, Koran that explains how God created earth first man.
- Mythical/ traditional stories/ myths narrated by various communities based on people popular beliefs.
- Evolution- slow gradual change in human state that men evolved from simple life.
Name the last three stages of evolution. (3mk
- Homo erectus
- Homo sapiens
- Homo sapien sapiens
State two main types of Acheulian tools. (2mks
- Hand Axe
List four physical characteristics of Homo Erectus. (4mks
- Had an upright posture as they walked on twos
- Had a large brain capacity upto 1100cc.
- Was highly intelligent as he made refined tools for specific purposes e.g. hand axes and scrappe.
- Communicate well using speech.
- Was large in structure- 5ft tall.
- Possessed prominent brow ridge over the eyes.
Name the two rivers that were associated with early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (2mks
- River Tigris
- River Euphrates
Name the first animal to be domesticated by man. (1mk
Identify two major indigenous crops of most third world countries. (2mks
Give two characteristics of the Agrarian revolution. (2mks
- Abolition of follows
- Land enclosure
- Application of manure as fertilizers,
- Animal bleeding
Define the term Agrarian Revolution (1mk
- Radical change that took place in Agriculture and livestock rearing.
SECTION B (60MKS)
State five advantages of using oral tradition as a source of information on History and government.(5mks
- It is important to the study of pre- history.
- They intergrate the study of history with other social studies
- It is cheap as it doesn’t require experts or special equipment.
- Useful in societies where art of writing has not been fully developed.
- It compliments other sources of information on History and Government.
List five dating methods used by archaeologist. (5mks
- Chemical dating
- Fission tract dating
Give five importance of studying history. (5mks
- learners - learn about cultural, economic and political organization of different people of the world.
- Appreciate values of other people and their contribution to civilization.
- History enables people to appreciate the past way of life.
- Trains learners to develop the capacity for critical analysis of historical data
- It gives a sense of patriotism and national pride is developed
- It’s a way of preparing the community or society for life.
- It fosters empathy- the ability to understand how people think and feel, positions and roles in society.
Outline five reasons why Africa is referred to as cradle of human kind. (5mks
- There are numerous archaeological sites on the continent where early fossils that resemble man have been found.
- Savanna grasslands provided space for early man’s existence for it was warm throughout the year.
- There were many all season rivers that provided fresh water and trapping for wild animals.
- Geographically Africa was at the centre of the pangea.
- Many fossils have been discovered in Africa.
Describe the culture of early man during the New Stone Age Period. (10mks
- Man made better tools (microlith
- Man made better shelter than tree branches i.e. grass thatched huts which were decorated.
- Man ate balanced diet- game meat, gathered fruits/ food crops from farms.
- Man grew crops, kept animals i.e. development of agriculture.
- development of government as people lived in groups with rules and regulations.
- Development of language for communication
- Specialized in skills – poultry, basketry
- Development of trade.
Explain five ways in which early human beings benefited from the discovery of fire. (10mks
- Man could warm himself during cold nights
- The flashes of fire could give him light at night
- The fire could provide him with protection by frightening and keeping dangerous animals away.
- Man also used fire to harden the tips of his tools such as spears, shafts and fishing harpoons.
- Fire was used in hunting to chase and scare wild animals.
- Used fire to cook and soften his food.
What were the results of development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia (10mks
- Increased food production
- Development of urban centres
- Development of trade.
- Establishment of administration
- Developmen of Law and order.
- Development of religion
- Development of arithmetic to record.
Outline five factors that led to Agrarian Revolution in America during the Agrarian Revolution. (10mks
- Introduction of land enclosure system in Britain made small holders to migrate to USA.
- Introduction of slave labour expanded agriculture.
- Introduction of plantation and estate farming, expanded land for farming
- Division of major farming zones based on climate and soils
- Increased demand for food by growing population.
- High demand for agricultural raw materials.
- Application of new improved farming methods e.g. use of machines.
- Development of good transport and communication
- Scientific invention for quality breeds of plants and animals