Agriculture Questions and Answers - Form 1 Opener Exam Term 3 2022

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TERM 3 2022


  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A and B.
  • Answer all questions in section C
  • All the questions should be answered

SECTION A (40 marks)

  1. Differentiate between olericulture and pomoculture. (2marks)
  2. List four methods of farming. (2 marks)
  3. State three reasons for treating water for us on the farm (3marks)
  4. Name three types of water pumps which can be used in the farm (3marks)
  5. State three advantages of shifting cultivation (3 marks)
  6. List four environmental factors that affect crop distribution in Kenya (4marks)
  7. List down the four aspects of rainfall that affect agriculture. (2marks)
  8. Name two processes of rock weathering. (2marks)
  9. List two aspects of light that influence crop growth. (2marks)
  10. State three ways by which biological agents can enhance the process of soil formation (3marks)
  11. State two mechanical methods of separating soil particles according to size during soil analysis (1mark)
  12. Statefour harmful effects of strong wind on crop production. (4mks)
  13. Outlinethreeways in which high temperature affects agricultural production in Kenya.(3marks
  14. List the tool used for each of the following (4marks)
    1. Tightening barbed wires during fencing,
    2. Smoothening concrete flours during plastering.
    3. Administration of liquid medicine to livestock through the mouth.
    4. Lifting seedlings from the nursery
  15. Define the following (2marks)
    1. dam
    2. weir

SECTION B (20 marks)

  1. The diagram below illustrates an experiment on soil. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. State the aim of the experiment (1mark)
    2. If the volume of water illustrated in the measuring cylinder was observed after one hour identify the soil sample labeled A and B. (2 mark)
    3. State one way in which the soil structure of the sample labeled C above can be improved (1 marks)
  2. The diagram below illustrate a tertiary operation carried out in the farm
    1. Identify the tertiary operation (1mark)
      1. State the importance of the tertiary operation identified in 18(a) above (2marks)
      2. Give two other tertiary operations carried out in the field besides the one identified above (2marks)
  3. The diagram labeled N I, N II, N III below represent some tolls used in farms.
    1. Name the tools labeled above (3mks
    2. What functional advantage does the tool labeled NII have over the tool labeled NIII? (1mk)
    3. What is the function of tool labeled NI (1mark)
    1. State one use of each of the following tools,
      1. sickle(1mark)
      2. Secateurs(1mark
  5. The diagrams below show an experiment carried out by a form 1 class. Study them carefully and answer questions that follow:
    1. What was the aim of the experiment? (1mark)
    2. What was the observation that form 1 students made at the end of the experiment in flasks D and E? (2marks)
    3. Give the reason for the observation made in flask D (1mark)

SECTION C - 40mks

    1. State and explain five reasons of maintaining farm tools and equipment (10 marks)
      1. What is land preparation (1mark)
      2. Discuss five reasons for preparing land (5marks)
      3. State four reasons for carrying out minimum tillage (4marks)
    1. State and explain five roles of agriculture in the economic development of Kenya (10 marks)
      1. List three surface sources of water (3marks)
      2. Give four methods of harvesting water on the farm (4marks)
      3. Outline the stages involved in water treatment process (6 x .5=3marks)


  1. Olericulture-the growing of vegetables such as French beans, cabbages, tomatoes onions under both small scale and large scalewhile Pomoculture- growing of fruits such as citrus, mangoes, passion fruits and pineapples (2mks
  2. 4 methods of farming.
    1. Shifting cultivation
    2. Nomadic pastoralism
    3. Organic farming
    4. Mixed farming
    5. Agroforestry (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  3. Reasons for water treatment
    1. To remove bad smell and taste
    2. To kill harmful micro-organisms which thrive in dirty water e.g. bacteria.
    3. To remove solid particles e.g. soil, sand sticks
    4. To remove excess chemical impurities e.g. fluorides to soften water (3x1=3mks
  4. Centrifugal motor dynamic pumps
    1. Piston / reciprocating pump
    2. Semi rotary/Hydram
    3. Hyrum
    4. Centrifugal 3x1=3mksmarks
  5. Land is allowed to rest and re-gain fertility
    1. Low incidences of pests and diseases
    2. Economises on use of fertilizers
    3. Low capital requirement
    4. No land dispute as land as land ownership is not individualized 3x1=3mks
  6. Temperature/altitude 4x1=4mks
    1. Prevailing winds
    2. Soil types
    3. Rainfall
  7. Rainfall intensity 4x1/2=2mks
    1. Rainfall reliability
    2. Rainfall distribution
    3. Rainfall amount
  8. Physical weathering 2x1=2mks
    1. Biological weathering
    2. Chemical weathering
  9. Light intensity. 1x2=2mks
    1. Light wavelength
    2. Light duration / photosynthesis
  10. Decomposition of plants and animals remains by soil micro-organism
    1. Physical breaking of rocks by roots of higher plants
    2. Man’s activities e.g. cultivation, mining and road construction
    3. Mixing up of soil burrowing animals e.g. earth worms and termites
      Any 3 x 1 =(3marks)
  11. Using a sieve / sieve analysis/mechanical analysis.
    1. Sedimentation method/chemical analysis (1mark
  12. Cause lodging of cereals and damage of crops
    1. Increase evapotranspiration rate
    2. Blow away rain bearing clouds
    3. Act as agent of soil erosion
    4. Increase spread of pests and diseases
    5. Destroy farm structures (4x1=4marks
    1. Increases incidences of some pests/parasite and diseases
    2. Improves quality of certain crops e.g. fruits, pineapples, papaws’
    3. Lowers quality of certain crops e.g. pyrethrum
    4. Increases rate of evapotranspiration/wilting in plants
    5. Increases rate of growth for early maturity in crops
    6. Limits distribution of exotic livestock breeds
    7. Lowers production in livestock
    8. Influences design of farm buildings and structures
    9. Lowers labour productivity (4x 1 = 4 marks)
  14. Tools used. 4x1=4mks
    1. Monkey strainer/wire strainer.
    2. Steel/wood float
    3. Drenching gun.
    4. Garden trowel
    1. A dam is a barrier constructed a cross a river or a dry valley to hold water and raise its level to form a reservoir or lake
    2. A weir is a barrier constructed across a river to raise the level of water and still allow water to flow over it (2marks
    1. To compare porosity and water holding capacity of the three types of soil
    2. A sandy soil, B loamy soil (2marks
    3. Can be improved by
      1. Improving water drainage
      2. improving aeration (2marks
    1. ridging (1mark
      1. Encourage tuber expansion
        • Allow easy harvesting of crop roots (2marks
      2. Rolling
        • Leveling (2marks
    1. N I – pipe wrench
      N II – Adjustable spanner
      N III – Ring spanner (3marks

    2. loosens or tightens different sizes of nuts and bolts (1mark
    3. NI is used for holding pipes during plumbing work. (1mark
    1. Pruning / cutting crops
      Harvesting rice / grasses (1mk

    2. Pruning soft branches in coffee
      Cutting vegetative materials for planting / harvesting flowers. (1m
    1. The aim of the experiment was:- to show presence of living organisms in the soil (1mk
    2. observations were:
      • Flask D - Limewater turns to white precipitate (1mk)
      • Flask E – Lime water remains clear (1mk)
    3. The reason for the observation in flask D is:-
      • Carbon IVoxide which turns lime water to white preciptate in flask D would have been produced only during the respiration of living organisms present in fresh soil (1mk
    1. Reasons for maintaining farm tools and equipment
      • To increase durability-Properly maintained and cared for tools last longer in the farm.
      • They give the farmer a long service
      • To reduce replacement cost-If well taken care they last longer and the farmer does not have money replacing them.
      • Increased efficiency-Well maintained tools work better and more efficiently to give aclean well finished piece of work.
      • Poorly kept tools are difficult toworkwith and require a lot of energy
      • To avoid injury to the user-Using poorly kept tools might result to injury to the user
      • To avoid damage to the tool-A tool that is poorly maintained ends up getting damaged due to the force used in working with it. (5x2=10 marks)
      1. Land preparation entail all activities that make land suitable for planting (1mk
      2. Reasons for preparing land
        • To kill weeds
        • To incorporate manure and other organic matter into the soil
        • Destroy different stages of crop pest
        • To aerate the soi
        • To encourage penetration of roots in the soil
        • To make subsequent operations possible eg planting
        • Encourage water infiltration in the soil (5x1=5mks
      3. Reasons for minimum tillage
        • To reduce the cost of cultivation
        • To control soil erosion
        • To maintain soil structure
        • To conserve moisture
        • To prevent the disturbance of roots and underground structures
        • To prevent exposure of humus to adverse conditions (4x1=4mks
    1. Role of agriculture in economic development of kenya
      • A source of food supply: This sector supplies food to the population.It ensures healthy and strong people who participate in economic development activities/money saved is used on other economic activities.
      • It is a source of employment: This sector provides direct employment to over 70% of Kenya’s population. Some are directly employed as farmers or farm workers while others are indirectly employed in the agro-based industries.
      • It is a foreign exchange earner for the country:Agriculture products such as coffee, tea, pyrethrum, horticultural products, livestock products from Kenya are exported to other countries. After exporting these they earn the country foreign currency which in turn is used to import other products such as machinery/saves money which would have been used for buying these commodities.
      • It is a source of raw materials for industries: Most of agricultural products require processing before use. Industries such as rice mills, breweries, canning factories and leather tanning have been set up to process such products.
      • It provides a market for industrial goods:Agriculture sector provides a market for industrial goods such as chemicals, tools, and equipment.
      • It is a source of income/revenue: This is used to purchase farms requirements such as tools, fertilizers, pesticides and machinery/government earns revenue from income tax from farmers to finance.
      • Promotes international relationship: This creates jobs and foreign market.
        (10 marks)
      1. Surface water sources
        • Rivers
        • Streams
        • Dams
        • Lakes (3mks)
      2. four methods of harvesting water on the farm (4mks)
        • roof cantonment
        • weirs
        • rock cantonment
        • dams
        • ponds
      3. the stages involved in water treatment process
        • filtration of water intake
        • softening
        • coagulation and sedimentation
        • filtration in tanks
        • chlorination

storage (1/2x6=3mks)



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