Geography Questions and Answers - Form 1 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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QUESTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS;
Attempt all the questions.

  1. Define the term environment. (2mks)
  2. State three sub-branches of physical Geography. (3mks)
  3. Give four reasons why it is important to study Geography. (4mks)
  4. Identify three components of the solar system. (3mks)
  5. Describe the passing star theory. (4 marks)
  6. State four effects of rotation of the earth. (4mks)
  7. The local time in New York(20ºW) IS 8.00 a.m. what is the local time at Kitale (10ºE). (3mks)
  8. Define the following terms;
    1. Equinox (2mks)
    2. Solstice (2mks)
  9. The following diagram represents a solar eclipse. Name the parts A, B and C. (3mks)
    9 JUGUJGGAD
    A_________________________
    B_________________________
    C_________________________
  10. Define the term weather. (2mks)
  11. Name the instrument used to measure the following elements of weather: (4mks)
    Rainfall______________________________________
    Wind direction___________________________________
    Humidity_____________________________________
    Sunshine______________________________________
  12. Anestar school wants to establish a weather station. Which four conditions should they consider while siting the station? (4mks)
  13. State three ways the atmosphere is heated. (3mks)
  14. Highlight four qualities of a good Stevenson screen. (4mks)
  15. Explain three reasons why the interior of the earth is very hot. (6mks)
  16. Describe four characteristics of the mantle. (4mks)
  17. Name the four layers of the atmosphere. (4mks)
  18. State four factors that influence temperature of a place. (4mks)
  19. What is weather forecasting? (2mks)
  20.                
    1. Name any two methods of weather forecasting (2mks)
    2. Identify three importance of weather forecasting. (3mks)
  21. Identify two types of rainfall. (2mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Define the term environment. (2mks)
    • All external conditions surrounding an organism which has influence over its behaviour.
  2.  State three sub-branches of physical Geography. (2mks)
    • Geology-study of the origin, structure and composition of the earth. It includes study of rocks.
    • Geomorphology- the study of internal and external land forming processes and landforms.
    •  Climatology- the study of climate and weather
    • Pedology- the study of soils
    • Biogeography - the study of soils, vegetation and animals.
    • Hydrology- the study of water bodies
    • Spatial geography-study of space
  3. Give four reasons why it is important to study Geography. (4mks)
    • Facilitates good relationship among nations by studying geography of other regions of the world.
    • It’s a career subject in that it enables one to go for advanced studies in specialised fields e.g. geography teachers, meteorology, surveying etc.
    • Enables us to appreciate other people’s way of life by learning economic activities of different communities within our country and other parts of the world.
    • Enables us to conserve our environment when we learn negative and positive effects of human activities on the environment.
    • Enables us to conserve our resources when we learn wise use of resources in conservation and management of resources e.g. wildlife, forests, energy, etc.
    • Inculcates in us virtues of cooperation and patience as we work in groups.
    • Makes us to appreciate manual work as we are involved in practical geography which may lead to self employment.
    • Promotion of industry such as tourism by guiding tourists to places of interest by using maps, calculations of distances etc.
  4. Identify three components of the solar system. (3mks)
    • Sun
    • Planets
    • Satellites e.g moon
    • Other heavenly bodies e.g comets, asteroids, meteors
  5. Describe the passing star theory. (4 marks)
    • A star with a greater gravitational pull passed near the sun
    • It attracted large quantities of gaseous materials from the sun
    • The materials split, cooled and condensed to form planets
    • The planets were set in orbit by the passing star
  6. State four effects of rotation of the earth. (4mks)
    • Cause day and night because at any one time one side of the earth faces the sun (day) and the other remains in darkness (night).
    • Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents in the N hemisphere to the left and in the S hemisphere to the right.
    • It causes rising and falling of ocean tides.
    • Causes time difference between longitudes.
      • Takes one hour to go through 15º.
      • 4 min to go through 1º.
  7. The local time in New York(20ºW) IS 8.00 a.m. what is the local time at Kitale (10ºE). (3mks)
    • Difference in degrees
      =20º+10º=30º
      If 1º→4min
      30º→?
      =30×4/1= 120 minutes
      =120/60= 2HRS
    • Since Kitale is in the East of New York,it is ahead in time by 2 hours
      (8:00 a.m + 2hrs)
      Therefore the local time at Kitale will be 10:00 a.m
  8. Define the following terms;
    1. Equinox (2mks)
      • Time of the year when the sun is overhead at midday along the equator.
    2. Solstice (2mks)
      • Time of the year when the sun is overhead at midday along either the tropic of cancer or tropic of capricorn
  9. The following diagram represents a solar eclipse. Name the parts A, B and C. (3mks)
    9 JUGUJGGAD
    • A moon
    • B sun
    • C earth
  10. Define the term weather. (2mks)
    • Atmospheric conditions of a place over a short period of time or at a specific time.
  11. Name the instrument used to measure the following elements of weather: (4mks)
    • Rainfall_ rain gauge
    • Wind direction_wind vane
    • Humidity__hygrometer
    • Sunshine_sunshine recorder
  12. Anestar school wants to establish a weather station. Which four conditions should they consider while siting the station? (4mks)
    • An open place where there is little obstruction of weather elements.
    • Accessible place so that recording can be done easily.
    • A fairly level or gently sloping ground (5◦) so that it’s easy to position weather instruments.
    • The place should provide a wide view of the surrounding landscape and the sky.
    • The site should be free from flooding.
    • The place should have security.
  13. State three ways the atmosphere is heated. (3mks)
    • Conduction
    • Radiation
    • convection
  14. Highlight four qualities of a good Stevenson screen. (4mks)
    • Painted white for little absorption of solar heat energy.
    • Made of wood which is a bad conductor of heat.
    • Well ventilated to allow easier flow of air inside it.
    • Raised to prevent contact with terrestrial radiation.
    • Has double roof which acts as an insulator to prevent direct heating from the sun.
  15. Explain three reasons why the interior of the earth is very hot. (6mks)
    • In the process of cooling, after breaking away from the sun, the interior of the earth cooled at a slower rate than the outer part
    • The weight of the overlying rock materials exerts pressure on the core resulting in high temperatures
    • Radioactivity within the earth’s interior which generates a lot of heat
  16. Describe four characteristics of the mantle. (4mks)
    • It is made up of two parts; upper mantle and lower mantle
    • It is composed of mainly silicate rocks
    • It extends up to 2900km
    • Temperatures reach 5000ºc
    • The dominant minerals are olivine and ferromagnesian silicate
  17. Name the four layers of the atmosphere. (4mks)
    • Troposphere
    • Stratosphere
    • Mesosphere
    • thermosphere
  18. State four factors that influence climate of a place. (4mks)
    • altitude
    • latitude
    • distance from the sea
    • aspect
    • cloud cover
    • ITCZ
    • Solar input
    • Length of the day
  19. What is weather forecasting? (2mks)
    • It is the prediction of the weather of a place over a given period of time.
  20.                    
    1. Name any two methods of weather forecasting (2mks)
      • Ancient method
      • Weather lore method
      • Modern method
    2. Identify three importance of weather forecasting. (3mks)
      • Helps us to be aware of natural calamities related to weather before they occur so as to take precautionary measures.
      • Guiding tourists on when to visit national parks.
      • Helps farmers to plan their activities such as planting, harvesting, etc.
      • Ensures air and water transport is carried out safely.
      • Helps sporting people to plan their training and competition schedules.
      • Helps people to plan many other activities such as mining, electricity generation, holiday events, etc.
      • Helps fishing communities to plan their activities.
  21. Identify two types of rainfall. (2mks)
    • Relief/orographic rainfall
    • Convectional rainfall
    • Frontal/cyclonic rainfall

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