AGRICULTURE Marking Scheme - Form 2 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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SECTION A (80mks)

  1. Ways in which agriculture contributes directly to development of industries
    • Acts as a source of capital to start industries.
    • Source of raw materials for industries
    • Market for industries.   2mks
  2. Ways in which HIV/AIDS affect food supply. 
    • Shortage of labour in the farm
    • Increased cost of labour
    • Poor agricultural development due to lack of capital
    • Shortage of skilled man power
    • Lack of incentives to invest due to prospects of death
    • Reduced agricultural production   4 ½ = 4mks
  3. Disadvantages of pastoral-nomadism system of farming
    • low production
    • uncontrolled mating
    • easy spread pf parasites/diseases/difficult to control parasites and disease.
    • tendency to overstock
    • source of ethnic tensions and conflicts.   4 ½ = 2mks
  4. Advantages of organic farming
    • its environmentally friendly
    • creates a good habitat to soil organisms.
    • it is relatively cheap
    • it improves the water holding capacity of the soil
    • crop products are free from contamination. 4 x ½ =2mks
  5. Pomoculture is the growing of fruits while olericulture is the growing of vegetables. 2mks (mark as a whole)
    • level of management (technical know-how)
    • its advantages in relation to other alternatives.
    • government policies
    • availability of factors of production.
    • personal whims/interests of the farmer
    • social – cultural factors. 4 x ½ = 2mks
  7.  Factors that determine the choice of a farming method.
    • market forces
    • health/HIV /Aids
    • level of technology and education.
    • government policy
    • transport and communication
    • social cultural practices
    • the economic conditions. 4x ½ =2mks
  8. Harmful effects of pests to crops
    • lower yield of crops
    • lower quality of produce
    • some acts as vectors of crop disease
    • increases cost of production
    • some pests reduces the photosynthetic areas of crops
    • some pest block xylem thus reducing water uptake by crops. 4 ½ = 2mks
  9. Farming practices that can improve soil structure. 
    • carrying out minimum tillage
    • applying organic manure to the soil
    • liming the soil
    • carrying out crop rotation.
    • mulching
    • cover-cropping
    • leaving the land fallow. 3x1 = 3mks
  10. Categories  of farm tools and equipment
    • garden tools and equipment
    • livestock production tools and equipment
    • workshop tools and equipment
    • plumbing
    • masonry.   4 x ½ = 2mks
    1. K- cannula
      L- trocar
      M-pick axe/ mattock     3 x1/2 = 1 ½ mk
    2. uses of M
      • break heavy soil/hard ground
      • Digging out tree stumps
      • Removing large stone
      • Digging pits     2 x ½ = 2mks
    3. clean after use 2 x ½ = 2mks
    1. lactometer   ½ mk
    2. soil auger.   ½ mk
  13. Appropriate hand tools needed to finish off the handle of a fork jembe
    • spone shade   ½ mk
    • cross cut saw     ½ mk
  14. Two combinations of tools that must always be used together when carrying out operation in animal production. 1mk
    • trocar and cannul
    • syringe and hypodermic needle
    • bullring and lead stick
    • Elastrator and rubber ring 2 x ½ = 1mk
  15. Four conditions that necessitate land clearing.
    • when opening up as virgin land
    • where a stalk growing crop was previously planted
    • where land is left fallow for a long time.
    • to remove obstacles e.g stones which may interfere with primary cultivation.
    • where internal between primary and second tillage is long such that land has become bush. 4 ½ = 2mks
  16. Benefits of ridging in Irish potato production.
    • for easy harvesting
    • control soil erosion
    • to conserve moisture in soil
    • to facilitate tuber expansion
    • for easy farming irrigation. 4 x1 = 4mks
  17. The two types of tilth likely to be achieved during harrowing
    • medium
    • fine.   2 x1 = 2mks
    • A field where crops on being planted remain until they are harvested. 1mk   1mk
  19. Water storage structures in the farm
    • weirs
    • water tanks 
    • drums or barrels
    • dams.   4 x ½ = 2mks
  20. Pipes used in conveyance of water in the farm
    • metal
    • plastic
    • hose   3x ½ = 1 ½ mk
    1. French drain 1x1 = 1mk
    2. crops are grown on top of the drainage. 1x1 = 1mk
      • to increase soil aeration
      • to increase soil volume
      • to raise soil temperature
      • to increase microbial activities
      • to reduce soil erosion
      • to remove toxic substances. 4x1 = 4mks
    1. its partially decomposed plant matter and animal waste which is heaped and turned regularly to facilitate complete decomposition. 1x1= 1mk
    2. A-maize stalks
      B- green vegetation
      D-wood ash.   2x1 = 2mks
    3. A- form foundation of the heap. ½ mk
      C – supply nutrients to micro-organisms. ½ mk
      D-improves the level of phosphorous and potassium in the resulting manure. ½ mk
    4.  Reasons why compost manure not commonly used in the farms 
      • lack of technical knowledge to prepare
      • scarcity of organic materials
      • laborious /tedious to prepare
      • bulky to transport
      • it takes a long tine to prepare. 1 ½ mks
  23.  Characteristics that should be met by plants to be used for green manure making
    • they should be highly leafy
    • they should decompose easily
    • they should have high nitrogen content or be leguminous
    • they should be able to grow under poor conditions /should be hardy. 4x1 = 4mks
    • Steer
    • Pullet- young female bird from 8 weeks to point of lay.
    • Piglet- young one of a pig from birth to weaning.
    • Ram – A mature male sheep.   4x1 = 4mks
  25.  Dual purpose breeds of sheep. 
    • Romney marsh
    • Hampshire down
    • Corriedale   2x1 = 2mks
  26.  Reasons why goats are popular in most parts of Kenya
    • can survive without water for a long period of time.
    • are good browsers
    • have small body surface hence are able to regulate temperatur
    • can survive under harsh climatic conditions because they are hardy.
    • can walk for long distances in search of food and water.   3x1 = 3mks
  27. Difference between  Bactrian and dromedary breeds of camel.  
    • Bactrian                                           Dromedary
    • two humps                                       one hump
    • has more fur                                     has less fur.     2x1= 2mks
    1. farm records- are written accounts of all activities that take place in the farm   1 x 1==1mk
    2. Qualities of a good farm record.  
      • should be updated regularly
      • easy to follow
      • should be brief
      • should be accurate
      • should be arranged in a certain order or method. 4mks   4 x ½ = 2mks
    1. Macro-nutrients – elements required by plants in large quantities.
      Micro-nutrients- elements required by plants in smaller quantities. 1x1 = 1mk (mark as a whole)
    2.  deficiency symptoms of nitrogen
      • leaf chlorosis
      • stunted growth
      • premature leaf fall
      • purple colour observed on leaves due to formation of the pigment anthocyanin. 4 x ½ = 2mks
  30. 5/40 x 4000 = 50kg K2O   2x1= 2 mks
    • Sweet potato vines
    • banana suckers
    • stem cutting
    • bulbils   4x ½ = 2mks
  32. Categories of crop propagation. 
    • Use of seeds
    • use of vegetative planting materials. 2x1 = 2mks

SECTION B ( 20 mks)

    1. Characteristics of nitrogenous fertilizers
      • Highly soluble in water- should be applied in an already established crop.
      • Have short residual effect thus should be applied frequently
      • Have scorching- effect/burning effect- should not come into contact with the plants.
      • Are hygroscopic – should be stored under dry conditions
      • Are corrosive-should not be handled with bare hands on stored in easily corroded containers.
      • Easily leached-should be applied to a vigorously growing crop/already established crop.
      • Are volatile- should be applied on moist.   6x1 = 6mks
    2. Information contained on the sample package
      • physical address of the farer
      • The required tests
      • Plot/farm number
      • Date when sampling was done. 4x1 = 4mks
    1. Advantages of using seeds as planting materials.
      • Planting can easily be done with machine
      • being less bulky, seeds require less labour.
      • Seeds are easily available making them cheap planting materials.
      • Seeds can be mixed with fertilizers during planting.
      • Seeds can be treated against soil-borne pests and diseases before planting.
      • Its possible to develop new crop varieties through cross pollination
      • Seeds can be stored easily a waiting better conditions for planting without loosing viability
      • Sees are easy to handle hence less time is used when planting. 6x1 = 6mks
    2. Factors to consider when selecting planting material
      • germination of percentage/purity of the seeds.
      • Suitability to area/adaptability.
      • use of certified seeds for best results
      • health of the planting materials free from past or disease attack
      • physical defects- seeds should not be wrinked. Seeds should be whole.
      • time of maturity – they should be early mature.   4x1 = 4mks
    1. Disadvantages of broadcasting:
      • Encouragers pasts and disease spread due to congestion
      • It is difficult to use machines
      • Its difficult to establish the correct plant population
      • There is uneven crop establishment due to uneven depth of planting.
      • It is difficult to carry out crop management e.g weeding.
      • High seed rate is used   5x 1= 5mks
    2. Importance of carrying out soil testing.
      • It helps to determine the type of crops to grow
      • It provides information on the types of fertilizers to apply
      • Depending on the nutrient content one is able to determine the amount of fertilizer to apply.
      • It provides better under standing on the cause of low yield
      • It enables one to know the type of soil in the farm. 5x1 = 5mks

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