SECTION A (80mks)
Ways in which agriculture contributes directly to development of industries
- Acts as a source of capital to start industries.
- Source of raw materials for industries
- Market for industries. 2mks
Ways in which HIV/AIDS affect food supply.
- Shortage of labour in the farm
- Increased cost of labour
- Poor agricultural development due to lack of capital
- Shortage of skilled man power
- Lack of incentives to invest due to prospects of death
- Reduced agricultural production 4 ½ = 4mks
Disadvantages of pastoral-nomadism system of farming
- low production
- uncontrolled mating
- easy spread pf parasites/diseases/difficult to control parasites and disease.
- tendency to overstock
- source of ethnic tensions and conflicts. 4 ½ = 2mks
Advantages of organic farming.
- its environmentally friendly
- creates a good habitat to soil organisms.
- it is relatively cheap
- it improves the water holding capacity of the soil
- crop products are free from contamination. 4 x ½ =2mks
- Pomoculture is the growing of fruits while olericulture is the growing of vegetables. 2mks (mark as a whole)
- level of management (technical know-how)
- its advantages in relation to other alternatives.
- government policies
- availability of factors of production.
- personal whims/interests of the farmer
- social – cultural factors. 4 x ½ = 2mks
Factors that determine the choice of a farming method.
- market forces
- health/HIV /Aids
- level of technology and education.
- government policy
- transport and communication
- social cultural practices
- the economic conditions. 4x ½ =2mks
Harmful effects of pests to crops
- lower yield of crops
- lower quality of produce
- some acts as vectors of crop disease
- increases cost of production
- some pests reduces the photosynthetic areas of crops
- some pest block xylem thus reducing water uptake by crops. 4 ½ = 2mks
Farming practices that can improve soil structure.
- carrying out minimum tillage
- applying organic manure to the soil
- liming the soil
- carrying out crop rotation.
- leaving the land fallow. 3x1 = 3mks
Categories of farm tools and equipment
- garden tools and equipment
- livestock production tools and equipment
- workshop tools and equipment
- masonry. 4 x ½ = 2mks
- K- cannula
M-pick axe/ mattock 3 x1/2 = 1 ½ mk
- uses of M
- break heavy soil/hard ground
- Digging out tree stumps
- Removing large stone
- Digging pits 2 x ½ = 2mks
- clean after use 2 x ½ = 2mks
- K- cannula
- lactometer ½ mk
- soil auger. ½ mk
Appropriate hand tools needed to finish off the handle of a fork jembe
- spone shade ½ mk
- cross cut saw ½ mk
Two combinations of tools that must always be used together when carrying out operation in animal production. 1mk
- trocar and cannul
- syringe and hypodermic needle
- bullring and lead stick
- Elastrator and rubber ring 2 x ½ = 1mk
Four conditions that necessitate land clearing.
- when opening up as virgin land
- where a stalk growing crop was previously planted
- where land is left fallow for a long time.
- to remove obstacles e.g stones which may interfere with primary cultivation.
- where internal between primary and second tillage is long such that land has become bush. 4 ½ = 2mks
Benefits of ridging in Irish potato production.
- for easy harvesting
- control soil erosion
- to conserve moisture in soil
- to facilitate tuber expansion
- for easy farming irrigation. 4 x1 = 4mks
The two types of tilth likely to be achieved during harrowing
- fine. 2 x1 = 2mks
- A field where crops on being planted remain until they are harvested. 1mk 1mk
Water storage structures in the farm.
- water tanks
- drums or barrels
- dams. 4 x ½ = 2mks
Pipes used in conveyance of water in the farm
- hose 3x ½ = 1 ½ mk
- French drain 1x1 = 1mk
- crops are grown on top of the drainage. 1x1 = 1mk
- to increase soil aeration
- to increase soil volume
- to raise soil temperature
- to increase microbial activities
- to reduce soil erosion
- to remove toxic substances. 4x1 = 4mks
- its partially decomposed plant matter and animal waste which is heaped and turned regularly to facilitate complete decomposition. 1x1= 1mk
- A-maize stalks
B- green vegetation
D-wood ash. 2x1 = 2mks
- A- form foundation of the heap. ½ mk
C – supply nutrients to micro-organisms. ½ mk
D-improves the level of phosphorous and potassium in the resulting manure. ½ mk
Reasons why compost manure not commonly used in the farms
- lack of technical knowledge to prepare
- scarcity of organic materials
- laborious /tedious to prepare
- bulky to transport
- it takes a long tine to prepare. 1 ½ mks
Characteristics that should be met by plants to be used for green manure making
- they should be highly leafy
- they should decompose easily
- they should have high nitrogen content or be leguminous
- they should be able to grow under poor conditions /should be hardy. 4x1 = 4mks
- Pullet- young female bird from 8 weeks to point of lay.
- Piglet- young one of a pig from birth to weaning.
- Ram – A mature male sheep. 4x1 = 4mks
Dual purpose breeds of sheep.
- Romney marsh
- Hampshire down
- Corriedale 2x1 = 2mks
- Reasons why goats are popular in most parts of Kenya
- can survive without water for a long period of time.
- are good browsers
- have small body surface hence are able to regulate temperatur
- can survive under harsh climatic conditions because they are hardy.
- can walk for long distances in search of food and water. 3x1 = 3mks
Difference between Bactrian and dromedary breeds of camel.
- Bactrian Dromedary
- two humps one hump
- has more fur has less fur. 2x1= 2mks
- farm records- are written accounts of all activities that take place in the farm 1 x 1==1mk
Qualities of a good farm record.
- should be updated regularly
- easy to follow
- should be brief
- should be accurate
- should be arranged in a certain order or method. 4mks 4 x ½ = 2mks
- Macro-nutrients – elements required by plants in large quantities.
Micro-nutrients- elements required by plants in smaller quantities. 1x1 = 1mk (mark as a whole)
- deficiency symptoms of nitrogen
- leaf chlorosis
- stunted growth
- premature leaf fall
- purple colour observed on leaves due to formation of the pigment anthocyanin. 4 x ½ = 2mks
- Macro-nutrients – elements required by plants in large quantities.
- 5/40 x 4000 = 50kg K2O 2x1= 2 mks
- Sweet potato vines
- banana suckers
- stem cutting
- bulbils 4x ½ = 2mks
Categories of crop propagation.
- Use of seeds
- use of vegetative planting materials. 2x1 = 2mks
SECTION B ( 20 mks)
Characteristics of nitrogenous fertilizers
- Highly soluble in water- should be applied in an already established crop.
- Have short residual effect thus should be applied frequently
- Have scorching- effect/burning effect- should not come into contact with the plants.
- Are hygroscopic – should be stored under dry conditions
- Are corrosive-should not be handled with bare hands on stored in easily corroded containers.
- Easily leached-should be applied to a vigorously growing crop/already established crop.
- Are volatile- should be applied on moist. 6x1 = 6mks
Information contained on the sample package
- physical address of the farer
- The required tests
- Plot/farm number
- Date when sampling was done. 4x1 = 4mks
- Characteristics of nitrogenous fertilizers
Advantages of using seeds as planting materials.
- Planting can easily be done with machine
- being less bulky, seeds require less labour.
- Seeds are easily available making them cheap planting materials.
- Seeds can be mixed with fertilizers during planting.
- Seeds can be treated against soil-borne pests and diseases before planting.
- Its possible to develop new crop varieties through cross pollination
- Seeds can be stored easily a waiting better conditions for planting without loosing viability
- Sees are easy to handle hence less time is used when planting. 6x1 = 6mks
Factors to consider when selecting planting material
- germination of percentage/purity of the seeds.
- Suitability to area/adaptability.
- use of certified seeds for best results
- health of the planting materials free from past or disease attack
- physical defects- seeds should not be wrinked. Seeds should be whole.
- time of maturity – they should be early mature. 4x1 = 4mks
- Advantages of using seeds as planting materials.
Disadvantages of broadcasting:
- Encouragers pasts and disease spread due to congestion
- It is difficult to use machines
- Its difficult to establish the correct plant population
- There is uneven crop establishment due to uneven depth of planting.
- It is difficult to carry out crop management e.g weeding.
- High seed rate is used 5x 1= 5mks
- Importance of carrying out soil testing.
- It helps to determine the type of crops to grow
- It provides information on the types of fertilizers to apply
- Depending on the nutrient content one is able to determine the amount of fertilizer to apply.
- It provides better under standing on the cause of low yield
- It enables one to know the type of soil in the farm. 5x1 = 5mks
- Disadvantages of broadcasting: