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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT Marking Scheme - Form 2 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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SECTION A

  1. Give two branches in the study of history and government. (1mk
    • social history
    • political history
    • economic history
  1. Identify two types of electronic sources of information on history and government. (2mks
    • radio
    • micro-films
    • audio visual (television)
    • data bank/ computers
  1. Identify two economic activities of the early man. (2mks
    • hunting                           
    • crop farming
    • gathering                       
    • trade
    • fishing
  1. Identify two theories that explain the origin of Agriculture. (2mks
    • independent theory
    • diffusion theory
  1. Identify one social effect of the interaction of the Somali with the Bantu before 1200 AD. (1mk
    • Circumcision
    • age- set system
    • intermarriages.
  1. State the main economic activity of Purko Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (1mk
    • nomadic pastrolism /livestock keeping.
  1. Name two factors that enabled Arabs traders to come to Kenyan Coast by 1500 AD.
    • accessibility of Kenyan Coast through the sea.
    • availability of dhows
    • Presence of monsoon winds
    • Availability of capital
  1. Name two historical monuments built by the Portuguese along the Kenyan Coast. (2mks
    • Fort Jesus
    • Vasco-da-gama pillar
  1. Name the earliest missionary society to send missionaries in Kenya during the 19th century.(1mk
    • Church missionary society

  1. Give one symbol of National Unity in Kenya. (1mk
    • National flag
    • National anthem
    • Coat of Arms
    • National seal
    • Public seal
  1. Mention two methods of trade.
    • Barter method of trade
    • Currency method of trade
  1. Highlight two effects of local trade. (2mks
    • Made essential goods available
    • improved the standard of living of those involved
    • Led to the growth of towns which were former trade centres
  1. Give two advantages of human transport.   (2mks
    • Readily available
    • Cheap
    • Convenient
    • Flexible
    • Rare cases of accidents
    • Offer door to door services
  1. State one feature of a cell phone. (1mk
    • Camera
    • Clock
    • Calculator
    • Ringtone
    • Sending/receiving messages
  1. Identify two nations which pioneered space exploration . (2mks
    • U.S.S.R
    • U.S.A

SECTION B (60 marks)

  1.  
    1. Identify five factors that led to the migration of the Agikuyu. (5mks
      • Search of land to cultivate
      • Escape from hostile neighbours and external attacks
      • Internal family feuds and conflicts.
      • Population pressure on limited land
      • Human and animal diseases e.g. anthrax
      • Natural calamities such as famines, floods etc
      • The spirit of adventure
      • Territorial expansion using advanced iron working improvements




  2.  
    1. State five problems faced by Trans-Saharan Traders. (5mk
      • Long and tiresome journey across the desert.
      • Inadequate water and food
      • Extreme weather conditions of the desert- too cold at night and too hot during the day.
      • Attack by hostile desert communities
      • Lack of a common language for transaction of trade
      • Frequent sand storm.
      • Loss of direction in the desert.
      • Attack by dangerous desert creatures- scorpions, snakes e.t.c.
      • Insecurity because of declining and falling in kingdoms
      • Exhaustion of trade goods especially gold
      • Frequent shit of trade routes.
    2. Explain the factors that led to the decline of Trans-Atlantic Trade.   (10mks
      • Industrial revolution in Europe- human labour was replaced with machines
      • America’s independence of 1776 left the British without source of raw materials hence encouraged Africans to be retained in Africa to produce raw materials
      • British economists urged that free people are more productive than enslaved people.
      • Christian missionaries campaigned against slave trade.
      • Slaves working against their masters
      • French revolution of 1789 advocated for liberty and equality of all peopl
      • British abolished slave trade and influenced other nations to do so
  3.  
    1. Give three disadvantages of using boda boda bicycles and motorcycles as a means of transport(3mks
      • They lead to congestion on roads
      • They are limited to short distance
      • They are limited to transporting small quantities of goods
      • They cannot operate in extreme weather conditions
      • Prone to accidents
    2. Explain six negative effects of modern means of communication (12mks
      • Noise pollution
      • Addiction from prolonged use of devices like internets
      • Expensive to obtain and maintain
      • Increased cyber crimes
      • Immorality – phonographic materials
      • Erosion of culture
      • Destructive warfare

SECTIION C (30 mks

  1.  
    1. State three ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen.   (3mks
      • By birth
      • By registration
      • By dual citizenship
    2. Explain six political rights of a Kenyan citizen. (12mks
      • Right to vote or be voted to an office
      • Right to access justic
      • Right to a fair hearing on the rule of law- public hearing before a court tribunal and right to adequate time and facilities for defence.
      • Equity and freedom from discrimination by the state on basis of gender, status, health and ethnic and social origin.
      • Freedom of peaceful demonstration, picketing and petition
      • Right to form a political party, to recruit members and even campaign.
      • Right to freedom and security
      • Right to access to justice
  2.  
    1. Give five non – violent methods of conflict resolution (5mks
      • Use of elders
      • Abitration
      • Religious leaders
      • Mediation
      • Dialogue
      • Legislature
      • Policing
      • International agreements
      • Litigation
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity in Kenya (10mks
      • The constitution- guarantees equal rights and opportunities to all
      • One government- recognized by every Kenya
      • Education system- in all public schools
      • Equal distribution of wealth and resources – through C.D.F
      • Social and economic integration activities- trade, working, intermarriages, urbanization e.t.c.
      • National language- Kiswahili and English
      • National activities – National holidays, games, agricultural forums
      • National symbols of unity
      • National philosophies – Harambee, Nyayosism
      • Presidency
      • Common currency
      • Mass media
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