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- It is naming of organisms using two names, the genus name and the species name. (1 mark).
- It is a group of organisms which can naturally/ freely interbreed to produce fertile of springs. (1 mark)
- Magnifying the image of the specimen. (1 mark)
- Brings the image into sharp focus and magnifies it. (1 mark)
- Magnification = Eye piece magnification X objectives lens mg. (1 mark)
Mag = 10 x100 = 1000 (1 mark)
= x 1000
- Cell size = Diameter of field of view number of cells;
Diameter of the field view in µm= 8x1000 = 8000 µm
Therefore Average length of each cell =8000/16 = 500 µm; (2 marks)
- It uses beam of electrons to illuminate the object. (1 mark)
- Nucleolus; (1 mark)
- Chromatin material; (1 marks)
- Lysosomes – break down worn out cells and organelles. (1 mark)
- Golgi apparatus – package and transport of glyco proteins. (1 mark)
Involved in secretion of synthesized proteins and carbohydrates.
- Mitochondria – Responsible for production of energy during respiration(1 mrk)
Site for respiratory reactions;
- Food vacuole – stores nutrients/ foods. (1mark)
- Rough Endoplasmic reticulum – transport of synthesized proteins. (1 mark)
- Ribosomes. (1 mark)
- Chloroplasts. (1 mark)
- Basic functional unit of a living organism/fundamental unit of life. (1 mark)
- A group of cells similar in structure performing a specific function. (1 mark)
- A group of tissues working together/ a distinct part of an organism that is specialized to perform a particular function. (1 mark)
- Photosynthetic tissues. (1 mark)
- Epidermal tissue. (1 mark)
- Meristematic tissue. (1 mark)
- Vascular tissue re-xylem or phloem or tracheid alone. (1 mark)
- Root hair (cell). (1 mark)
- D – cell wall. (1 mark)
E - cell sap or sap vacuole. (1 mark)
- controls the functioning of the cell or controls cell activities. (1 mark)
- Sucking small insects/ small animals from rock surfaces and barks of trees. (1mark).
- A trap into which small crawling animals (e.g. insects, amphibians, reptiles, arachnida) fall and get trapped. (1 mark)
- Cytology. ( 1mark)
- Microbiology. (1 mark)
- Lantana camara and lantana trifoliate. (2 marks)
- lantana. (1 mark)
- Camara. (1 mark)
- Living organisms unlike motor vehicles, show the following characteristics;
- growth and development (3 marks)
- It supplies water and minerals salts for photosynthesis.
- It removes organic food substances from the sites of photosynthesis To other parts of the plant.
- It eliminates the by products of metabolism such as carbon (IV) oxide and nitrogeneous wastes. (3 marks)
- Active transport. (3 marks)
- i 0/3, c 1/1, pm 2/2, m2/ 2(1 mark)
- Herbivorous. (1 mark)
- Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from a plant into the atmosphere. (1 mark
Guttation is the loss of water in form of droplets from the leaves. (1 mark)
- A. (1mark)
- B. (1 mark)
- A. (1 mark).
- Y – Xylem vessel
Z - Tracheid. (1 mark)
- A – Lumen
B – Pits. (1 mark)
- It allows for lateral or sideways movement of water and mineral salts from one vessel to the next. (1 mark)
- Absorption of water.
- Absorption of mineral salts.
- Production of vitamin K. (2 marks)
- Absorption is the uptake of food substances into the blood stream.
- Assimilation is the use of absorbed food in the cell metabolism. (2 marks)
- Photosynthesis. (1 mark)
- Presence of light and chlorophyll. (2 marks)
- Thickness of the cuticle
- Leaf size.
- Stomatal size, distribution, number and position.
- Hairy leaf lamina.
- Glossy leaf surface. (Any 2 marks)
- Night blindness
- Rickets. (3 marks)
- It has positive and negative charge.
- It is semi-permeable.
- It is sensitive to charge in pH and temperature.
- Translocation. (1 mark)
- Organic food been transported from the leaves accumulates and cannot move across the ringed part. (1 mark)
- Phloem. (1 mark)
- To increase the surface area for food absorption.
- To reduce the speed of food movement along it for maximum absorption of food. (2 marks)
- Reticulate. (1 mark)
- Spiral. (1mark)
- It strengthens the walls of the vessels and prevents from collapsing. (1 mark)
- Gaseous exchange.
- Transpiration. (2 marks).