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BIOLOGY Marking Scheme - Form 2 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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  1. It is naming of organisms using two names, the genus name and the species name. (1 mark).
  1. It is a group of organisms which can naturally/ freely interbreed to produce fertile of springs. (1 mark)
  1. Magnifying the image of the specimen.   (1 mark)
  2. Brings the image into sharp focus and magnifies it.     (1 mark)
  1.  
    1. Magnification = Eye piece magnification X objectives lens mg. (1 mark)
      Mag = 10 x100 = 1000             (1 mark)
      = x 1000
    2. Cell size = Diameter of field of view number of cells;
      Diameter of the field view in µm= 8x1000 = 8000 µm
      Therefore Average length of each cell =8000/16 = 500 µm; (2 marks)
  1. It uses beam of electrons to illuminate the object.     (1 mark)
  1.  
    1. Nucleolus; (1 mark)    
    2. Chromatin material;   (1 marks)
  1.  
    1. Lysosomes – break down worn out cells and organelles.       (1 mark)
    2. Golgi apparatus – package and transport of glyco proteins.   (1 mark)
      Involved in secretion of synthesized proteins and carbohydrates.
    3. Mitochondria – Responsible for production of energy during respiration(1 mrk)
      Site for respiratory reactions;
    4. Food vacuole – stores nutrients/ foods.   (1mark)
    5. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum – transport of synthesized proteins. (1 mark)
  2.  
    1. Ribosomes.     (1 mark)
    2. Chloroplasts.   (1 mark)
  1.  
    1. Basic functional unit of a living organism/fundamental unit of life. (1 mark)
    2. A group of cells similar in structure performing a specific function. (1 mark)
    3. A group of tissues working together/ a distinct part of an organism that is specialized to perform a particular function.   (1 mark)
  2.  
    1. Photosynthetic tissues. (1 mark)
    2. Epidermal tissue. (1 mark)
    3. Meristematic tissue. (1 mark)
    4. Vascular tissue re-xylem or phloem or tracheid alone.   (1 mark)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. Root hair (cell).   (1 mark)
      2. D – cell wall.   (1 mark)
        E - cell sap or sap vacuole. (1 mark)
    2. controls the functioning of the cell or controls cell activities. (1 mark)
  1.  
    1. Sucking small insects/ small animals from rock surfaces and barks of trees. (1mark).
    2. A trap into which small crawling animals (e.g. insects, amphibians, reptiles, arachnida) fall and get trapped.   (1 mark)
  2.  
    1. Cytology.       ( 1mark)
    2. Microbiology. (1 mark)
  3.  
    1. Lantana camara and lantana trifoliate.   (2 marks)
    2.  
      1. lantana.     (1 mark)
      2. Camara.   (1 mark)
  4. Living organisms unlike motor vehicles, show the following characteristics;
    • reproduction,
    • irritability,
    • growth and development (3 marks)      
  5.  
    • It supplies water and minerals salts for photosynthesis.
    • It removes organic food substances from the sites of photosynthesis To other parts of the plant.
    • It eliminates the by products of metabolism such as carbon (IV) oxide and nitrogeneous wastes.     (3 marks)
  1.  
    • Diffusion.
    • Osmosis.
    •  Active transport.         (3 marks)
  1.  
    1. i 0/3, c 1/1, pm 2/2, m22(1 mark)
    2. Herbivorous.   (1 mark)
  1. Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from a plant into the atmosphere. (1 mark
    Guttation is the loss of water in form of droplets from the leaves.   (1 mark)                                                                      
  1.  
    1.  
      1. A.   (1mark)
      2. B.   (1 mark)
    2. A.   (1 mark).
  2.  
    1. Y – Xylem vessel
      Z - Tracheid.   (1 mark)
    2. A – Lumen
      B – Pits.     (1 mark)
    3. It allows for lateral or sideways movement of water and mineral salts from one vessel to the next.     (1 mark)
  1.  
    • Absorption of water.
    • Absorption of mineral salts.
    • Production of vitamin K.          (2 marks)
  1.  
    • Absorption is the uptake of food substances into the blood stream.
    • Assimilation is the use of absorbed food in the cell metabolism.           (2 marks)
  1.  
    1. Photosynthesis.   (1 mark)
    2. Presence of light and chlorophyll.   (2 marks)
  1.  
    • Thickness of the cuticle
    • Leaf size.
    • Stomatal size, distribution, number and position.
    • Hairy leaf lamina.
    • Glossy leaf surface.                                     (Any 2 marks)
  2.  
    • Night blindness
    • Haemophilia.
    • Rickets.                    (3 marks)
  1.  
    • It has positive and negative charge.
    • It is semi-permeable.
    • It is sensitive to charge in pH and temperature.
  1.  
    1. Translocation. (1 mark)
    2. Organic food been transported from the leaves accumulates and cannot move across the ringed part.   (1 mark)
    3. Phloem. (1 mark)
  1.  
    • To increase the surface area for food absorption.
    • To reduce the speed of food movement along it for maximum absorption of food.   (2 marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Reticulate.   (1 mark)
      2. Spiral.   (1mark)
    2. It strengthens the walls of the vessels and prevents from collapsing.   (1 mark)
  3.  
    1. Gaseous exchange.
    2. Transpiration.         (2 marks).
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