Agriculture Form 2 Questions and Answers - Term 3 Opener Exams 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS

  • This paper has three sections A,B and C
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A and B
  • Answer only TWO questions in section C 

SECTION A

Answer ALL the questions in this section

  1. Differentiate between apiculture and aquaculture (1mk)
  2. Name four methods of farming (2mks)
  3. State four possible uses of income earned from sale of agricultural produce (2mks)
  4. List four human factors that influence agriculture (2mks)
  5. Give four reasons for treating water for use on the farm (2mks)
  6. State the use of each of the following farm tool listed below (2mks)
    Sickle…………………………………………………………………………………………..
    Milk churn………………………………………………………………………………………
    Elastrator………………………………………………………………………………………..
    Drenching gun…………………………………………………………………………………..
  7. State four precautions that should be observed when using workshop tools (2mks)
  8. Give four reasons why burning is discouraged as a method of land clearing (2mks)
  9. Name four practices that enhance minimum tillage (2mks)
  10. Give two sources of underground water (1mk)
  11. State four characteristics of a fertile soil (2mks)
  12. Name four breeds of dairy goats (2mks)
  13. Name two types of labour records (1mk)
  14. List four symptoms of Nitrogen deficiency in plants (2mks)
  15. Name two vegetative materials used to propagate pineapples (1mk)
  16. Outline four factors considered when selecting a nursery site (2mks)
  17. State four characteristics of a good grain store (2mks)

SECTION B

  • Answer ALL the questions in this section
  1. The following is a list of plant nutrients; copper, calcium, nitrogen, zinc, molybdenum, phosphorus, carbon, sulphur, iron and magnesium.
    Which of the above nutrients are?
    1. Macro elements (2mks)
    2. Micro elements (1mk)
    3. Fertilizer elements (1mk)
    4. Liming elements (1mk)
  2. The diagram below illustrates a feature observed after digging the soil several meters deep. Study the diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow
    soil layers
    1. Identify the feature that the diagram above represents in the study of soil (1mk)
    2. Name the parts on the diagram labelled A,B,C and D (2mks)
    3. State two ways in which the knowledge of the above feature would be of benefit to a farmer (2mks)
  3. the diagram below illustrates a nursery practice
    Nursery Practice
    1. identify the practice (1mk)
    2. describe the procedure followed in carrying out the practice illustrated (2mks)
    3. state two advantages of the practice illustrated above in crop production (2mks)
  4. The diagram below illustrates a livestock parasite
    Fly
    1. identify the parasite illustrated above (1mk)
    2. state the major harmful effect of the parasite (1mk)
    3. explain three control measures of the parasite (3mk)

SECTION C

Answer only two questions in this section

      1. Explain the importance of vegetables to a farmer (5mks)
      2. Briefly describe the production of onions under the following sub-headings
        1. Varieties (1mk)
        2. Ecological requirements (3mks)
        3. Land preparation (3mks)
        4. Field management practices (4mks)
        5. Harvesting and marketing (4mks)
    1.  
      1. Define the following terms as used in livestock health (2mks)
        1. Disease……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
        2. Health……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
      2. State four pre-disposing factors of livestock diseases(2mks)
      3. Give reasons for keeping livestock healthy (6mks)
      4. Outline methods a farmer can use to control livestock diseases (5mks)
      5. Describe the harmful effects of parasites on livestock (5mks)
    2.  
      1. Explain five advantages of crop rotation (10mks)
      2. Outline five activities that may be undertaken in organic farming (5mks)
      3. A farmer wanted to prepare 200kg of calf rearing ration containing 20 % DCP , using the pearsons square method calculate the amount of maize containing 18% DCP and sunflower containing 35% DCP the framer would need to prepare.(5mks show your working)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    • Apiculture- rearing of bees in bee hive
    • Aquaculture – rearing of fish in fish ponds       (mark as a whole 1mk)
  2.  
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Nomadic pastoralism
    • Organic farming
    • Agroforestry
    • Mixed farming (4*1/2= 2mks)
  3.  
    • Paying workers in the farm
    • Buying farm inputs e.g. seeds
    • Starting up small businesses
    • Improving living standards
    • Some income may be taxed by government to fund developmental projects         (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  4.  
    • Level of education and technology
    • Health (HIV and AIDS and health in general
    • Economy
    • Government policy
    • Transport and communication
    • Cultural practices and religious believes
    • Market forces                                                                             (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  5.  
    • To kill disease causing microorganismse.g. cholera
    • To remove chemical impurities e.g. excess fluoride
    • To remove smells and bad taste
    • To remove sediments of solids e.g. sand, sticks               (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  6.  
    • Sickle – for cutting back pyrethrum stalks, harvesting rice and other grasses
    • Milk churn - holding milk in transit and storage
    • Elastrator – expanding the rubber ring during castration
    • Drenching gun – administering liquid drugs through the mouth of an animal (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  7.  
    • Leave the tool in a safe place after use
    • Use the correct tool for the correct job
    • Proper handling of tool to avoid damage of the tool and injury to the user
    • Proper maintenance of tool to keep it in good working conditions
    • Store tools properly in cabinets or tool racks to avoid wear and tear or injuries during working
    • Maintain safe working environment by installing fire extinguishers and first aid kits to reduce accidents e.g. in welding           (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  8.  
    • Destroys soil structure
    • Kills important soil micro organisms
    • Causes evaporation of the available moisture
    • Leaves the land bare and exposed to agents of soil erosion
    • Fire may spread to unintended crops
    • Causes accumulation of potash which changes soil PH
    • Causes loss of nutrients through volatilisation     (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  9.  
    • Use of herbicides
    • Mulching
      Cover cropping
    • Uprooting or slashing weeds
    • Restricting cultivation where seeds are to be planted
    • Timing cultivation e.g. late weeding in cotton produces clan seedbed for sowing finger millet           (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  10.  
    • Springs
    • Wells
    • Boreholes   (2*1/2 = 1mk)
  11.  
    • Good depth
    • Well drained
    • Good water holding capacity
    • Has adequate nutrient supply
    • Has correct PH
    • Free from excessive infestation of soil borne pest and diseases   (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  12.  
    • British alpine
    • Saanen
    • Toggenburg
    • Jamnapari
    • Anglo – Nubian     (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  13.  
    • Muster roll
    • Labour utilisation analysis     (2*1/2 = 1mk)
  14.  
    • Leaf chlorosis
    • Stunted growth
    • Leaves turn brown and fall off prematurely
    • Production of anthocyanin (purple colour) e.g. in tomatoes (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  15.  
    • Suckers
    • Crown
    • Slips   (2*1/2 = 1mk)
  16.  
    • Type of soil
    • Near a water source
    • Topography
    • Previous cropping
    • Security
    • Well sheltered place   (4*1/2 = 2mks)
  17.  
    • Should be well ventilated
    • Rat or vermin proof
    • Easy to load and off load
    • Pest – free
    • Should have leak proof roof
    • Well secured to minimise thefts
    • Should provide cool conditions to prevent cracking of grains       (4*1/2 = 2mks)

SECTION B

  1.  
    •  
      • calcium
      • Nitrogen
      • Phosphorus
      • Carbon
      • Sulphur
      • Magnesium     (4*1/2 = 2mks)
    •  
      • Copper
      • Molybdenum
      • Zinc
      • Iron         (2*1/2 = 1mk)
    •  
      • Nitrogen
      • Phosphorus   (2*1/2 = 1mk)
    •  
      • Calcium
      • Sulphur
      • Magnesium   (2*1/2= 1mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      • Soil profile     (1mk)
    2.  
      • A Topsoil
      • B Sub soil
      • C Substratum /weathered rocks
      • D Parent rock material           (4*1/2=2mks)
    3.  
      • Helps farmer to choose the appropriate crop to grow
      • Helps to determine depth of ploughing
      • Helps farmer to determine the kind of foundations for farm structures (2*1mk=2mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      • Aerial layering/ marcotting                   (1mk)
    2.  
      • Select healthy woody branch
      • Remove the bark and cambial layer from a section of the branch/ring back the branch
      • Heap moist rooting medium around the section
      • Wrap the rooting medium with polythene sheet       (2mks)
    3.  
      • Used to obtain large planting materials
      • Used to propagate plants whose branches cannot bend to the ground (2mks)
  4.  
    1.  
      • Tsetse fly     (1mk)
    2.  
      • Transmits Trypanasomiasis/ nagana (1mk)
    3.  
      • Bush clearing to destroy breeding site
      • Spraying insecticide to kill them
      • Trapping and killing
      • Sterilizing male flies to impair breeding
      • Use impregnate nets to kill them
      • Creating a buffer zone between game reserves and livestock areas to isolate them (1*3=3mks)

SECTION C

  1.  
    • Importance of vegetables to a farmer
      • Source of income when sold by farmer
      • Source of food for consumption by the farmer
      • Provides animals with vitamins and minerals e.g. calcium for proper growth and animals performance
      • Can be used to prepare organic manure
      • Vegetables not used for consumption can be fed to livestock   (1*5=5mks)
    •  
      1. Onion varieties
        • Red creole
        • White creole
        • Tropicana hybrid     (2*1/2mk =1mk)
      2. Ecological requirements
        • Altitude – 2100 meters above sea level
        • Soil should be deep, well drained fertile soil
        • PH slightly acidic (6.0 – 7.0)
        • Rainfall – 1000 mm / year. Rainfall should be well distributed throughout the growing period. Dry spell is required during ripening of the bulbs (any three points well explained 3mks)
      3. Land preparation
        • Prepare land during the dry spell
        • Clear vegetation and remove all the weeds
        • Prepare seedbed to a fine tilt
        • Apply farmyard manure 40 -50 tonnes / ha     (3mks)
      4. Field management
        • Thinning – done to achieve distance of 8cm between the plants when onion is directly planted in the seedbed
        • Weeding avoid compacting soil around the bulbs. Avoid damaging the shallow roots when weeding
        • Watering done during the dry spell to supply moisture to the crops
        • Topdressing apply Calcium Ammonium Nitrate fertilizer (CAN) 250 kg/ha three weeks after planting to hasten growth
        • Pest control – use suitable appropriate recommended insecticide to control onion-thrips
        • Disease control use suitable appropriate recommended fungicide to control purple blotch
          (Any four points well explain 4mks)
      5. Harvesting and marketing
        • Harvest the bulbs five months after planting
        • When the leaves start drying their tops should broken or bent at the neck.
        • Dig up the bulbs and dry them under shade
        • Turn the bulbs daily for even drying
        • Store the bulbs in slatted boxes
        • Grade the bulbs according to size and market them in net bags   (4mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Disease deviation from the normal functioning of organs or system which interrupts proper functioning of animal’s body (1mk)
      2. Health state in which all body organs and systems are considered normal and functioning normally (1mk)
    2.  
      • Age of the animal
      • Sex of the animal
      • Species of the animal
      • Breed of the animal
      • Colour of the animal
      • Physical injuries e.g. wounds
      • Weather condition e.g. cold predisposes calves to pneumonia
      • Congestion (4*1/2=2mks)
    3.  
      • It helps to reduce medication cost
      • Healthy animals grow faster hence reach maturity faster
      • Healthy animals have high productivity
      • Healthy animals will not spread disease to other animals or to human beings
      • Healthy animals produce quality products hence high marketability
      • Healthy animals have long productive life
      • Healthy animals give birth to healthy offspring (6mks)
    4.  
      • Isolation of sick animals
      • Imposition of quarantine
      • Slaughtering of affected animals
      • Proper feeding and nutrition
      • Proper breeding and selection
      • Proper housing and hygiene
      • Use of antiseptics and disinfectants to enhance hygiene in livestock houses and surroundings
      • Prophylactic measures and treatment which include
        1. Use of prophylactic drugs
        2. Regular vaccination
        3. Control of vectors
        4. Treatment of sick animals (5mk)
    5.  
      • They suck blood causing anaemia
      • They cause irritation through their bites
      • They obstruct internal organs
      • They transmit diseases
      • They cause injuries to the tissues and organs through their bites
      • They deprive the host animal of food   (5mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      • Ensures maximum utilisation of nutrients when heavy nutrient feeders are alternated with light nutrient feeders
      • Improves soil structure when grass ley is included in the programme
      • Improves soil structure when legume crop is included in the programme
      • Controls soil erosion by alternating crops planted in rows with cover crops
      • Controls weeds e.g.Striga spp which is specific to grass family crops
      • Controls soil borne pests and disease build up(Award 1mk for stating and 1mk for explaining 5*2=10mks)
    2.  
      • Mulching
      • Cover cropping
      • Crop rotation
      • Double digging
      • Biological pest control
      • Observing close season   (1*5mks)

    3. Agricultural formulae                
      1. Maize → 15/25 x 200= 120 kg.   (1mk)
      2. Sunflower parts → 10/25 x 200= 80 kg     (1mk)

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