- Give two types of open cast mining. (2marks)
- State three ways in which opencast mining affects the environment. (3marks)
- What is the relationship between Geography and Mathematics? (2marks)
- State four reasons why it is important to study Geography. (4marks)
- Name the two layers of discontinuity that are part of the interior structure of the earth. (2marks)
- State three characteristics of the outer core in the interior structure of the earth. (3marks)
- Name two forms of precipitation that commonly occur in Kenya. (2marks)
- What is a Stevenson’ Screen? (2marks)
- Give four importance of weather forecasting (4marks)
- Name four layers of the atmosphere (4marks)
- Differentiate between weather and climate. (2marks)
- Use the table below showing the number of tourists who visited Kenya between year
- Using a scale of 1cm to represent 20,000 tourists, draw a compound bar graph to represent this data. Use the graph paper provided. (8marks)
- What is the number of tourists who visited Kenya in the year 2011. (2marks)
- State three advantages of the technique used in (a) above (3marks)
- Differentiate between forest and forestry (2marks)
- Name three tropical hardwood trees found in Kenya (3marks)
- Explain how the following factors influence the distribution of natural forests
- Temperature. (2marks)
- Altitude. (2marks)
- Human activities. (2marks)
- Compare softwood forests in Kenya and Canada under the following sub headings:
- Tree species. (2marks)
- Period of harvesting. (2marks)
- Marketing of forest products. (2marks)
- State four measures that have been taken to manage forests in Kenya (4marks)
- What is a photograph? (2marks)
- Differentiate between the following:
- Aerial and ground photographs. (2marks)
- Aerial oblique and ground oblique photographs (2marks)
- Describe the three types of Ground photographs (6marks)
- State four characteristics of ground general view photographs. (4marks)
- hill slope boring
- it leads to soil erosion
- it leaves behind ugly craters/dereliction
- causes air and water pollution
- leads to destruction of biodiversity/plants and animals
- Dumped rocks wastes litters the environment
- craters left behind accumulate with water to form breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
- mathematical techniques are used in drawing graphs and pie charts and mathematical formulae are used in geography to calculate distances,areas,population density .
- facilitates good relationship among nations by studying geography of other regions of the world
- it is a career subject in that it enables one to go for advanced studies in specialized fields
- helps in conservation of environment
- promotion of industry
- helps in managing time
- mohorovicic discontinuity
- gutenberg discontinuity
- composed of very dense rocks
- made up of nickel and iron
- tempererature are up 3700c
- mist and fog
- stevenson screen-a white wooden box mounted on 4 legs used to house thermometers and hygrometerers.
- helps to be aware of natural calamities related to weather before they occur so as totake precautionary measures
- guiding tourists on when to visit national parts.
- helps farmers to plan their activities such as planting ,harvesting
- helps sporting people to plan their training and competition schedules.
- helps fishing commuties to plan their activities
- weather-is daily atmospheric conditions of a particular place at a specific time over a short period of time while climate is average weather conditions of a given place over a long period of time (30-35)
- Difference between forest and forestry.
Forest refers to a group of trees growing together and usually covering a large tract of land.
Forestry is the science of cultivating forests. 1 x 2 = (2 mks)
- Three tropical hardwoods trees in Kenya:-
- Meru oak - Elgon olive
- Elgon teak - Camphor
- Mvuti - Mangrove 1 x 3 = (3 mks)
- Difference between forest and forestry.
- How the following factors influence the distribution of natural forests:-
- Many trees prefer temperatures between 10ºC and 35ºC.
- Cold climates have lower number of trees species that are capable of surving.
- In areas with temperatures above 21oC, tropical rainforest dominates.
- Where temperatures are low with a shore rainy season, coniferous trees are dominant. Any 1 x 2 = (2 mks)
- Tree growth is limited to altitude below 3 500m.
- Types of trees growing at different heights vary. At lower levels of tropical mountains, there are tropical rainforests which give way to coniferous forests and then bamboo forests.
- The forest zone is found at the mid altitude because it is wetter.(2mks)
- Influence of human activities on forest distribution.
- People clear forests for fuel, to farm, mine, settle, construct road and for recreation activities.
- Chemical used in farming eliminate certain trees that are already established.
- Uses of fossils fuels and nuclear energy have polluted the environment.(2 mks)
- In Kenya exploitation is less mechanized while in Canada lumbering is highly mechanized.
- In Kenya trees do not occur in pure stands while in Canada trees occur in pure stands.
- In Kenya the forests have thick undergrowth while in Canada forests have little undergrowth.
- In Kenya high temperatures ensure a faster rate of maturity of trees (20 – 30) years while in Canada low temperatures make trees to mature slowly (40 – 70) years.
- In Kenya the tree species are heavy, bucky and difficult to exploit, while in Canada tree species are light and easy to exploit. 2 x 3 = (6 mks)
- Measure that have been taken to manage forests in Kenya.
- Carrying out public campaigns in the mass media on the importance of forests.
- Encouraging the use of alternative sources of fuel in order to reduce overdependent on wood fuel.
- Forest guards and forest offices have been employed to guard against destruction of forests.
- Facilities like roads, machinery, tractors and mills are being provided in order to improve forest management.
- Wastes from forest products are being recycled in order to reduce wastage.
- Training institutions dealing with forestry have been established eg. London Forestry Training College and Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) at Muguga.
- Research is being carried out on the suitability of soils and the effects of pest and diseases on forests.
- Forests reserves ie. Aberdares and Mau forest have been created.
- The practice of agroforestry is being encouraged in Kenya.
- Laws to govern the management of forests in Kenya have been emacted eg. Forest and water act. 2 x 4 = (8 mks)