English Questions and Answers - Form 2 Term 2 Opener Exams 2022

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    Write a letter to a company of your choice requesting to be granted a chance to conduct community service there.
    Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with the most appropriate word.
    Gambling addiction is (1) ____________ the rise in Kenya leaving young people bankrupt and suicidal. Kenya is the third –largest gambling market in (2) _________________ behind South Africa and Nigeria. (3) ____________________ losing Ksh. 48,000 on bad bets in just a few hours, Jackson Kimani was thinking of (4) _________________ suicide.
    The 26-year-old is a salaried employee (5) __________________works at a mobile money agency in Nairobi. Kimani took money from his shop to put a stake on (6) ________________number of football games (7) ___________ consecutively lost his bets. It was Saturday afternoon and Kimani says he was fortunate his manager didn’t come in to check the balance.
    On Sunday, he took (8) ____________________chance and bet Kshs. 12000 on a number of games in European (9) _________________. If he didn’t recover whatever he took, he thought he would have to commit suicide (10)__________________he knew the police would swiftly catch him.
    Quality milk production begins with feeding your dairy animals good fodder to using clean milking equipment. However, while many farmers adhere to the two factors for maximum profit, they forget about offering proper care to the cow’s teats. 
    Teat management remains a key factor in maintaining the well-being of any dairy animal as it ensures the teats are disease-free. As such, teats must be kept clean and healthy to reduce risks of infection and milk contamination. Well managed teats are free of mud, dung and damaged tissues or sores. Teats can be infected due to poor handling during milking, particularly when using hands, using faulty milking machines, injuries, muddy and wet surroundings, over exposure to direct sunlight causing sunburn and viral and bacterial attacks.
    Proper cleaning involves washing every teat with water and drying using paper towels, mainly before and after milking. Low pressure running or flowing water and use of disposable towels provide the most efficient ways to effective clean the teats. The disposable towels minimize the risk of transferring infections to other teats supposing one is infected. Dry, clean piece of cotton cloth / towel can also be used, but they’re not encouraged due to hygiene reasons. If they are the only option, then strictly use one piece per animal, wash and rinse with an effective disinfectant after every milking exercise.
    Before milking, teats should be wiped completely dry to reduce chances of mastitis and milk contamination. In machine milking, dry teats will hold better onto the teat cups resulting to efficient milking and less damage. Where hand milking is done, the milker’s nails should be short to reduce the chances of causing cuts on the teats and hands should be thoroughly washed and disinfected. As part of exercise, massage the teat and udder to stimulate milk let-down reflex resulting in faster flow of milk. After milking, apply milking salve then dip each teat in dip-cup to help control bacterial infections like mastitis. Sometimes the teats can be coated with mud or dung, in this case, use running water as you rub them gently until the dirt comes off. Then dry with towel.
    While machine milking is ‘digital’, efficient and time saving, it might not turn out positive in the end if not properly employed. If any of your milking cows experience blueing or swelling of the teat ends, horizontal rings along the teats, teat ends pulling out or teat orifice damage, check out your machine. These may be due to defective machine pulsation, persistent excessive vacuum or incompatible liner and shell combinations. Emerging blackspots on the teats may be due to over-milking or faulty pulsation that makes the teat’s orifice ulcerated. Cracked teats call for application of milking salve that contains lanolin and some healing ingredients. 
    A cow experiencing pain on teats during milking is a sign of a problem that should be monitored and the issue resolved immediately. Open wounds or cracks along the teats can be treated using pain relieving ointments. Iodine based sprays and ointments are the most effective. Simple bandaging may be required in cases where the cuts are severe but with the help of a qualified veterinarian. During such treatments, always wear gloves and adhere to the expiry dates of drugs. Expired drugs or ointments only worsen the conditions.
    If you are to minimize damage on teats, then provide adequate sleeping space with soft bedding material. Beddings that are wet or soiled promote bacterial build up thus expose the animal to infections. Clipping or removing by shaving the excess hair around the udder and close to the teats also helps to reduce the harboring of infectious agents and excess dirt on the teats. The animal’s tail switch should also be trimmed regularly to reduce soiling the teats.
    Ensure your milking machine is fully serviced more than once a year for effective functioning and removal or hidden dirt. Prompt replacement of defective parts is also recommended as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Also set right the correct working condition, like the vacuum level. Good drainage system in the animal unit is necessary to reduce accumulation of mud. Visual assessment of teats frequently also helps to quickly detect problems.
    If teats are well managed, then you will not have a problem with the quality of your milk. This goes hand in hand with thorough cleaning and disinfection of all the milking apparatus. There is also reduced chance of mastitis and teats damage, translating to less issues related to poor animal health. 
    When teats have problems it means more time is spent on washing them and milking the cow. Buying veterinary drugs or seeking the support of a veterinarian further add up on medical costs. There are also increased chances of calf sickness by suckling from infected teats. High labor input and reduced animal longevity due to treat diseases definitely eat into farmer’s profit.
    1. What are the two factors many farmers adhere to for maximum production? (2 mks)
    2. In note form, state how teats can be infected. (4 mks)
    3. Why do you think that the teats must be well dried before milking? (2 mks)
    4. According to the passage, what may cause injury to teats? (2 mks)
    5. Mention three things the farmer should do to minimize damage on teats. (3 mks)
    6. State the disadvantages associate with teat problems. (4 mks)
    7. “Before milking, teats should be wiped completely dry to reduce chances of mastitis and milk contamination.” Rewrite adding a question tag. (1 mks)
    8. Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage. (2 mks)
      • orifice
      • disinfected
    Read the following poem and answer the questions that follow.
    Be Ware
    If you don’t want a voice
    With a bull-frog croak,
    Take my advice:
    Don’t start to smoke
    If you don’t want bad breath
    Like a dirty joke,
    Take my advice:
    Don’t start to smoke
    If you don’t want lungs
    Filled with sooty coke
    Take my advice:
    Don’t start to smoke.
    If you don’t want a heart
    Renewing one you broke,
    Take my advice:
    Don’t start to smoke.
    By John Kitching
    1. Identify the rhyme scheme and comment about it. (1mark)
    2. Identify any two pairs of rhyming words in the poem. (2marks)
    3. Other than rhyme, which other sound pattern is evident in the poem. (2marks)
    4. Give a word that is pronounced the same as the following. (2 marks)
      1. Whale
      2. You
    5. Identify the silent letter in each of the following words (3 marks)
      1. Mutton
      2. Sachet
      3. Sword
  5. GRAMMAR (10mks)
    1. Choose the correct alternative from those given in brackets to fill in the gaps (3mks)
      1. _____________________the competitors had prepared well. (Neither of/ None of)
      2. They realized that____________________ the donated money was received (none of/little of)
      3. Please help me with ___________________the exercise because neither is easy. (both of / all of)
    2. Correct the following sentences where necessary. (4mks)
      1. We stayed at the house of my aunt.
      2. The favourite colour of Bosire is blue.
      3. The house’s door was removed.
      4. We did not see the films beginning.
    3. Fill in the gaps using the adjectives given in bracket in the right order. (3mks)
      1. Mine is the _______________________ hand bag. (blue, leather, small)
      2. There is a _________________________________ rug in the room. (soft, wonderful, woollen)
      3. I have a ________________________________ clock. (useful, alarm, digital)


    1. on
    2. Africa
    3. After
    4. committing
    5. who
    6. a
    7. but
    8. another
    9. leagues
    10. since/because
      • Feeding your dairy animals good fodder
      • Using clean equipments
      1. Poor handling during milking
      2. Using faulty milking machines
      3. Injuries
      4. Muddy and wet surroundings
      5. Over exposure to direct sunlight
      6. Viral and bacterial attacks
      1. To reduce chances of mastitis and milk contamination
      2. Dry teats will hold better onto feed cups resulting to efficient milking and less damage
    4. Injury to the teats may be casued by long nails and over milking or faulty pulsation that makes the teats orafice ulcerated
    5. The farmers should:
      • Keep the milker's nails short
      • Clip or remove excess hair around the udder by shaving
      • Ensure your milking machine is fully serviced more than once a year
      • Set right the correct working condition, like vaccuum
      • Employ appropriate use of milking machines
      • Provide adequate sleeping space with bedding material
      • More time is required for washing them and milking the cow
      • Medical costs rise sinceyou will require a veterinarian
      • There are increased chances of calf sickness by suckling from infected teats
      • Farmers' profit margin is reduced due to high labour inout and reduced animal longevity due to teat diseases
    7. Before milking, teats should be wiped completely dry to reduce the chances of mastitis and milk contamination, isn't it?
      1. Teat opening/ small hole through which milk leaves the udder
      2. Sprayed to kill any bacteria in the milking machine
      1. abab cbab dbab ebab 
        the poem hasa regular rhyme scheme
      2. Voice/advice
      3. Alliteration - start to smoke
      1. wail
      2. ewe
      1. o
      2. t
      3. w
      1. None of
      2. Little of
      3. Both of
      1. We stayed at my aunt's house
      2. Bosire's favourite colour is blue
      3. We did not see the beginning of the film
      1. Small, blue, leather
      2. Wonderful, soft, woollen
      3. Useful, digital, alarm

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