History Questions and Answers - Form 2 End Term 2 Exams 2022

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A
  1. Identify  two ways on how archaeologist discover historical sites (2mks)
  2. Which type of government do we have in Kenya (1mk)
  3. Identify two branches of the study of history and government (2mks)
  4. Give two sub-species of Homo sapiens (2mks)
  5. State two methods used by the early man to find food during the stone age period (2mks)
  6. State two theories explaining the origin of agriculture (2mks)
  7. Define the term Agrarian Revolution (1mk)
  8. Identify the Main Source of industrial energy in Europe from mid-20th Century   (1 mark)
  9. Which country pioneered industrial revolution in Europe    (1mk)
  10. Identify the major contribution of Edward Jenner to the field of science   (1 Mrk)
  11. Identify two uses of Bronze in Ancient Africa. (2 mks)
  12. Give one invention that was made by Isaac Newton. (1mk)
  13. State TWO factors that led to the development of Kilwa into a town (2 marks)
  14. List factors that favoured the development of Athens  (2mks)
  15. Name one important activity associated with the city of Athens (1 Mrk )
  16. Give two functions of Buganda traditional parliament..  (2marks)
  17. Give THREE economic factors which contributed to the growth of Asante kingdom in the  Pre-colonial period. (3 marks)
  18. Name two early sources of energy.   ( 2 marks) 
SECTION B (40 MARKS)
(Answer all the questions)
  1.                          
    1. State four characteristics of the local trade (4mks)
    2. Explain three factors that led the development of Trans-Atlantic Trade (6 mks)
  2.                        
    1. Give five ways in which the discovery of iron technology affected the lives of African Communities during the pre-colonial period  (5mks)
    2. Mention  five factors which contributed to industrialization of Germany in the  nineteenth Century ( 5 marks)
  3.                          
    1. State Four functions of ancient city of Cairo. (4mks)
    2. Explain the factors which contributed to emergence of urban centres in pre-colonial    Africa       (6 mks)
  4.                                
    1. Explain the factors for the rise and growth of the Buganda kingdom (5marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Shona in the pre-colonial period     (5 marks) 

MARKING SCHEME                                

  1. Identify two ways on how archaeologist discover historical sites (2mks)
    • Look for areas where faulting or erosion has taken place exposing some remains
    • Find on the surface a small part of an early settlement
    •  During cultivation and building and construction workers may accidentally expose some ancient objects.
    • Digging or excavation of the site
    • Study and analysis of the artifacts and fossils.
  2. Which type of government do we have in Kenya (1mk)
    • Democratic government
  3. Identify two branches of the study of history and government (2mks)
    • Political history
    • Economic history
    • Social history
  4. Give two sub-species of Homo sapiens (2mks)
    • Rhodesian man
    • Chro- magnon
    • Neanderthal man
  5. State two methods used by the early man to find food during the stone age period (2mks)
    • Hunting and gathering
    • Agriculture in the new stone age
  6. State two theories explaining the origin of agriculture (2mks)
    • One area theory
    • Diffusion theory
  7. Define the term Agrarian Revolution (1mk)
    • Radical changes in the field of agriculture.
  8. Identify the Main Source of industrial energy in Europe from mid-20th Century (1 mark)
    • COAL
  9. Which country pioneered industrial revolution in Europe (1mk)
    • BRITAIN
  10. Identify the major contribution of Edward Jenner to the field of science (1 Mrk)
    • vaccine for small pox
  11. Identify two uses of Bronze in Ancient Africa. (2 mks)
    • Used for making weapons such as shields, arrowheads, swords and daggers. Swords from bronze were stronger than those made from copper.
    • Making sculptures and decorations. In Benin it was used to make objects used in religious ceremonies, masks and the decoration of the king’s palace. It was used for plaque for kings and figurines.
    • It was used in making of containers, knives, pans and vases
    • It was a store of wealth i.e. in Benin kings measured their wealth in terms of bronze
    • It was an item of trade in Benin.
  12. Give one invention that was made by Isaac Newton. (1mk)
    • LAWS OF GRAVITY
  13. State TWO factors that led to the development of Kilwa into a town (2 marks)
    • Exemplary leadership provided by the sultan i.e. they kept enemies off and forced her neighbors to pay tribute.
    • Her strategic position enabled her to attract merchants who stopped to replenish their stock of water, food and other items
    • She had taken the control of the gold trade
    • She had gleaning buildings such as the Great mosque and palace which made it be referred to as the jewel of zenj.
  14. List factors that favoured the development of Athens (2mks)
    • Trade and commerce. The area was poor agriculturally therefore they relied on trade to obtain food. They produced goods such as olive oil, wine and wool
    • Athens was strategically placed. It was surrounded by water, valleys and highlands therefore could not be attacked by an enemy.
    • Her port was located about six kilometers from the city therefore facilitating the expansion of the town.
  15. Name one important activity associated with the city of Athens (1 Mrk )
    • Education. It was a city of scholars e.g Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid.
  16. Give two functions of Buganda traditional parliament.. (2marks)
    • Advising the Kabaka mainly on matters affecting the country
    • They represented the people’s concerns and needs to the Kabaka
    • Were the final court of appeal i.e. assisted in settling disputes
    • They directed the collection of taxes in the kingdom and planned the expenditure.
    • They helped the Kabaka in administration
    • They formulated laws
  17. Give THREE economic factors which contributed to the growth of Asante kingdom in the Pre-colonial period. (3 marks)
    • Trading activities i.e. trade in gold
    • Agricultural activities e.g. cultivation of kola nuts
    • Mining of gold.
    • Hunting i.e obtained ivory from forest kingdoms.
    • Taxes collected from merchants
    • Revenue collected from the provincial states (Vassal states)
  18. Name two early sources of energy. ( 2 marks)
    • Wood
    • Wind
    • Water
  19.                                    
    1. State four characteristics of the local trade (4mks)
      • It covers a limited area
      • The number of traders and items are few
      • It was conducted in specific areas e.g. near a river
      • It was conducted on specific days
      • The producers sold their goods directly
      • A chief or a king controlled the trade
      • Local trade expanded to boost regional trade
    2. Explain three factors that led the development of Trans-Atlantic Trade (6 mks)
      • Increased demand for goods both in West Africa, Europe and America
      • Accessibility of West African coast through the ocean – ships and deep harbor
      • Protection given to traders by European and local chiefs.
      • War in North Africa made people to divert their interest in trade to the Europeans along the coast of West Africa.
      • Establishment of trading forts along the coast of West Africa.
      • Development of industries in Europe led to the development of plantations in America that needed slave labour.
      • Europeans had links with West Africa coast for a long time.
      • Availability of trade goods.
      • Enterprising merchants who were willing to invest in trade.
  20.                    
    1. Give five ways in which the discovery of iron technology affected the lives of African Communities during the pre-colonial period (5mks)
      • Use of farm tools such as hoes, axes improved agriculture. Large forests were cleared and more land brought under cultivation. The result was increased food production
      • More food led to population increase which further led to migration
      • It led to specialization i.e. division of labour among the people. There were those who took part in weaving, pottery cloth making and smelting
      • It increased warfare due to availability of weapons such as spears, and arrows. It led to the rise of powerful states such as ancient empire of Ghana and the Rozwi in Central Africa, Nubia, Kush and Buganda.
      • Led to migration since communities were better armed and could easily protect themselves from their enemies.
      • Trade developed between communities as demand for iron ore and tools increased.
      • It led to the rise of Urban centres e.g. Meroe in Sudan, Cairo, Tunis and Axum.
      • Widespread use of iron led to the decline of the use of other metals such as copper and bronze.
      • The possession of iron weapons made it possible for communities to improve their system of defense.
    2. Mention five factors which contributed to industrialization of Germany in the nineteenth Century ( 5 marks)
      • The establishment of the customs union (Zollvereign). This was a customs union which linked the Germany states together and removed all trade barriers leading to free trade. This also eased transportation of goods and communication.
      • She had her own sources of energy e.g. coal from the Rhinelands. She also developed H.E.P and atomic energy too.
      • She had her own many natural resources e.g. water and minerals such as coal, oil, copper and iron ore fromFrance’s Alsace and Lorraine, which she defeated in the 1870-71 war.
      • Availability of labour from the large population. They were willing to work. Their system of education also trained people in technical skills. Immigrants from Turkey also provided cheap labour.
      • She had ready internal and external market for her industrial products.This was because she made goods of high quality e.g. some of the goods were BMW, MercedesBenz and Volkswagen vehicles.
      • She had good transport and communication network. This included water, air, roads transport. She also had good means of communication e.g. telephones and fax that made transactions easier.
      • The long period of political stability after her unification especially during the reign of Otto Von Bismark. This assured the investor of security, which boosted industrialization.
      • Availability of finance for industrial growth. Germans got technical assistance from Britain after the 2nd World War. USA used theMarshall plan to rebuild West Germany by giving funds.
      • Hardworking and enterprising nature of the Krupp Meyer Thyseenwho promoted the development of industries in steel. Germans were also willing to invest in new areas.
      • The development of international trade with other countries gave Germany access to raw materials and capital.
  21.                  
    1. State Four functions of ancient city of Cairo. (4mks)
      • It serves as a national capital and a political centre of the Arab world.
      • It serves as a transport and communication centre for North Africa and the Middle East
      • Cairo is a recreational centre i.e. it has many recreational facilities e.g. stadium and entertainment Halls.
      • She has been a historical centre and a haven of Egyptian civilization e.g. It attracts 15million tourists each year.
      • Cairo serves as an industrial centre e.g. it has textile, vehicle and communication equipment and assembly plants.
    2. Explain the factors which contributed to emergence of urban centres in pre-colonial Africa (6 mks)
      • Trade
      • Better means of transport and communication
      • Security/defense
      • Administrative reasons
      • Railway terminus
      • Religious centres
      • Existence of minerals
  22.                          
    1. Explain the factors for the rise and growth of the Buganda kingdom (5marks)
      • Good strong and able rulers who were able to unite their people. This included Junju, Suna and KabakaMutesa I, Kibugwe, Katerregga and Mutebi. Katerregga is the one who doubled the size of Buganda by extending into Bunyoro-Kitara.
      • The Kingdom was small and compact therefore the Kabakas were able to hold it together.
      • Geographical positioning. She lay next to Lake Victoria which gave her good means of internal communication. This also gave her a natural defense.
      • Her earlier contact with the Waswahili and Arab traders made her acquire plates, cups, saucers and glassware from trade. She also acquired arms and ammunition which she used against her enemies.
      • She enjoyed a good climate with ample rainfall, for the growth of bananas. She also had fertile soils.
      • She enjoyed good security and therefore concentrated on political organization
      • The existence of a strong army which was loyal to the king, the Kabaka. He even possessed a special royal navy that guarded over Lake Victoria.
      • The Ganda traditions that required women to do farming, men were involved in politics, carpentry, war, bark cloth making and smithing.
      • Buganda acquired a lot of wealth from the areas that she conquered e.g. Buddu, Kyagwe and Busoga. She got ivory, slaves, livestock and iron ore. Iron enabled her boost her military strength.
      • The centralized government system enhanced her growth. Buganda was led by a king called Kabaka. The position of the Kabaka was hereditary.
    2. Describe the social organization of the Shona in the pre-colonial period (5 marks)
      • Their religion was based on the Mwari cult. Mwari was believed to be supreme creator and supreme being. Mwene Mutapa was regarded as a divine king. He was worshipped. When he was well, it was believed that the whole kingdom was well.
      • Priests from Rozwi clan led the people in worship of Mwari. Their powers included warding off diseases, epidemics, wars and rainmaking.
      • They believed in two kinds of spirits, Vadzimu, a family spirit and Mhondoro a clan spirit. They communicated through an intermediary Svikiro who was a depended family or clan member.
      • They had a national spirit called Chamiruka who settled clan disputes and also protected people against injustices in the government. Their kinship system was patrilineal (inheritance through the father).
      • They were divided into clans and clan names were coined from animals such as the monkey, leopard, elephant etc. It was therefore a taboo for them to consume a meal of such an animal
      • Polygamy was allowed and a man could marry many wives. This aimed at providing labour.
      • Marriage between related clans was discouraged.
      • They lived in stone houses this is evidenced with the ruins of Mapungubwe in Zimbabwe.

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