# Geography Questions and Answers - Form 2 Term 1 Opener Exams 2023

INSTRUCTIONS.
• Answer all questions in the spaces provided.
1. Name two main branches of Geography. (2mks)
2. State three ways in which a student benefits from learning geography. (3mks)
1.
1. Define the term solar system. (2mks)
2. Differentiate between meteors and meteorites. (2mks)
3. State four proofs that the earth is spherical. (4mks)
4. The diagram below represent the structure of the earth us it to answer questions. Name the layers marked E, F and G. (3mks)
2.
1. Give five elements of weather and the instrument that measuring them. (5mks)
2. What is weather forecasting? (2mks)
3. State three factors that limits weather forecasting. (3mks)
3.
1. Use the statistic in the provided table below, draw a simple line graph, using a vertical scale  of 1 cm to represent 5°C. (5mks)
 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Temp °C 29 29 30 28 27 26 26 26 26 27 28 29
2. State three advantages of simple line graph. (3mks)
4.
1. Differentiate between A map and a Picture. (2mks)
2. Outline five characteristics of a good sketch map. (5mks)
3. Convert the following representative fraction scale/ratio scale into statement scale.
1. 1:500,000 (2mks)
2. 1:10,000 (2mks)
5. Students of your school intend to carry out field study in a weather station.
1. State four ways the students would prepare for the fieldwork? (5mks)
2. List three methods that you would use to collect data. (3mks)
3. State three problems likely to encounter during field work. (3mks)
6.
1. Define the term minerals. (2mks)
2. State four characteristics of minerals. (4mks)
3. Name three types of minerals. (3mks)
7.
1. Define the term mining. (2mks)
2. Outline four ways in which minerals occur. (4mks)

## MARKING SCHEME

1.
1. Name two main branches of Geography. (2mks)
• Physical geography
• Human and economic geography
2. Outline three ways in which a student benefits from learning geography. (3mks)
• The learner is able to explain the origin of the earth and solar system.
• Subject helps a learner to develop skills of observation.
• Geography enables a learner to understand and appreciate different environment.
• Geography encourages international awareness.
• Study of fieldwork teaches on how to manage time properly.
2.
1. Define the term solar system. (2mks)
• Solar system is made up of the sun with eight planets orbiting around it.
2. Differentiate between meteors and meteorites. (2mks)
• Meteors are small heavenly bodies that enter the earth’s atmosphere from the universe at a very fast speed while meteorites are those meteors that pass through the atmosphere fail to burn up and land on the surface of the earth as large rocks.
3. Outline three proofs that the earth is spherical. (3mks)
• Circumnavigation – sailing or flying around the earth.
• Approaching ship on a port.
• The earth rotates from west to east.
• The shadow of the earth appears spherical.
• Since all planet are round when observed in a telescope then the earth must be round.
4. The diagram below represent the structure of the earth us it to answer questions.
Name the layers marked E, F and G. (3mks)
1. E – Crust
2. F – Mantel
3. G – Core
3.
1. Give five elements of weather and the instrument that measuring them. (5mks)
• Temperature - thermometer
• Humidity – hygrometer
• Precipitation (rainfall) – rain gauge
• Air pressure – Barometer
• Wind direction – wind vane
• Sunshine – sunshine recorder
• Cloud cover – fraction or % of the sky covered by cloud.
2. What is weather forecasting? (2mks)
• Weather forecasting is the predication of a weather situation of a given place within a short period of time.
3. List three factors that limits weather forecasting. (3mks)
• Inadequate personnel and lack of skills.
• Use of defective and obsolete equipments.
• Vagaries of nature such as storm and earthquake.
4.
1. Use the statistic in the provided table below, draw a simple line graph, use the scale 1 cm represent 5°C. (5mks)

2. State three advantages of simple line graph. (3mks)
• It is easy to construct and draw.
• It is easy to read and interpret.
• It enables easy comparisons of variation.
5.
1. Differentiate between A map and a Picture. (2mks)
• A map is a representation of a part of the earth or the whole earth on a flat surface like a sheet of paper while a picture is an image of an actual objects represented either in a drawing, painting or photograph.
2. Outline five characteristics of a good sketch map. (5mks)
• Must be neat and clear
• Have a title
• Must have a key
• Must be enclosed in a frame
• Have a compass direction
3. Convert the following representative fraction scale/ratio scale into statement scale.
1. 1:500,000 (2mks)
1km = 100,000cm
?     = 500,000 cm
= 1 x 500000
100000
= 5km
Statement scale will be 1cm rep 5km.
2. 1:10,000 (2mks)
If 1km = 100000cm
?    =  10000cm
= 1 x 10000
100000
= 0.1 km
Statement scale = 1cm rep 0.1km
6.
1. Students of your school intend to carry out field study in a weather station.
1. What are the ways the students were to prepare for the fieldwork? (5mks)
• Seek permission
• Conduct are connaisance
• Choose methods of data collection.
• Assemble necessary tools
• Divide the students in groups
• Prepare a working schedule.
2. State three primary/direct methods of data collection. (3mks)
• Questionnaire
• Interview
• Taking photographs
3. State three problems likely to encounter during field work. (3mks)
• Researcher may fall sick
• Responded may become uncooperative
• A language barrier
• Transport problem
• Environmental constrain
7.
1. Define the term minerals. (2mks)
• Minerals are inorganic homogenous substances occurring naturally at or below the earth surface.
2. Outline five characteristics of minerals. (5mks)
• Have different degree of hardness
• Minerals have varying number of elements.
• Some minerals have atoms arranged orderly manner to form crystals.
• Some minerals have different ability to allow light to pass through
• Some minerals have specific colour
• Minerals have different texture
• Minerals differ in streaks.
3. Name three types of minerals. (3mks)
• Metallic mineral
• Non-metallic minerals
• Energy mineral.
8.
1. Define mining. (2mks)
• Mining refers to all attempts to extract valuable minerals either solid, liquid or gas from the earth’s crust.
2. Outline the factors influencing the occurrence of minerals. (3mks)
• Veins and lodies
• Beds and seams
• Weathering products
• Alluvial or place deposits

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