History and Government Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 3 2021

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

FORM THREE

END TERM 3 

SECTION A

Answer all questions

  1. Give one reason why History is referred to as a science. (1mk)
  2. Outline two classes of Monarchial government (2mks)
  3. Give one advantage of Oral traditions as a source of information on History and government. (1mk)
  4. Outline two characteristics of the Homo habilis. (2mks)
  5. Give one disadvantage of hunting in groups during the Stone Age period. (1mk)
  6. Definition of Agrarian Revolution(1mk)
  7. One criteria that used to classify trade. (1mks)
  8. Name one type of sailing ship invented by the Portuguese. (1mk)
  9. Two reasons for space exploration.
  10. Identify two early forms of communication used by early man. (2mks)
  11. Two factors that facilitated the spread of Iron working in Africa. (2mks)
  12. Two political effects of the Industrial Revolution in Europe. (2mks)
  13. State two roles played by missionaries in the process of colonization. (2mks)
  14. First president of the FRELIMO Movement. (1mk)
  15. Name one method of administration used for to ruler Kenya during the colonial period. (1mks)
  16. Give one function of Athens as an urban center. .
  17. Name two Cities that developed along East African cost. (2mks).

SECTION B (45mks)

Answer any three questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Identify five advantages of the Enclosure System in Britain during the Agrarian Revolution. (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors that facilitated the Science Revolution in Europe. (10mks)
  2.    
    1. Outline five factors that facilitated the development of the Trans – Saharan trade. (3mks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the decline of the Trans – Atlantic trade. (10mks)
  3.    
    1. Give three reasons why attainment of independence by Mozambique tool long? (3mks)
    2. Factors for the emergence of African Nationalism in South Africa. (12mks)
  4.    
    1. Reasons why Lewanika collaborated . (3mks)
    2. Factors that enable Samori Toure to resist the French for long. (12mks)

 

 

SECTION C (30mks)

Answer any two questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. Name any three early urban center that developed in North Africa. (3mks)
    2. Explain the factors that facilitated the growth of Athens as an early urban center (12mks)
  2.    
    1. State five factors that led to the decline of Asante Kingdom. (5mks)
    2. How was the Asante Empire Organized politically in the 19thcentury. (10mks)
  3.    
    1. State five reasons why the British employed direct rule in Zimbabwe. (5mks)
    2. Explain the effects of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (10mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give one reason why History is referred to as a science.
    • Because it involves finding out things about the past of humankind
    • It is concerned with human actions in the past pursed by interpretation of evidence for the sake of human self knowledge.
  2. Outline two classes of Monarchial government
    • Absolute and Constitutional
  3. Give one advantage of Oral traditions as a source of information on History and government
    • It’s useful in societies where the art of writing is not fully developed.
    • It has helped to reconstruct the History of societies.
    • It can capture information that may not be captured by other sources
    • It complements other sources.
  4. Outline two characteristics of the Homo habilis.
    • The skeleton was smaller than that of the modern man I e 1.5 meters in height.
    • Had a bigger brain of between 500 -800 cm3
    • Was omnivorous
  5. Give one disadvantage of hunting in groups during the Stone Age period. (1mk)
    • Encourage laziness among others
    • Conflict may rise over sharing of the loot.
  6. Definition of Agrarian Revolution
    • The rapid change and improvements in the field of Agriculture.
  7. One criteria that used to classify trade. (1mks)
    • Volume of goods and services involved.
    • Distance
  8. Name one type of sailing ship invented by the Portuguese.
    • Caravel
    • Carracks
  9. Two reasons for space exploration.
    • It has facilitated scientific and technological development
    • It has enhanced new discoveries that have increased our understanding of the universe.
    • It has led to the production of advanced air force weapon systems that are dangerous to human.
    • Has promoted scientific research particularly in America and Europe.
  10. Identify two early forms of communication used by early man. (2mks)
    • Verbal communication language
    • Gestures
    • Signals
    • Fire and smoke signals
    • Drumbeats
    • Horn blowing
    • Screams and cries
    • Messengers
  11. Two factors that facilitated the spread of Iron working in Africa. (2mks)
    • Trade between Africa and Mesapotamia
    • Migration of the Bantu
    • Travelers and messengers also spread the art by giving or receiving gifts of iron
    • Iron working was spread through warfare as the Hittites invaded Egypt
    • The development of Agriculture greatly influenced the spread of Iron working as better tools for farming were made.
  12. Two political effects of the Industrial Revolution in Europe.
    • It facilitates the scramble and partition of Africa
    • The industrial revolution gave rise to Marxism.
  13. State two roles played by missionaries in the process of colonization. (2mks)
    • Pacified the Africans
    • Asking for protection from their home government thus establishment of protectorates.
  14. First president of the FRELIMO Movement.
    • Eduardo Mondlane Chirambo
  15. Name one method of administration used for to rule Kenya during colonial period
    • Direct rule
  16. Give one function of Athens as an urban center.
    • Religious center
    • Education center.
  17. Name two cities state that developed along East African coast.
    • Pemba
    • Malindi

SECTION B (45mks)

Answer any three Questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Identify five advantages of the Enclosure System in Britain during the Agrarian Revolution. (5mks)
      • It reduced the risk of crops and animals contracting diseases
      • It created large farms which allowed the use of the horse drill.
      • Large farms also allowed the use of crop rotation
      • Farm were easily managed
      • Farmers could specialize in crop or animal production.
      • They could use their title – deed to borrow money from financial institutions for improving their farms.
    2. Explain five factors that facilitated the Science Revolution in Europe. (10mks)
      • The need to find solutions to the problems of that time led to scientific research eg on how to drain water from coal mines, increased food production and treat the sick, among other problems.
      • The renaissance period in Europe encouraged scholars to carry out scientific research in different fields.
      • The discovery of the printing press led to the printing of books magazines and journals which spread scientific ideas from one continent to another.
      • Governments and wealthy individuals provided funds to support scientific research
      • Voyages of exploration led to discovery of new lands and encouraged interest in new areas of knowledge and research.
    1. Outline five factors that facilitated the development of the Trans – Saharan trade. (3mks)
      • Introduction of camel as a means of transport
      • High demand of goods from N.A and W.A
      • Existence of various trade commodities
      • Local trade existed in the Western Sudan belt and among the berber and Tuaregs earlier on.
      • Availabilities of capital
      • There existed a lot of cooperation security and maintained some water points.
      • Existence of pack animals such as camels
      • Emergence of strong kings by Mansa Musa.
      • Existence of well – established trade toutes.
      • The increased contacts between North Africa and Southern Europe as well as Middle East.
    2. Explain five reasons for the decline of the Trans – Atlantic trade. (10mks)
      • Industrialization – use of machine replaced human labour.
      • Leading economists argued that free labour is better than slaves labour
      • Philanthropists and missionaries campaigned against slave trade as it was seen to be human
      • Defeat of British in 1976 in America forced the British to look for raw materials from elsewhere. Africans were freed so as to produce raw materials.
      • Christian Revival movement viewed slave trade as the height of evil to society and campaigned against it.
      • Attainment of independence by U.S.A British had nowhere to take slaves.
      • French Revolution of 1789 – Emphasized the equality of human beings. This impacted negatively on slave trade.
  2.    
    1. Give three reasons why attainment of independence by Mozambique tool long? (3mks)
      • Causes of the challenge faced by FRELIMO by Africans experienced a severe shortage of basic needs
      • The church saw FRELIMO as a terrorist organization.
      • FRELIMO suffered from internal divisions due to voleological competition from rival guerrilla movements.
      • Assassination of FRELIMO leaders moundlane
      • Portuguese adopted cruel methods in fighting
      • South Africa and Portuguese combined forces to fight the Nationalist in Mozambique.
    2. Factors for the emergence of African Nationalism in South Africa. (12mks)
      • Loss of land
      • Ban on political parties and trade union
      • Suppression of individual right and liberties eg freedom of speech, associationPoor social facilities
      • Unequal distribution of wealth and job opportunities.
      • Africans were denied parliamentary representation.
      • The government controlled the movement of blacks by use of pass laws.
      • Black workers were forbidden to strike and were barred from holding skilled jobs.
    1. Reasons why Lewanika collaborated . (3mks
      • He hoped to preserve and maintain his position as a jking and the independence of his kingdom
      • Under the influence of a missionary, Franscois collard, Lewanika hoped to benefit from Christian by getting medicine and Western educstion.
      • He was encouraged by chief Khama of the Ngwato who had collaborated and benefited from the Europeans.
      • Lewanika hoped to benefit from British by getting European goods eg. Arms for territorial defense and preservation economic activities of his people.
      • Desired to get direct protection from the British against the Portuguese to the East, the Boers to the west, Germans to the North and the BSAC.
      • He feared the British military superioty after being informed by his men who had gone to South Africa.
      • He wanted the British to protect his kingdom from attacks by other African communities eg. Shona and Ndebele
    2. Factors that enable Samori Toure to resist the French for long. (12mks
      • Samori was a soldier with a well organized and equipped army.
      • Use of the scorched earth policy which delayed the advance of the French
      • He was a devoted mission who inspired the loyalty of his people and soldiers. The soldiers believed they were fighting a holy was (Jihad)
      • Use of guerilla warefare delayed the conquest
      • Samori knew the terrain well.
      • Used diplomacies signed peace treaties to buy time to prepare.
      • Had a military workshop that supplied him with weapons.
      • Unity within the army and among his people
      • Samori had a large army of 35,000men. They were well trained and disciplined.
      • Samori’s soldiers knew the French military tactics as many of them had defected from the French army.

SECTION C (30mks)

Answer any two questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. Name any three early urban center that developed in North Africa. (3mks)
      • Cairo
      • Meroe
      • Mephis
      • Axum
      • Alexandria
      • Carthage
    2. Explain the factors that facilitated the growth of Athens as an early urban center (12mks)
      • Commerce/ trade - where Athenians had to exchange wools and olive oil to obtain food since its soil was not suitable for farming
      • Strategic location – Athens had a port that facilitated the expansion of town and promoted trade.
      • Security -Athens was an island surrounded by water, valley and highlands hence easily defendable from enemies.
      • Education – it had academic and universities which attracted many people and led to rise of philosophers and scholars such as pythogoras, aristoties etc
      • Culture – Athens was a home of drama in ancient world. People went to theaters to watch plays.
      • Religion – it was a center of worship of godless Athena who had a large temple Parthenon .
      • Natural resources – Athenians had minerals such as gold and silver which the they traded on.
  2.    
    1. State five factor that led to the decline of Asante Kingdom. (5mks)
      • Constant wars with her neighbors which weekend the kingdom.
      • State around Kumasi struggled to regain their independence.
      • Several war with the British weekend the army.
      • Succession dispute after the death of Osei Tutu .
      • It was too large to be ruled effectively.
      • The abolition of slave trade which Asante depended on her revenue.
      • It was ruled by weak leaders.
    2. How was the Asante Empire Organized politically in the 19th century. (10mks)
      • The Asante kingdom had a centralized form of government headed by Asantehene.
      • Asante kingdom was divided into nucleus (Kumasi state). The state outside Kumasi (amatus) and the conquered states.
      • It had two levels of government. The metropolitan ruled directly by the king and the provinces which were conquered states.
      • Asante rulers ruled with help of confederacy council made of kings (Omanhere) of various states. Each state had its own black stool symbolizing their power.
      • National festival (Odwira festival) was had annual to strengthen National unity.
      • The kingdom had a strong standing army and a judicial system based in Kumasi.
      • The golden stool was a symbol of unity of the Asante.
  3.    
    1. State five reasons why the British employed direct rule in Zimbabwe. (5mks)
      • Zimbabwe had many European who adequate for effective administration.
      • The British wanted to take for control of the economy and to practice maxmum exploitation of resources eg mining
      • 1896 – 1897 Shona Ndebele (Chimurenga) war ended confidence in local administration.
      • The traditional system of Administration Indunas were destroyed during the process of conquest.
      • British wanted complete control over the Africans.
    2. Explain the effects of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (10mks)
      • Resulted to alienation of African land.
      • African traditional chiefs lost their authority
      • African were subjected
      • African traditional economy was undermined.
      • Africa culture was undermined with the introduction of Christianity
      • It resulted to introduction of forced labour among the Africans.
      • The introduction of pass laws curtailed African freedom of movement
      • There was racial discrimination in government economic and social matters
      • It led to rise of Africa nationalism

 

 


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