Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 Mid Term 1 Exams 2021

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    1. State three forces that influence the shape of the earth. (3 mks)
    2. State three proofs that show that the earth is spherical. (3 mks)
    1. Distinguish between a rock and a mineral. (2 mks)
    2. Give the metamorphic equivalent of the following rocks. (3 mks)
               Original rock                metamorphic
      1. Granite –
      2. Limestone –
      3. Shale –
    1. What is the longitude of a place M whose local time is 11.00 am. If the local time at longitude 30°E is 2.00 pm. (3 mks)
    2. State the effect of the International Date Line. (1 mk)
    1. What is Mass Wasting. (2 mks)
    2. State 3 factors which affects the rate of mass wasting. (3 mks)
    1. Define the term Vulcanicity. (2 mks)
    2. Name
      1. Two Intrusive landforms (2 mks)
      2. Two Extrusive landforms (2 mks)



  1. Study the map of Karatina (1:50,000) sheet 121/3 provided and answer the following questions.
      1. What type of map is Karatina? (1 mk)
      2. Convert the scale used in the map into a statement scale. (2 mks)
      3. Outline 3 marginal information which you can be able to identify from the map given. (3 mks)
      1. Citing evidence from the map, use list three social functions of the area covered by the map. (6 mks)
      2. Name 3 human made features from the map. (3 mks)
      1. Citing evidence from the map explain three economic activities of the area covered by the map.
      2. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map. (4 mks)
      3. Give two types of vegetation found in the area covered by the map. (2 mks)
      1. Name three types of faults. (3 mks)
      2. Apart from compressional force explain two other processes that may cause faulting.     (4 mks)
    2. With aid of diagrams, describe how compressional forces may have lead to the formation of the Great Rift Valley. (8 mks)
    3. Explain five ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities. (10 mks)
  3. The table below shows Rainfall and Temperature figures of a station in North America.
     Month   J   F   M   A   M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D 
     Rainfall in mm  15   8  8  13   31   51   51   51   28   25   18   20 
     Temp (°C)  −22   −19   −12   −1   4  10  11  11   5  −11   −18   −20 

    1. On the graph paper provided, draw a bar graph to represent the rainfall figures. (Use a vertical scale of 1cm represent 10 mm) (5 mks)
    2. Give four characteristics of a bar graph you have drawn. (4 mks)
      1. Calculate the mean of temperature for the station. Show your working. (2 mks)
      2. State five characteristics of the climate experienced in the station. (5 mks)
    4. You intend to carry out a field study on vegetation around the station with the above climate.
      1. State 3 methods you would use to collect the data. (3 mks)
      2. Highlight 3 methods you are likely to use to record the data. (2 mks)
      3. State 3 problems you are likely to face during the field study.
    1. Name three types of physical weathering. (3 mks)
      1. Give three factors that influence the rate of weathering. (3 mks)
      2. Describe two causes of biological weathering. (6 mks)
      1. Give five types of chemical weathering. (5 mks)
      2. Explain four significances of weathering to human activities. (8 mks)
    1. What is aridity? (2 mks)
    2. What is desertification. (2 mks)
    3. State five causes of aridity and desertification. (5 mks)
      1. Explain 5 effects of aridity and desertification. (10 mks)
      2. Suggest 3 possible solutions to aridity and desertification. (6 mks)

Marking Scheme


    1. Forces that influence the shapes of the earth.
      • Force of gravity
      • Centripetal force
      • Centrifugal force (3x1=3 mks)
    2. Proofs the show that the earth is spherical.
      • Photographs taken from the outer space /satellites shows that the earth is spherical.
      • During the lunar eclipse, the earth casts a spherical shaped shadow on the moon.
      • All parents in the solar system are spherical therefore the earth being one of the planets on the solar system is also spherical.
      • Circumnavigation of the earth along a straight path while maintaining one direction will bring back to the same starting point from the opposite direction.
      • The earths horizon when viewed from a very high tower or in an aeroplane always appears curved. (3x1 =3mks)
    1. A rock – is an aggregate of mineral particles forming the solid part of the earth. While A mineral is an inorganic substance which occur naturally at or beneath the surface of the earth
    2.          ROCK              METAMORPHIC ROCK
      1. Granite            Gneiss
      2. Limestone        Marble
      3. Shale               Schist/slate
        (3x1=3 mks)
    1. Difference in time from 2.00 pm to 11.00 am = 3 hrs.
      In 1 hr, the earth rotates through 15°
      Therefore in 3 hrs the earth will rotate through 3x15° = 45°
      Time at M is behind that at 30°E
      Get the difference between the angles
      = 45° – 30°= 15°
      M is at longitude 15°W.       (3 mks)
    2. Effects of the International date
      • On crossing this longitude while going to the west a day is lost.
      • If you cross it going to the East a day is gained. (1 mk)
    1. Mass wasting.
      • This is the creeping, flowing, sliding or falling of weathered rocks down the slope under the influence of gravitational force. (2 mks)
    2. Factors that influence the rate of mass wasting.
      • Amount of water in the weathered material.
      • Nature of the weathered material.
      • Gradient of the slope.
      • Presence of vegetation cover.
      • Human activities eg. mining and construction.
      • Tectonic movements may trigger earth quakes causing vibration of the earth’s surface hence some materials move down slope.
      • Climatic conditions especially rainfall and temperature. (3x1=3 mks)
    1. Vulcanicity
      • This refers to all the processes by which solids, liquids, molten and gaseous. Materials are forced into the earth’s crust or ejected onto its surface.
      1. Intrusive land forms:
        • Batholith
        • Laccolith
        • Dykes
        • A sill
        • Lopolith
        • Pacolith    (2x1=2mks)
      2. Extrusive landforms
        • Volcanoes
        • Basalt lava domes or shield domes
        • Acid lava cones
        • Composite volcanoes
        • Ash and under cones
        • Plug dome volcano
        • Volcanic plug        (2x1=2 mks)


      1. Topographical map. (1 mk)
      2. 1:50,000
        1 cm rep. 0.5 km (2 mks)
      3. Marginal information.
        • Map series 
        • Grind system numbers
        • Sheet number
        • Latitudes /longitudes
        • Sheet editor
        • Compass direction
        • Map name (any 4x1=4 mks)
      1. Citing evidence from the map (social functions).
        • Educational since there is a school ie. Gaikkuyu school
        • Trading since there is market ie Giakagina mkt.
        • Transportation since there is a road.
        • Administrative since there is a chiefs office.
        • Agriculture since there is coffee factory and tea centre.
        • Religions centre evidence churches. (NB. No evidence no mark)
      2. human made features
        • Road
        • Shops
        • Cattle dips
        • Coffee factory
        • Tea centres (any 3x1=3 mks)
      1. Economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map.
        • Transport – all weather road/dry weather road.
        • Trade – shops/markets
        • Crop farming – coffee factory (No evidence no mark) (3x1=3 mks)
      2. Drainage of the area covered by the map.
        • Dam present
        • There are permanent rivers.
        • Rivers flow from North to South.
        • There are many permanent rivers. (4x1=4 mks)
      3. Two types of vegetation found in the area covered by the map.
        • Forest
        • Papynes swamp (2x1=2 mks)
        • Normal reverse.
        • Tear, sheer or slip
        • Thrust
        • Anticlinal (3 mks)
        • Tensional forces - causes movement of landmasses away from one another. 
          They pull landmasses apart resulting into tearing. (2 mks)
        • Shear forces - causes the movement of land masses alongside one another along a crack.
        • Line of weakness.-The mass of land move in opposite directions. (2 mks)
      • Lines of weakness occur reverse faults.
      • The outer blocks are pushed over the middle blocks leaving it to form the plain of Rift valley.
      • The over logging sides caused to reverse fault collapse. (4mks – txt – 4 mks diagrams)
    3. Significant of faulting
      • Disjointing of land to disruption of communication lines, water sewage etc.
      • Sinking of land lead to loss of property and life ie. agricultural farm.
      • Vertical faulting across a river may cause waterfall which may be used to generate H.E.P project.
      • Hot springs and geysers like hot springs attract tourist who bring in foreign exchange.
      • Hot spring and geysers associated to faulting can unharnessed for geothermal power. (10 mks)
      • Title (1 mk)
      • Labeling (1 mk)
      • Bans (3 mks)
        Total (5 mks)
      • The bars are verified
      • The bars starts from zero
      • They are drawn side by side
      • Have a title
      • Have uniform width. (4x1=4 mks)
      1. Mean of the temperature
        Add then divide by 12
         −62  = −5.167  =−5
      2. Characteristics of climate in the station
        • Minimal range of temp. is very large.
        • The coldest month is January.
        • Highest rainfall occurs when temperature is high.
        • The total annual rainfall is low 319 mm.
        • The months of March and February records the lowest rainfall.
        • Hottest month is July and August.
        • Region experience rainfall through the year.
      1. Methods used to collect the data
        • Observation
        • Interviewing
        • Administering questionnaires
        • Content analysis
        • Measuring
        • Photographing
      2. Methods used to record the data 
        • note taking -filling in questionnaires
        • tallying - drawing
        • tabulation - tape recording (2x1=2 mks)
      3. Problems experienced during the study.
        • Lack of cooperation from potential respondents.
        • Poor weather conditions.
        • Incorrect information from the respondents. (3x1=3 mks)
    1. Three types of physical weathering.
      • Exfoliation
      • Block disintegration
      • Granular disintegration
        • Climate
        • Topography
        • Chemical composition of the rock
        • Rock structure
        • Rock texture
        • Biological organisms (6x1 = 6 mks)
        1. Action by plants
          • Roots of plants penetrate grow into joints or cracks.
          • As the trees grow bigger, the root also grow bigger widening the joints and cracks.
          • Blocks separate in what is called wedging mechanism. (3 mks)
        2. Action of animals
          • Burrowing animals such as moley rabbits, Earth worms break off small bits of rocks from the main rock.
          • By digging these animals expose a large surface area to other weathered processes.
          • Large herds of cattle and Zebras’ bound the rock with there hooves as they move breaking them into smaller particles. (any 3x1=3 mks)
      1. Five types of chemical weathering
        • Solution 
        • Carbonation 
        • Hydrolysis 
        • Hydration 
        • Oxidation            (5x1=5 mks)
      2. Significance of weathering to human activities
        • Weathering weakens rocks making them easier for man to quarry or mine .
        • Some rocks form through weathering eg. Granite tors are conspicuous thus attacking tourists .
        • Weathering produces clay which is used in making bricks. Bricks are used for building houses.
        • Weathering leads to the formation of fertile soils which enhances agriculture .(Any 4x2=8 mks)
    1. What is aridity. (2 mks)
      • It is a state of contiunous deficiency of moisture in the ground leading to scant/little vegetation.
    2. What is desertification. (2 mks)
      • It is a process of slow but steady encronchment of desert like conditions to large areas leading to barrenness.
    3. State the causes of aridity and desertification.
      • Insufficient rainfall
      • High temperatures
      • Location of leeward sides of the mountains
      • Presence of cold ocean currents on adjacent coasts.
      • Location of places very far away from the coast.
      • Presence of stable high pressure systems with low humidity.
      • Man’s destruction of vegetation. (any 5x1=5 mks)
      1. Explain the effects of aridity and desertification.
        • Desertification leads to loss of soil fertility leading to a decrease in crop production.
        • Reduced food production can lead to famine in the affected areas.
        • Desertification leads to destruction of water catchment areas/insufficient supplies of water for domestic use.
        • Drying up of vegetation due to desertification leads to exposure of land to agents of erosion.
        • Desertification may trigger migration from the affected areas due to drought and decreasing food production.
        • Aridity and desertification can lead to extinction of some plants and animal species.    (any 5x2=10 mks)
      2. Suggest possible solutions to aridity and desertification.
        • Enacting law that curbs production.
        • Embarking of reafforestation and afforestation programmes.
        • Taking soil erosion control measures ie. building gabions.
        • Introducing modern farming methods which can renew soil fertility.
          (any 3x2=6 mks)

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