Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 3 Mid Term 1 Exams 2021

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    1. Define the term Geography? (2 mks)
    2. Outline 4 importance of Geography in the learning process. (4 mks)
    1. State 4 layers of the earth. (4 mks)
    2. Name the boundary that separate:- (2 mks)
      1. The crust and Mantle.
      2. The mantle and the core.
    1. State 2 effects of earths rotation. (2 mks)
    2. Outline 3 causes of earth movements. (3 mks)
    1. Give three examples of rapid mass movements. (3 mks)
    2. Name 3 fold mountains of Alphine Orogeny. (3 mks)
  5.  What is agro-forestry. (3 mks)




  1. The table below shows temperature and rainfall date of station X.
     Month   J   F   M   A   M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D 
     Temp °C   12   13   14   17   19   22   24   26   24   20   16   13 
     Rainfall in (mm)  112   84   74   41  46  15  10  5  41  79 130 137
    1. Use the data to calculate
      1. The mean monthly temperature. (3 mks)
      2. The mean monthly Rainfall. (3 mks)
      3. The median rainfall. (2 mks)
      4. The temperature and rainfall range. (4 mks)
    2. Use the rainfall data to draw a simple line graph. (7 mks)
    3. State 3 advantages of using a simple line graph. (3 mks)
    4. Outline clearly 3 disadvantages of using this technique. (3 mks)
    1. Define the term vegetation. (2 mks)
      1. State and explain 4 factors which influences the distribution of vegetation. (8 mks)
      2. Explain clearly 4 uses of vegetation. (8 mks)
      1. Give 3 characteristics of Savanna Grasslands. (3 mks)
      2. Fill in the blank spaces. (4 mks)
        Temperate grassland     Where its found
        Prairies -
        Steppes -
        Pampas -
        Veldt -
      1. Define the term forest. (2 mks)
      2. Explain five uses of forests and forest products in Kenya. (10 mks)
      1. Outline any 4 problems facing forestry in Kenya. (4 mks)
      2. Highlight five forest conservation measures commonly used in Kenya. (5 mks)
    3. Compare and contrast softwood forestry in Canada and Kenya. (4 mks)
      1. Define the term mining. (2 mks)
      2. State three ways in which minerals occur. (3 mks)
      1. State and explain 4 factors that influence the occurrence and exploitation of minerals.(8 mks)
      2. Explain any two methods employed in underground mining. (4 mks)
      1. State 4 effects of mining in the environment. (4 mks)
      2. Highlight 4 problems facing mining in Kenya. (4 mks)
    1. Name the minerals found in the following places in East Africa. (3 mks)
      1. Ruhuhu valley
      2. Kariandusi
      3. Tororo
    2. Describe the stripping method of open cast mining. (3 mks)
    3. Study the data below and answer questions that follow:-
      Percentage of mineral production.
      COUNTRY A                     COUNTRY B
      Lime stone - 10%              Iron ore - 50%
      Coal - 20%                        Bauxite - 10%
      Iron ore - 50%                  Tin - 10%
      Trona - 20%                      Others - 30%
      1. Draw a dividend rectangle 10cm long to show the percentage of minerals mined in country A.    (5 mks)
      2. State three advantages of using divided rectangles to represent geographical data. (3 mks)
      1. Name two areas where diamond is mined in South Africa. (2 mks)
      2. Describe the stages involved in the processing of diamonds. (4 mks)
      3. State 3 economic contributions of diamonds to the economy of South Africa. (3 mks)

Marking Scheme


    1. Geography is the study of the distribution and interrelationship of phenomena is relation to the  Earth’s surface.
    2. Importance of Geography in the learning process
      • Geography teaches learners how to manage time properly by drawing time schedules.
      • Geography helps in the planning of national projects.
      • Geography enables learner to understand and appreciate different environmental influence at work on different societies.
      • Geography teaches methods of collecting and representing geographical information.
      • Geography encourages international awareness and co-operation.
      • Geography for career.
    1. layers of the earth. (4 mks)
      • Lithosphere
      • Asthenosphere
      • Barysphere
      • Centrospheres
      1. mohorovicic discontinuity (2 mks)
      2. Gutenberg discontinuity
    1. effects of earths rotation
      • Atomic difference of one hour between medians 15° apart.
      • Deflection of winds and ocean currents.
      • Rising and falling of ocean tides.
      • It causes day and night.
    2. causes of earth movements (3 mks)
      • Magma movement
      • Convectional currents
      • Gravitational force
      • Isostatic adjustments
    1. examples of rapid mass movements (3 mks)
      • Rock falls
      • Debris avalanche
      • Landslides
      • Debris fall
    2. 3 fold mountains. (3 mks)
      • Atlas mts - Africa
      • Alps of Europe
      • Himalayas of Asia
      • Rockies of North America
      • Andes of South Africa
  5. What is agro-forestry. (2 mks)
    • This is the growing of trees together with crops and animal pastures while rearing animals in the same piece of land.


      1. Mean: 18.33 (3 mks)
      2. Mean: 56.16 (3 mks)
      3. Median: 18.0 (2 mks)
      4. Temperature range = 14°C Rainfall range = 127 mm
      • Title = 1 mk
      • Key = 1 mk
      • Labeling axis = 1 mk
      • Curve = 2 mks
    3. Advantages of using a simple line graph (3 mks)
      • Simple to construct and interpret.
      • Due to the use of line it’s a suitable method of showing phenomena that is continuous.
      • The simple curve allows determination of intermediate values that were not plotted.
      • Its easy to read the exact values against the plotted points.
      • Difficult to obtain the exact values from this graph.
      • Fluctuations in values may be exaggerated out of proportion due to a poor choice of the Vertical scale.
      • A false impression on the continuity of data may be given.
    1. Vegetation
      • Vegetation refers to a community of plants (trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses) that grow in a given Place to give it a distinct character. (2 mks)
      1. Factors that influence the distribution of vegetation.
        • Climatic factors (rainfall, temperature, sunlight and wind).
        • Physiographic factors (altitude, topography and aspects).
        • Edaphic factors (soil related factors).
        • Biotic factors (effects of living organisms).
        • Anthropogenic factors (those related to human beings). (4x2=8mks)
      2. Uses of vegetation.
        • Heavily vegetated areas act as water catchment areas.
        • Habitat for wild animals.
        • Sources of fuel.
        • Used as live fences for security reasons.
        • Source of raw materials for industries.
        • Vegetation purifies the atmospheric air. (4x2=8mks)
      1. Characteristics of savanna grasslands
        • Mixture of grass and a few scattered trees.
        • Found in areas experiencing tropical continental climate.
        • Trees are flat topped with spreading branches.
        • Have a variety of grass species.
        • Grass has a very short cycle. (3x1=3 mks)
      2. Temperate grassland     Where its found
        Prairies -                           Canada
        Steppes -                          Europe
        Pampas -                          America
        Veldt -                              South Africa
      1. A forest is a collection of trees of one or more species growing naturally or planted by human beings in an area. (2 mks)
      2. Uses of forests and forest products in Kenya.
        • Forests prevent the soil from erosion.
        • Provision of raw materials for various industries.
        • Source of fuel.
        • Source of food – sericulture and apiculture are practiced in forests.
        • Provide employment opportunities and are a source of revenue. (5x2=10 mks)
      1. Problems facing forestry in Kenya.
        • Over exploitation and illegal logging.
        • Destruction of forests by drought, fires, pests and diseases.
        • Massive deforestation due to encroachment into forest lands.
        • Poor forest management and conservation practices. (4x1=4 mks)
      2. Forest conservation measures practiced in Kenya.
        • Creation of forest reserves.
        • Agro-forestry and silviculture.
        • Encouraging afforestation and reafforestation practices.
        • Use of alternative sources of energy and energy saving devices.
        • Employment of forest warders who protect forests from illegal exploitation.(5x1=5 mks)
    3. Compare and contrast softwood forestry in Canada and Kenya
      1. Comparisons
        • Soft wood forests in both countries experience the problems of pests and diseases, fires, soil erosion and overexploitation.
        • Softwood forest products are similar e.g. sawn timber, wood pulp, paper, poles, etc.
        • Softwood forests in both countries grow in places with heavy rainfall, cool temperatures, heavy rainfall and rugged terrain.
        • Forest products earn foreign exchange in both countries.
        • Tree species are similar e.g. there is pine in both countries.
      2. Contrast
        • Species of trees differ e.g. in Kenya there is Kenya cedar and podo while in Canada there is Douglas fir and white pine.
        • Canada’s soft woods are mainly natural while Kenya’s are mostly planted.
        • Kenya’s softwood forests are found in highlands while Canada’s are found in lowlands due to cool temperatures.
        • Canada’s softwood forests cover large tracts of land than Kenya’s.
        • In Kenya softwood forests are propagated by afforestation while in Canada it’s by leaving some trees uncut so that they produce seeds to be dispersed naturally.
        • Canada’s softwood forests take longer to mature than Kenya’s due to severe winter temperatures.
        • Kenya’s softwood forests are planted in rows and easily exploitable unlike Canada’s which grow naturally and haphazardly
      1. It’s the extraction of valuable minerals from the ground.
      2. ways in which minerals occur. (3 mks)
        • As veins and lodes
        • Beds and seams
        • Weathering products
        • Alluvial/placer deposits
      1. Factors that affect mineral occurrence and exploitation. (4 mks)
        • Value of the mineral
        • Transport costs
        • Labour availability
        • Political factors
        • Capital availability
        • Size of the mineral deposits
        • Demand for the mineral/market factors
        • Quality of the ore
        • Level of technology
      2. two methods employed in underground mining. (4 mks)
        • Shaft method – vertical shafts are sunk into the earth’s crust and connected to horizontal tunnels in order to reach the mineral.
        • Drift/Adit method – horizontal tunnels are dug into the hill or valley sides to reach the mineral.
        • Solution method – pipes are sunk at great depths to the mineral deposits eg. sulphur. Super heated water is directed through the pipes to dissolve the mineral, which is then pumped to the surface.
        • Drilling method – wells are dug and oil or gas are extracted.
      1. Effects of mining on the environment. (4 mks)
        • Leads to land dereliction.
        • Collapse of underground mines may lead to heavy casualties/loss of human lives and destruction of property.
        • Pollution of soil, air and water.
        • Mining activities interfere with the local water table.
      2. Problems facing mining in Kenya. (4 mks)
        • Extraction and processing of some minerals pollute the environment.
        • Inadequate capital for mineral exploitation.
        • Lack of skilled personnel limits mineral exploration and exploitation.
        • Mining activities are mainly in the hands of foreign companies who repatriate the profits to their home countries.
        • Competition from developed countries.
        • Shortage of power/energy for mining activities.
    1. Minerals found in
      1. Rululu valley - coal
      2. Kariandusi - Diotomite
      3. Tororo - Limestone or phosphates. (any 3x1=3 mks)
    2. Stripping method.
      • The over burden is removed and dumped nearly.
      • Explosives are used if need be to loosen the rock bearing the mineral.\
      • Huge power shovels or conveyor belts are used to remove the mineral deposits and load it in lorries/trollers/trucks/railway wagons for transportation to the factory. (any 3x1=3mks)
      1. Drawing a divided rectangle.
        Limestone 10  x 10 = 1 cm
        Coal 20   x 10 = 2 cm
        Iron ore 50  x 10 = 5 cm
        Trona 20  x 10 = 2 cm
         Limestone   IRON ORE   coal   Trona 
             5cm      2cm   2cm    1cm
      2. Advantages of divided rectangles. (5 mks)
        • Gives clear visual impression of individual components.
        • It allows for comparison.
        • It is easy to construct.
        • Can be used to represent a wide a range of data. (3x1=3 mks)
      1. Two areas where diamond is mined in S.A.
        • Koffie
        • Jagersfontein
        • Kimberley
        • Pretoria (any 2x1=2 mks)
      2. Processing of diamonds
        • The rock bearing diamond is crushed into small pieces.
        • It is then washed to remove dirt.
        • The remaining rock is passed over a rotating table. This table is covered with grease which repels water that is made to flow over it.
        • The wet pieces of rock will not stick to the grease but slide off the table as waste.
        • The diamonds stick to the grease.
        • The rotating table is stopped and grease with the diamond is removed.
        • The process is repeated several times.
      3. Economic contribution of diamonds.
        • Provides employment.
        • Earns foreign exchange.
        • Promotes urbanization eg. Pretoria & Kimberley.
        • Contributed to development of infrastructure like roads and railway. (any 3x1=3 mks)

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