Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 Mid Term 2 Exams 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS

  • Answer all questions in section a and b and any two in section c. 3

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL Questions in the Spaces Provided

  1. State two precautions when handling inoculated seeds. (1mk)
  2. Explain the meaning of the following post-harvesting practices carried out in crops such as beans. (3mks)
    1. Dusting
    2. Threshing
    3. Cleaning
  3. Give four characteristics that a good plant used as green manure should possess. (2mks)
  4. State three ways in which crop rotation may improve soil fertility. (3mks)
  5. State three ways in which primary tillage destroy soil-borne pests. (3mks)
  6. Give four edaphic factors that influence crop production. (2mks)
  7.  
    1. Define opportunity cost (1mark)
    2. Name Two types of inventory records kept by farmers (1mark)
  8. Give TWO importance of sub-soiling (1mark) 
  9.  
    1. Give TWO destructive effects of moles in crop production (1mark)
    2. Apart from moles, name TWO other rodent pests (1mark)
  10. State FOUR field pests that attach maize (2marks)
  11. Differentiate between apiculture and aquaculture as used in Agriculture (1mark)
  12. State TWO ways in which burning leads to loss of soil fertility (1mark)
  13. State TWO benefits of hardening off seedlings before transplanting . (1mark)
  14. Give two examples of the following: (3marks)
    1. Organic manures
    2. Straight fertilizer
    3. Incomplete compound fertilizer
  15. Name the primary macronutrient responsible for the following in plants. (2marks)
    1. Protein synthesis
    2. Proper root establishment and development
  16. State four factors that would increase the seed rate of maize. (2marks)
  17. Give the role of the following in water treatment process. (3 marks)
    1. Alluminium sulphate
    2. Chlorine
    3. Sodium bicarbonate
  18. List THREE soil constituents (1 ½ mark)
  19. State THREE ways in which nitrogen is lost from the soil (1½ marks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagram below shows a practice in crop production
             F3 MT2 Agri PP1 Q20 2021
    1.  
      1. Give the identity of the field management practice illustrated above (½mks)
      2. Give 2 reasons for carrying out the above field management practice (2 mks)
    2. A plot measuring 4m x 3m was prepared for planting cabbages at a spacing of 60 cm x 60 cm. Calculate the plant population in the plot. Show your working (3mks)
  2.  
    1. Identify the illustration P and Q which are materials used in propagation of sugarcane (1mk)
      F3 MT2 Agri PP1 Q21 2021
    2. Giving reasons which of the above is more suitable as a planting material in sugar cane? (2 marks)
  3. The diagrams below labeled H and J are illustrated of coffee plants establishing using two different pruning systems. Examine them closely and answer the questions that follow.
             F3 MT2 Agri PP1 Q22 2021
    1. Name the pruning systems illustrated by diagrams H and J (1 mark)
    2. Give two advantages of pruning system illustrated by diagram Hover that one illustrated by diagram J    ( 2 marks)
    3. Name two types of pruning that should be carried out after the coffee bush has been established using the system J ( 2 marks)
  4. The diagrams V and W illustrate some soil structures. Study the diagrams and answer the questions that follow.
             F3 MT2 Agri PP1 Q23 2021
    1. Identify two structures labeled V and W (1mark)
    2. Name the types of soils from which structures labeled V and W can be found (1mark)
    3. State two ways through which structure V may influence crop production (2 marks)
  5. The diagram below illustrates a method of preparing compost pit manure, study the diagrams and answer the questions that follow.
             F3 MT2 Agri PP1 Q24 2021
    1. Identify the method illustrated (1 mk)
    2. By using arrows between the boxes indicate the direction of movement of materials from X to the field. (2 mks)
    3.  
      1. In regard to Y what is the volume of X? (1 mk)
      2. How long should the materials stay in X and Y. (1 mk)

SECTION C (40MKS)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Describe the establishment of cabbage under the following subheadings.
    1. Nursery establishment and management (8 mks)
    2. Land preparation (4 mks)
    3. Transplanting (8 mks)
  2.  
    1. Outline the role of phosphorous in plants (5mks)
    2. Describe the policies used by the government to regulate the amount of imported agricultural good in Kenya (5mks)
    3. Describe uses of farm records in the farm (10mks) 
  3.  
    1. Discuss the human factors which influence agriculture. (10 marks)
    2. Explain five factors to consider when choosing the planting time. (10 marks) 


MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    • Should not come into con tact with chemicals.
    • Should be planted when the soil is moist.
    • They should be inoculated with the right strain of rhizobium.
      (2 x ½ = 1mk)
  2.  
    1. Applying chemical powders on bean seeds to prevent attack by storage pests. 
    2. The act of removing beans from the pods.
    3. Cleaning of the bean involves removal of chaff through winnowing.
      (3x½=1½mks)
  3.  
    • Plant must be capable of rotting quickly.
    • Highly vegetative or leafy.
    • Fast growth.
    • Nitrogen fixing.
    • Resistant to drought.
    • The plant should be hardy.
      (4x½ =2mks)
  4.  
    • Leguminous crops should be included to improve soil fertility.
    • Crops from the same families should be alternated in order to discourage excessive infestation of soil borne pest and disease.
    • The inclusion of a grass ley and this allows for maximum soil disturbance (maintain good soil structure)
      (3x½=1½mks)
  5.  
    • Exposes pests to the sun heat / light.
    • Exposes pests to predators.
    • Burying the pest hence starving them.
      (3x½=1½mks) 6.
  6.  
    • Soil colour
    • Soil structure
    • Soil texture
    • Soil PH
    • Soil depth.
      (4x½ =2mks)
  7.  
    1. Opportunity cost is the returns from the best alternative forgone (W.T.E) 1mk
    2. Types of inventory records
      • Permanent goods inventory
      • Consumable goods inventory (2 x ½ mk) = 1mK
  8. Importance of sub-soiling
    • Encourages gaseous exchange in soil (aeration)
    • Breaks hard pans
    • Brings leached minerals to the surface
    • Improves soil drainage
      (Any 2 x ½ mk= 1mk)
  9.  
    1. Destructive effects of moles
      • Destroys crop roots thus interfering with absorption of water and nutrients
      • Pulls plants underground causing their death
      • Spoils pastures by covering them with soil from burrowed tunnels
        (Any 2 x ½ =1mk)
    2. Other rodent pests
      • Squirrels
      • Rats
      • Mice
      • Porcupine
      • Hedgehogs
        (Any 2 x 1 ½) =1mk
  10. Field pest that attack maize
    • Maize stalk borer (ReJ: stalk borer)
    • Army worm
    • Aphid
    • Birds
    • Rats
      (Any 4 x ½) = 2mks
  11.  
    • Apiculture is the rearing of bees in beehives
    • Aquaculture is the rearing of fish in fish ponds (Mark as a whole) 1mk
  12. Ways through which burnings leads loss of soil fertility
    • Destroys organic matter
    • Ash accumulation leads to nutrient imbalance
    • It kills/ destroys soil micro-organisms
    • Exposes soil to agents of soil erosion
    • Destroys soil structure increasing soil erodability
    • Exposure of soil nutrients to high temperature causes increased volatilization of nutrients
    • (Any 2 x ½) 1mk
  13. Benefits of hardening off
    • Reduces chances of drying-up of seedlings after transplanting
    • Enables seedlings to establish themselves faster in the main field
  14. Examples of:
    1. Organic manures
      • Farmyard manure
      • Compost manure
      • Green manure
    2. Straight fertilizers
      • Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)
      • Sulphate of Potash
      • Single Superphosphate (SSP)
      • Double Superphosphate (DSP) Potassium Chloride/ Muriate of Potash -Sulphate of Ammonia Urea
      • Ammonium Sulphate Nitrate (ASN)
    3. Incomplete fertilizer
      • Diammonium Phosphate (DAP)
      • Nitrophos (20:20:0)
      • Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP)—(11:48:0)
      • 23:23:0
  15. Macronutrient for:
    1. Protein synthesis----- Nitrogen
    2. Root establishment---- Phosphorus
  16. Factors that increase seed rate:
    • Low germination percentage
    • Low seed purity
    • More seeds per hole
    • Close spacing
  17. Role:
    1. Aluminiumsulphate -Coagulation of tiny particles in water
    2. Chlorine -- Kill disease causing organisms.
    3. Sodium bicarbonate – Softening of water
  18. Soil constituents
    1. Soil air
    2. Soil water
    3. Mineral matter
    4. Organic matter
    5. Living organisms
      3 x ½ (1 ½ mk) max 1½ mk
  19. How nitrogen is lost from the soil
    • Volatilisation
    • Leaching
    • Combustion
    • Denifrification
      (Any 3 x ½ mk) 1 ½ mk
  20.  
    1.  
      1. Trelising (½ mark)
      2.  
        • Facilitate easy carrying out of routine practices e.g. spraying
        • Prevent soiling of fruits/clean fruits harvest
        • Control fruits from being infected by soil borne pests
        • Plant is well aerated
          (2x1=2)
      3. Plant population = (4mx100) x 3mx100 =33+ 1
                 spacing             60cmx60cm 
        (1½marks)
  21.  
    1. P – Sugar care sett/cutting (½ mark)
      Q – Green top sugar cane (½ mark)
    2. P – produce roots easily as Q may rot easily before root production (1 mark)
  22.  
    1. H – single stem pruning (½ mark)
      J – multiple stem pruning (½ mark)
    2.  
      • Allow easy picking/spraying
      • No breakages of the stem/branches
      • Provide good ground cover
        2x1 = 2 marks
    3.  
      1. Annual pruning
      2. Removal of secondaries, tertiaries and laterals which have produce two crops
      3. Changing of cycle after 4-8 years
        (2x1 = 2 marks)
  23.  
    1. V – platy structure (½ mark)
      W – Blocky structure (½ mark)
    2. V- top horizon of forest soil/clayed soils (½ mark)
      W – clay soils (½ mark)
    3.  
      • Poor soil aeration
      • Poor drainage leading to water logging
      • Poor root penetration/root tuber expansion
  24.  
    1. Method – Four heap system (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
    2.   
      F3 MT2 Agri PP1 Ans24 2021
      (4 x ½ = 2 mks)
    3.  
      1. Volume of X = Half the size of Y (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
      2. 4 -5 weeks
  25. Establishment of cabbage under the following subheadings
    1. Nursery establishment and management
      • Select a suitable site where members of the Brassica family have not been grown for the last three years.
      • Dig the site deeply to remove all perennial weeds and stones
      • Harrow the site to a fine filth
      • Make shallow drills, 10 cm apart. The drills should be made evenly on the nursery bed. Place he seeds in the drills and cover them with light soil.
      • Apply mulch material evenly on the nursery bed and water
      • Remove the mulch after the seeds have germinated, then erect a shade over the nursery bed.
      • Water the seedlings regularly
      • Harden off before transplanting.
        (8 x 1 = 8 mks)
    2. Land preparation
      • Prepare the land early enough when the weather conditions are dry. This allows enough time for the weeds to die
      • Clean all vegetation and remove any tree stumps
      • Plough deeply to remove all perennial weeds
      • Harrow the land to a fine filth
      • Make holes 10cm deep at a spacing of 90 cm x 60cm depending on the variety.
        (4 x 1 = 4 mks)
    3. Transplanting
      • Cabbage can be sown directly into the field or first established in a nursery bed.
      • Transplant the seedlings at the age of three to four weeks.
      • Transplant during a cloudy or cool day
      • Water the nursery bed thoroughly before transplanting
      • Lift the seedlings with a ball of soil to avoid damaging the roots
      • Water he field well before transplanting
      • Apply handful of farmyard manure or one tablespoonful of double superphosphate to each hole.
      • Apply suitable insecticides to control soil borne pests.
      • Plant seedlings at the same depth as they were in the nursery.
      • Firm the soil well around the base of the seedlings.
        (8 x 1 = 8 mks)
  26.  
    1. Role of phosphorous
      • Root development
      • Development of flower /flowering
      • Fruit and seed formation
      • Hasten ripening of fruits
      • Play role in metabolic processes e.g respiration
      • Take part in cell division and crop growth
      • Farms part of nucleo protein
      • Strengthen plant stem
        ( 5 x 1 = 5mk)
    2. Policies government use to regulate amount of imported agricultural goods
      • Heavy taxation of imports in order to protect local industries
      • Subsidizing the growing of locally produced commodities
      • Quality controlled to ensure production of high quality goods for export and domestic market
      • Conservation of natural resources e.g fossils , water catchment areas, wildlife and soil
      • Stepping up to control diseases and parasites that affect crops and livestock
    3. Uses of farm records
      • Help compare performances of different enterprises within the farm
      • Show the history of the farm
      • Guide farmer in planning and budgeting of farm operations
      • Help defect loses or theft on the farm
      • Help in assessment of income tax to avoid over or under taxation
      • Help determine value of the farm i.e determine assets and liabilities of the farm
      • Make it easy to share profits and loses in partnerships
      • Help in settling disputes eg when a farmer dies
      • Show whether the farm business is making profit or loss
      • Help in supporting insurance claims
      • Provide labour information like terminal benefits
  27.  
    1. Human factors influencing agriculture.
      • Level of education and technology – A more knowledgeable farmer produces high yields of high quality than an illiterate farmer.
      • Health/HIV/AIDS – Sick farmers are less productive.
      • Economy – Farmers with high capital goods produce more than a farmer with little capital.
      • Transport and communication – Good roads available easy transport of inputs and outputs hence high yield.
      • Market forces of demand and supply – the higher the demand the higher the produce and rise versa. Government policy –
      • Government may subsidies prices of inputs to encourage production.
      • Cultural and religious beliefs – Some cultures and religious beliefs may discourage or encourage production.
      • (5 x 2 = 10mk)
    2. Factors to consider when choosing the planting time.
      • The onset of rains – Crops planted at the onset of rains establish early and make maximum used rains.
      • Weather conditions and harvesting time – Crops e.g. cotton, maize and wheat need a dry season for ripening and harvesting hence planting can be delayed for a while.
      • Prevalence of pests and diseases crops planted early escape attack from pests and diseases.
      • Soil moisture content – Right moisture facilitates germination of seeds and allows early crop establishment.
      • Make demand off season – Vegetables are always planted late to target high market demand when there is shortage of food supplies.
      • Type of crop to be planted.

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