Agriculture P1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 Term 3 Opener Exams 2022

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Instructions to Candidates.

  • Write your name and admission number in the spaces provided. 
  • Answer all questions in the spaces provided. 
  • This question paper consists of three sections A, B and C. 
  • Answer all the questions in sections A and B any two questions from section C. 
  • Answers should be written in the spaces provided. 

QUESTIONS

SECTION A 

  1. State four advantages of shifting cultivation. 2mks
  2. Give four characteristics of Horizon A in a soil profile 2mks 
  3. Differentiate between soils formed in ʿsitu’ and soil formed in deposition. 1mk 
  4. State three factors which determine the depth of ploughing during land preparation. 1½mks 
  5. What is secondary cultivation. ½mk 
  6. State four types of water pumps. 2mks 
  7. Give four reasons as to why green manure is not commonly used by farmers 2mks 
  8. State four importance of keeping proper and up to date farm records. 2mks
  9. State four characteristics of Nitrogenous fertilizers. 2mks 
  10. Give four advantages of using seeds as planting materials. 2mks 
  11. State four advantages of budding in crop production. 2mks
  12. Outline four advantages of organic mulching in farming. 2mks
  13. Why is it not advisable to use organic manure when growing carrots .Give two reasons.1mk
  14.                      
    1. Give four ways of acquiring land. 2mks
    2. Outline four general objectives of the million acreschems.4mks
  15. State four types of soil erosion. 2mks 

SECTION B(20mks)
Attempt all questions in this section

  1. The diagram below shows one way of harvesting water.Study the diagram and answer the questions which follows.
    16 iuahda 
    1. Identify the method of harvesting water above ½mk
    2. Name the parts labeled . 2mks 
      J...................................................................................
      K...................................................................................
      L...................................................................................
      M...................................................................................
    3. Give one reason as to why the part M should be covered. ½mk 
    4. State one maintenance practice labeled that must be carried out on the part labeled M.1mk 
  2. Study the diagram below carefully and answer the questions that follow
    17 uyg uyag
    1. Identify the structure shown above1/2 mk
    2. Name the parts labeled .2mks 
      O..................................................................................
      P..................................................................................
      Q..................................................................................
      R..................................................................................
    3. Give a reason as to why each of the following are used when constructing the structure above.1mk
      1. Q..................................................................................
      2. R..................................................................................
    4. What is the use of the stick in the structure1/2mk
  3. A farmer applied 200kg of CAN (20%N) per hectare in his five hectares of maize crop. Calculate the amount of Nitrogen the farmer applied on his crop .Show your working.4mks
  4. Study the diagram below and answer the questions below.
    19 aiygdya
    1. Name the parts labeled 2mks 
      S..................................................................................
      T..................................................................................
      U..................................................................................
      V..................................................................................
    2. Apart from the above crop .Name any other two crops which are propagated using part v.1mk
    3. Why are part S and U more preferred than V when propagating the above crop. 1mk 
  5. The diagram below shows a certain disease of tomatoes .Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.
    20 aygduya
    1. Identify the disease 1mk
    2. Give two causes of the disease above. 2mks 
    3. Give one way of controlling the above disease. 1x1=1mk

SECTION C(40MKS)(ANSWER ONLY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION) 

  1.                      
    1. Discuss the importance of Agriculture to the economy of Kenya. 5mks
    2. Explain the influence of soil depth on crop production . 5mks
    3. Give five reasons for carrying out minimum tillage. 5mks
    4. Explain the importance of treating water in the farm.5mks 
  2.                    
    1. Describe various ways through which soil can lose its fertility. 5mks
    2. What is the meaning of the following terms as used in Agricultural production . 4mks 
      1. Agricultural economic..................................................................................
      2. Scarcity..................................................................................
      3. Preference and choice..................................................................................
      4. Opportunity cost..................................................................................
    3. State two conditions under which the opportunity cost is equal to zero. 1mk
    4. Outline procedure of soil sampling . 5mks
    5. Describe the chemical method of breaking seed dormancy . 5mks
  3.                          
    1. Describe the importance of crop rotation . 5mks
    2. Explain the importance of having a title deed . 5mks 
    3. discuss the role of trees in soil and water conservation. 5mks
    4. Outline the harmful effect of weeds. 5mks

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                  
    • Low capital requirements
    • No build up of pest and diseases
    • soil structure is maintained
    • There is no land dispute 4x½=2mks
  2. Characteristics of soil horizon A
    • Dark in colour
    • Rich in microorganism
    • well drained
    • well aerated
    • rich in plants nutrient. 4x½=2mks
  3.                    
    • Soil formed in ʿsitu’ is soil formed in the same position while soil formed in deposition is soil formed on the highland and it is deposited on the low land.1x1=2mkmark as whole
  4.                      
    • Type of crop to be planted
    • Implement available
    • the type of soil 3x½=1½mks
  5. Soil refinement practices carried out before planting.
  6.                    
    • Centrifugal pump
    • piston pump
    • Semirotary
    • Hydrum pump 4x½=2mks
  7.                      
    • Most of the crops used are food crops
    • The green manure crop might use all the moisture in the soil and leave very little for the next crop.
    • Most of the nutrients are used by microorganism which they will release after they have died and decomposed.
    • It takes time for the green manure to decompose delaying the planting time.
  8.                    
    • Help to compare the performance of different enterprises
    • Show the history of the farm
    • Help the farmers pay fair taxes
    • Help the farmer to detect losses and theft
    • It determines the value of the farm
    • Makes it easy to share the profits and losses in case partnerships
    • Helps in settling disputes
    • Shows whether the business is making profits or losses. 4x½=2mks
  9.                            
    • Has a scotching effect
    • It is corrosive
    • It is highly soluble in water
    • It is hygroscopic
    • Highly volatile
    • Has a short residual effect
    • It is highly leached 4x½=2mks
  10.                    
    • Easy to treat against pest and diseases.
    • They are not bulky
    • Easy to handle during planting
    • It is easy to use a machine to plant
    • It is possible to apply fertilizer and manure with seeds during planting.
    • Fertilizer and manure can be easily mechanized
    • It is possible to develop new crop varieties due to cross pollination.
  11.                    
    • Plant with desirable root characteristics but with undesirable products may be utilized to produce desirable product
    • It facilitate changing of the top of the tree from undesirable to desirable
    • Make it possible to grow more than one type of fruit or flowers on the same plant.
    • Help to propagate clones which cannot be propagated in any other way
    • It can also be used to repair damaged trees
    • Helps shorten the maturity age. 4x½=2mks
  12.                    
    • Prevent evaporation of water
    • Act as insulator :Modifying the soil temperature
    • Control soil erosion by reducing the speed of running water and intercepting the rain drops
    • Control weed by suppressing their growth
    • Organic materials decompose and add nutrient
    • It also improves the soil structure by adding humus to the soil.
  13.                    
    • It can lead to forking of carrots
    • Lower the quality of carrots
  14.                  
    1.                                            
      • Buying
      • Gift from a friend
      • Inheritance
      • Compensation by the government
      • Through settlement and resettlement by the government.4x½=2mks
    2.                    
      • To reduce population pressure in the African reserves.
      • To transfer lands from the white settlers to the African.
      • To solve their unemployment problems
      • To settle former employees of European farmers and squatters
      • To increase agricultural production through better methods of land utilization.
      • To maintain production levels achieved by former white settlers and also are foreign exchange from the sale of cash crops
  15.                    
    • Rill
    • Splash
    • Sheet erosion
    • Gulley erosion
    • Land slide
    • Solifluction
    • River bank erosion 4x½=2mks
  16.                    
    1. Roof catchment ½mk
    2.                      
      • J - roof
      • K - overflow pipe
      • L - Drainage pipe
      • M - Tank 4x½=2mks
    3. To avoid contamination. ½mk
    4. Cleaning when the dirt accumulates. ½mk
  17.                      
    1. Compost heap ½mk
    2.                      
      • O - Dry grass
      • P - Manure
      • A - sh
      • R - Top soil 2mks
    3.                    
      1. To speed up the rate of decomposition
      2. To provide the heap with microorganism 2x½=1mk
    4. To check the temperature in the structure.
  18.                      
    • 20kg of N 100kg of CAN 11
      ? 200kg of CAN
      20 x200 kg of N
          100
      = 40 kg of N 4mks
  19.                                    
    1.                    
      • S - Crown
      • T - Pineapple fruit
      • U - Slip
      • V - Sucker
    2.                    
      • Banana
      • Sisal 2x½=1mk
    3.                        
      • Give uniform growth
      • Takes a shorter time to reach maturity
  20.                          
    1. Blossom end rot
    2.                        
      • Excess nitrogen
      • Calcium deficiency in the soil
      • irregular watering 21=2mks
    3.                      
      • Use of fertilizers with calcium
      • Use the correct amount of nitrogen fertilizer
      • Watering should be regular 1x1=1mk
  21.                  
    1. Discuss the importance of Agriculture to the economy of Kenya. 5mks
      • Source of food: A well fed nation is a healthy nation. Healthy people are able to work in production process
      • Source of employmentPeople are employed directly as farmer or indirectly in the Agriculture related industries
      • Source of foreign exchangewhen agricultural products are exported to other countries Kenya earn foreign exchange
      • Source of raw materials for industriesMost of the agricultural industries require processing before use. Industries have been set up to process agricultural products
      • Provide market for industrial goodCrop and livestock production inputs are used such as fertilizers ,livestock drugs –Most of the inputs are industrial products.
      • Source of incomeWhen the agricultural products are sold the farmer earns some income.
    2. Explain the influence of soil depth on crop production.
      •  deep soil profile is able to hold more moisture for plant use
      • Top soil is very rich in microorganisms which brings about the decomposition of organic matter. Therefore the deeper the layer is the better the soil will for crop production.
      • The top soil is also rich in plant nutrients so that the richer it is the better the soil is for crop production.
      • Loosely packed sub soil allow easy penetration of plants roots, drainage and aeration .This will ensure that erosion does not take place .It must be fairly deep.
      • The nature and composition of the bedrock influences the mineral composition of the soil. If the parent rock lacks some nutrients the soil will also lack the same nutrient. 5x1=5mks
    3. Give five reasons for carrying out minimum tillage. 5mks
      • To reduce the cost of production
      • To control soil erosion
      • To maintain soil structure
      • To conserve soil manure
      • To prevent the disturbance of roots and underground structures eg bulb
      • To prevent the exposure of humus to a lot of sun heat. 5x1=5mks
    4. Explain the importance of treating water in the farm.
      • To remove chemical impurities
      • To remove sediments
      • To kill germs
      • To remove odours from drinking water
      • To soften water.
  22.                      
    1. Describe various ways through which soil can loose its fertility
      • Leaching – As water penetrates into the soil it dissolves soluble nutrients taking them the lower layers where they cannot be reached by the plants roots
      • Soil erosionThe top fertile soil is carried away by the soil erosion agents.
      • MonocroppingContinous growing of the same type of crop on the same land drains some nutrients from the soil.
      • Continuous croppingHarvested crops remove large amount of nutrients from soil and are never returned
      • Change in soil pHchange in soil pH affect the activity of soil microorganisms and the availability of plant nutrients.
      • Burning of the vegetation cover –destroy organic matter and microorganisms
      • Accumulation of saltsIn arid and semi arid areas rainfall is insufficient to remove salts from the soil.Poor drainage and high level of evaporation lead to accommodation of soil changing the soil pH. 5x1=5mks
    2. What is the meaning of the following terms as used in agricultural production 4mks
      1. Agricultural economics
        • Study of how limited resources are distributed to produce goods and resources to maximize output while minimizing the cost.
      2. Scarcityfactors of production are limited .A farmer cannot have the resources
        Production needs are unlimited.
      3. Preference and choice
        Because of the limited resources the farmer must make a choice
      4. Opportunity cost
        When a famer makes a choice he must forgo the second best alternative of which its return is the opportunity cost.
    3. Under what condition is opportunity cost is equal to zero
      • When goods and services are freely given
      • When there is no alternative
      • When resources are in abundance
    4. Outline the procedure of soil sampling
      • Clear vegetation at the spots
      • Take a slice from a vertical cut using soil auguer
      • Put the soil in a clean polythene bags
      • Repeat the steps in different parts of the filed
      • Mix thorough samples from different point, drift and crush the soil.
      • Get a sub sample from the mixture 5x1=5mks
    5. Describe the chemical method of breaking seed dormancy.
      • Soak the seed in concentrated sulphuric acid for two minutes
      • Soak for two minutes
      • The acid will wear off the seed coat making it permanent to water
      • Making the seed coat to be permeable to water
      • Do not leave the seed in the chemical for long to avoid killing of the embryo. 5x1=5mks
  23.                            
    1. Describe the importance of crop rotation. 5mks
      • There is maximum utilization of soil nutrient .Different crop uses different nutrients and at various depth.
      • Control of soil borne pest and diseases ie some pest and diseases are specific for some crops family alternating some crops will help to control the pest.
      • Control of weedsParasitic weeds like striga is specific for the grass family crops to control the weed they are alternate with crops of other families.
      • Improve soil structure :The grass eg at the end of crop rotation programme lead to very little disturbance of the soil hence improves soil structure.
      • Crop of soil erosion the cover crops ensure that the spaces which were open during raw planting are covered controlling soil erosion. 5x1=5mks
    2. Explain the importance of having a title deed. 5mks
      • It can be used to secure credits
      • Minimizes land dispute
      • Encourages farmers to invest in longterm projects
      • One can lease all the land or part of it.
      • One can divide the land against the heir. 5x1=5mks
    3. Discuss the role of trees in soil and water conservation.
      • Protect the soil from raindrops
      • Provide shade which reduces the rate of evaporation
      • Act as wind breaks
      • The roots hold the soil particles together
      • Fallen leaves reduce the speed of running water reducing the erosive power
      • Their leaves decay to supply humus to the soil which improve the infiltration of water in the soil. 5x1=5mks
    4. Outline the harmful effects of weeds
      • Compete with crops for nutrients
      • Some are poisonous to the livestock
      • Some weeds are irritating
      • Weeds can block the water ways canalsirrigation
      • Some have alleropathic effect
      • Increases the cost of production by trying to control them.
      • Weed lower the quality of pasture
      • Some weeds lower the quality of agricultural produce
      • Some weeds are parasitic
      • Aquatic weed can affect fishing 5x1=5mks

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