History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 3 2022 Exams

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25MARKS)
Answer all the questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Give two archeological sites found in Kenya. (2marks)
  2. Identify one branch of Kenyan history and government. (1mark)
  3. Give one group of the Eastern Cushites in Kenya. (1mark)
  4. Identify the major dispersal area of the Kenyan Luo. (1mark)
  5. Give the Oman family which ruled Mombasa and the Kenyan coast from 1741 to 1837 A.D (1mark)
  6. Identify two factors which encouraged the Akamba to become long-distance traders. (2marks)
  7. Identify two achievements of the imperial British East Africa Company by 1894. (2marks)
  8. State two groups that provided education in Kenya during the colonial period. (2marks)
  9. Give two methods used by the Nationalists in Kenya to articulate their grievances to the colonial Government. (2marks)
  10. Give two groups that participated in the independence negotiations at the 2nd Lancaster house conference of 1962. (2marks)
  11. State two reasons why Africans in Kenya migrated to urban centers during colonial rule. (2marks)
  12. Identify one Government Agency involved in maintaining security in Kenya. (1mark)
  13. Give one way of becoming a Kenyan citizen. (1mark)
  14. State two rights of the citizens in Kenya. (2marks)
  15. Give one feature of the new constitution of Kenya 2010. (1mark)
  16. Identify the officer in charge of public prosecution in Kenya. (1mark)
  17. Give one duty of parliament in Kenya (1mark)

SECTION B :( 45MKS)
Answer any three questions from this section.

  1.                
    1. Give five reasons why the Maasai migrated to their present settlements in Kenya. (5marks)
    2. Explain the duties of the Maasai Oloibon. (10marks)
  2.              
    1. Give the evidence which shows that the early visitors reached the Kenyan coast before the 15th century. (3marks)
    2. Explain six results of the interaction between the people of Kenyan coast and the Arabs. (12marks)
  3.                
    1. Give five reasons why the Nandi resisted the establishment of British rule in Kenya between 1895-1906 (5marks)
    2. Explain five factors that enabled the Nandi to resist the British for such a long time. (10marks)
  4.                  
    1. Identify three grievances of the Kikuyu central Association to the colonial Government. (3marks)
    2. Explain six factors that hastened the attainment of independence in Kenya after 1945. (12marks)

SECTION C: (30MKS)
Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.                      
    1. Give three legal documents possessed by an adult citizen of Kenya. (3marks)
    2. Explain six values of a responsible Kenyan citizen. (12marks)
  2.                  
    1. Give the three superior courts in Kenya. (3marks)
    2. Explain six duties of the chief justice in Kenya. (12marks)
  3.                
    1. State five terms of the Devonshire White paper of 1923. (5marks)
    2. Explain five negative effects of colonial land policies in Kenya during the colonial period.(10marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give two archeological sites found in Kenya.
    • Kanjera Koobi fora
    • Fort Tenan Alla bay
    • Olorgeisalie Rusinga island
    • Kariandusi Njoro river cave
    • Kanaipoi Gede (2x1=2mks)
  2. Identify one branch of Kenyan history and government.
    • Social history
    • Economic history
    • Political history (any1x1=1mk)
  3. Give one group of the Eastern Cushites in Kenya.
    • The Borana
    • The Somali
    • The Oromo –Galla
    • The Gabra
    • The Rendille
    • The Burji (any1x1=1mk)
  4.  Identify the major dispersal area of the Kenyan Luo.
    • Ramongi hills 1mk
  5. Give the Oman family which ruled Mombasa and the Kenyan coast from 1741 to 1837 A.d
    • The Mazrui family. (1x1=1mk)
  6. Identify two factors which encouraged the Akamba to become longdistance traders.
    • They hunted using poisoned arrows so they could kill large animals like elephants for ivory.
    • Their proximity to wildgame in the Mt. Kenya region provided them with raw materials for trade.
    • They turned to long distance trade as a way of beating constant drought in their country.
    • Long –distance trade started as a result of a local trade for looking for food stuff from the Mt. Kenya region. This was called ‘Kuthuua’trade. The Akamba expanded this trade to long distance trade. (2x1=2mks)
  7. Identify two achievements of the imperial British East Africa Company by 1894.
    • It assisted the British in the scramble for and partition of East Africa by acquiring Buganda.
    • It set up Administration stations in the interior of Kenya like the Machakos Boma, Fort Smith in Ngong ,Fort Hall in Murang’a etc
    • The company w on collaborators among the Africans.
    • It was also involved in military conquest of Kenya.
    • The IBEAco also helped in the abolition of slave trade.
    • It planned and championed the ideas which led to the construction of the Kenya Uganda railway.
    • It assisted in the spread of Christianity in the interior of Kenya by protecting missionaries. (2x1=2mks)
  8.  State two groups that provided education in Kenya during the colonial period.
    • The missionaries
    • The Asians
    • The colonial Government
    • The African independent schools (2x1=2mks)
  9.  Give two methods used by the Nationalists in Kenya to articulate their grievances to the colonial Government
    • They set up sociopolitical associations like the Kikuyu central association, Ukambani members association etc.
    • They set up African newspapers like ‘Sauti ya Muafrika’.
    • The Nationalists formed political parties like KAU, KANU, KADU and A.P.P
    • They formed trade unions to forward grievances of African workers.
    • They sent delegations to the colonial government e.g the 1st and 2nd Lance 0rster house conference of 1960 and 1962.
      Nationalists wrote books and articles denouncing colonial rule e.g Kenyatta’s Book ‘facing Mt. Kenya’.
    • They set up the Mau Mau Army to fight colonial rule by violent means.
    • The African elected members of legislative council (A.E.M.O) used the floor of the colonial parliament to further African grievances. (2x1=2mks)
  10. Give two groups that participated in the independence negotiations at the 2nd Lancaster house conference of 1962
    • Africa representatives –KANU, KADU, and APP
    • Asian representative
    • Representatives of white settlers
    • Colonial officers. (2x1=2mks)
  11. State two reasons why Africans in Kenya migrated to urban centers during colonial rule.
    • They were escaping forced labour and taxation in the rural areas.
    • They were looking for jobs in the towns.
    • They were attracted by the recreational facilities and other social amenities in the towns.
    • Land alienation had pushed the Africans into unproductive reserves.
    • There was also congestion in the reserves.
    • Some were seeking better education
    • African businessmen were looking for better trading grounds.
    • Many were escaping poverty in the reserves. (2x1=2mks)
  12. Identify one Government Agency involved in maintaining security in Kenya.
    • The national police force
    • The Kenya Defense Forces.
    • The National Intelligence Services.
    • The Kenya Correctional Services. (1x1=1mk)
  13. Give one way of becoming a Kenyan citizen
    • Citizenship by birth
    • Citizenship by registration (1x1=1mk)
  14. State two rights of the citizens in Kenya.
    • The right to life.
    • The right to liberty and personal freedom.
    • Freedom of conscience.
    • Freedom of worship.
    • The right to freedom of expression
    • The right to freedom of movement.
    • The right to freedom of association and assembly.
    • The right to own property.
    • The right to freedom from discrimination.
    • The right to freedom from torture.
    • The right to protection from slavery and forced labour.
    • The right to protection of the law
    • The right protection against arbitrary arrest. (2x1=2mks)
  15. Give one feature of the new constitution of Kenya 2010.
    • Sovereignty of the people and supremacy of the constitution.
    • The Republic
    • Citizenship.
    • Bill of rights
    • Land and environment
    • Leadership and integrity
    • Representation of the people
    • The legislature
    • The executive
    • The judiciary.
    • Devolved government
    • Public finance
    • The public service
    • National security
    • Commission and Independent offices
    • Amendment to the constitution
    • General provisions
    • Transitional and consequential provisions
    • Schedules 1x1=1mk
  16. Identify the officer in charge of public prosecution in Kenya.
    • He is the Director of public prosecution (D.P.P) 1x1=1mk
  17. Give one duty of parliament in Kenya
    • It makes laws for the country.
    • It has a duty to amend the already existing laws.
    • It exercises financial control by approving the National budget and scrutinizing the reports of the controller and AuditorGeneral.
    • It appoints the speaker and deputy speaker by way of voting.
    • It is the one which creates parastatal i.e statutory bodies.
    • It has a duty to defend and safeguard the constitution of Kenya. Any new legislation (law0should abide by the constitution.
    • It has a duty to monitor the executive use of power.
    • It can censure the president and any other government officer/impeach the president and even remove him from office by a vote of no confidence. 1x1=1mk
  18.                  
    1. Give five reasons why the Maasai migrated to their present settlements in Kenya.
      • They were looking for pastures for their cattle.
      • They were escaping from external attacks by their neighbors.
      • Internal conflicts e.g interclan wars made some maasai to move away.
      • The Maasai were frequently attacked by epidemics including cattle diseases.
      • They also migrated due to population pressure.
      • Natural calamities like drought forced the Maasai to migrate.
      • Some Maasai migrated due to spirit of adventure.
    2.  Explain the duties of the Maasai Oloibon.
      • He was the spiritual leader of the Maasai.
      • Presided over religious ceremonies like offerings and sacrifices /acted as a priest.
      • The Oloibon led his people in prayer during calamities.
      • He advised and blessed the council of elders.
      • He settled land disputes among communities.
      • He blessed Maasai warriors before going to war or raiding activities.
      • He also acted as a prophet. He could therefore foresee and foretell the future
      • With time the Oloibon became more powerful and became the ruler of the Maasai community. 5x2=10mks
  19.                  
    1. Give the evidence which shows that the early visitors reached the Kenyan coast before the 15th century.
      • Coins minted in china, India etc
      • GueecoRoman documents
      • Stories written by Arab travelers like 1bn Batuta 1340 AD and Al –Masudi 917 AD
      • Swahili chronicles and histories e.g. the story of Lamu, Mombasa and Kilwa.
      • The VascoDa Gama pillar in Malindi
      • Fort Jesus in Mombasa.
      • Arabic architecture is spread all over the coast.
      • Wreckage of Chinese ships in Lamu.
      • The presence of Swahili –Arab people along the coast e.g. the Bajuni of Lamu. (3x1=3mks)
    2. Explain six results of the interaction between the people of Kenyan coast and the Arabs.
      • It led to the rise and development of the Indian Ocean trade.
      • Led to the rise of the Swahili culture along the coast.
      • Led to the spread of Islamic religion along the coast.
      • Led to intermarriages between the Arabs and coastal Bantu giving rise to Waswahili.
      • Kiswahili became a new language of trade along the coast.
      • Asiatic lifestyles were introduced along the coast /dressing and eating habits changed.
      • Arabic architecture spread along the coast like stone –buildings and narrow streets.
      • Islamic government were set up along the coast using Islamic law called Sharia.
      • This led to the introduction of Islamic system of education;Madrassa. (6x2=12mks)
  20.                    
    1. Give five reasons why the Nandi resisted the establishment of British rule in Kenya between 18951906
      • The Nandi were proud peop0le and wanted to preserve their independence.
      • They were resisting strangers passing through their land, that is the skelters road.
      • They were trying to safeguard their culture.
      • The Nandi were reacting to the earlier prophesies of Orkoiyot Kimnyole that a white people like butterflies will come to destroy Nandi land and culture.
      • They were chasing the white men whom they believed to be devils from their land.
      • They were resisting the building of Kenya –Uganda railway which passed through the Nandi escarpment
      • They wanted to protect their cattle from the British.
      • They also wanted to protect their land from British settlers.
      • The Nandi were provoked into war by a white traveler by the name Andrew Dick. He killed Nandi warriors in 1895 and the Nandi fought back. 5x1=5mks
    2. Explain five factors that enabled the Nandi to resist the British for such a long time.
      • The Nandi were a very united and proud peo0ple who did not believe in defeat. They fought the British with determination.
      • The Nandi economic organization based on cattle keeping and cattle raiding assured them of constant supply of food.
      • They used guerilla system of fighting which kept the British soldiers very busy for a long time.
      • The Nandi landscape also favored their fighting. The hills, forests, gorges and escarpments provided them with hideouts.
      • The Nandi had along military experience having defeated most of their neighbors.
      • They were united and inspired by their leader Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoei.
      • They were at times supported by other Kalenjin groups like the Kipsigis.
      • The Kimnyinge agegroup was highly inspired and provided fierce and determined warriors to defend Nandi land.
      • The climate of Nandi land was very harsh for the British soldiers. Some died of malaria. 5x2=10mks
  21.                
    1. Identify three grievances of the Kikuyu central Association to the colonial Government.
      • They complained about land alteration in Kikuyu land.
      • They were against racial discrimination.
      • They were also against forced labour.
      • They demanded for the release of Harry Thuku.
      • They wanted respect for the Kikuyu culture like female circumcision.
      • They wanted Africans to be allowed to grow cash crops.
      • They also complained against the Kipande system.
      • Pressing for the reduction of taxes.
      • They wanted all the colonial laws to be translated into Kikuyu language.
      • They wanted better education for the Africans in Kenya colony. 3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six factors that hastened the attainment of independence in Kenya after 1945.
      • The second world war of 19391945 weakened the economy of Britain making it impossible to control her colonies effectively.
      • The two super –powers, U.S.A and U.S.S.R were against colonization and they pressured Britain to give independence to her colonies.
      • The African exsoldiers came home and organized Nationalist groups like the Kenya African Union.
      • The exsoldier also came home with military experience and set up a violent Army to fight colonial rule e.g. the Mau Mau.
      • The attainment of independence in India and other countries encouraged Nationalism in Kenya.
      • The formation of Kenya African Union (K.A.U)in 1945 mobilized the Africans in Kenya against colonial rule.
      • Trade unions also created awareness about the need for independence.
      • The British Government after 1945 was also slow on colonization. The labour party viewed colonies as expensive and a burden. Changes were effected to give Kenya independence.
      • The Mau Mau rebellion of 19521960 also quickened the attainment of independence. It cost the British heavily and distabilized the Kenya colony for a long time.
      • The charismatic role of Jomo Kenyatta made Kenyans united against colonial rule. His name remained a unifying factor even when he was jailed by the colonial government. His release in 1962 led to independence in 1963. 6x2=12mks
  22.                
    1. Give three legal documents possessed by an adult citizen of Kenya.
      • A National Identification card(I.D)
      • A birth certificate.
      • A driving license
      • A passport.
      • A land title deed
      • Religious testimonials like a Baptism card.
      • A vehicle logbook. 3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six values of a responsible Kenyan citizen.
      • One should respect and obey the laws of the country.
      • One should respect and obey the freedom of others.
      • Should report criminals and law breakers.
      • Should give true and correct information in all documents.
      • One should pay taxes.
      • One should participate in the democratic process like voting in election.
      • Should take part in public debate like attending chiefs ‘Barazas’.
      • One should be patriotic i.e. ready to do good, love and defend the Nation.
      • A good citizen should protect and conserve our environment:animals, forests, water etc.
      • One should be hardworking for personal development and development of the Nation. 6x2=12mks
  23.                
    1. Give the three superior courts in Kenya
      • The high court
      • The court of appeal
      • The Supreme Court
    2. Explain six duties of the chief justice in Kenya
      • He/she is the head of the Kenyan judiciary; directing the entire court system in the country.
      • The chair person of judicial service commission.
      • The chief justice is the president of the Supreme Court.
      • The chief justice swears in the president and the deputy president.
      • Gives advise to the government on legal matters through the A.G.
      • He/she plays advisory role in the removal of a president on grounds of incapacity. He sets up a tribunal to advise parliament on the matter.
      • He/she hears and determines petitions arising from presidential elections; as the president of the supreme court.
      • He prescribes the fee to be paid by the court.
      • He/she has wide revisionary powers.ie can order retrial of a case which has already been passed in a lower court. 6x2=12mks
  24.                  
    1. State five terms of the Devonshire White paper of 1923.
      • The Kenyan highlands were to be preserved for European settlement.
      • Asians were allowed to elect five members in leg.co. They were also allowed to have representatives in municipal council.
      • A missionary was to be nominated to the LEGCO. to represent African interests.
      • The interests of the Africans were to be given priority before those of immigrant races if there was a conflict.
      • The colonial secretary would exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony.
      • Settlers were to maintain their representation in the legislative council.
      • All races were to participate in the government.
      • Restriction of an Asian immigrationwas lifted. 5x2=10mks
    2. Explain five negative effects of colonial land policies in Kenya during the colonial period.
      • Africans were pushed into reserves.
      • Introduction of forced labour and taxation to force the Africans to work on the white mans farm.
      • The economic /agricultural production on the African land declined.
      • Kipande system was introduced.
      • Many Africans became squatters in European farms. 5x2=10mks

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