History and Government Questions and Answers - Form 3 Opener Term 1 Exams 2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Instructions:
Answer All Questions



Questions

SECTION A (20 MARKS)

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of history (1mk)
  2. State two shortcomings of oral traditions as a source of history (2mks)
  3. State three characteristics of homo habilis (3mks)
  4. Mention three hunting methods used during the old stone age (3mks)
  5. How did the discovery of the fire change man’s way of life? (2mks)
  6. State two effects of food shortage in Africa (2mks)
  7. State two subgroups of the Kalenjin (2mks)
  8. Give two ways through which the Akamba interacted with the Agikuyu in the pre-colonial period (2mks)
  9. Name two types of trade (2mks)
  10. Give two examples of regional trade (2mks)
  11. State three functions of the Tuaregs during the Trans Saharan Trade. (3mks)

SECTION B (30 MARKS)

  1.           
    1. State three reasons for decline of the Trans Saharan trade (3mks)
    2. Discuss six impacts of road transport (12mks)
  2.       
    1. State three uses of gold (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why Britain was the first country to be industrialized. (12mks)

SECTION C (15 MARKS)

  1.        
    1. State three problems facing Nairobi (3mks)
    2. Describe the economic organization of the Shona (6mks)
  2.       
    1. Give three advantages of written constitution (3mks)
    2. State three aspects of democracy (3mks)


Marking Scheme

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of history (1mk)
    • It is information that is communicated by the word of mouth from one generation to another

  2. State two shortcomings of oral traditions as a source of history (2mks)
    • The stories may be exaggerated. It is hard to tell what is real and what is imagined.
    • It is time consuming
    • It does not provide dates or sequence of events

  3. State three characteristics of homohabilis (3mks)
    • He was about 1.8 meters in height
    • His skull was shaped like modern man
    • Had a brain capacity of between 500-800cc
    • He developed elementary speech
    • He was a tool maker
    • He developed the thumb

  4. Mention three hunting methods used during the old stone age (3mks)
    • Chasing and throwing stones and spear at the animal
    • Chasing animals over steep cliffs and forcing them to fall over and break their limbs
    • Waiting for animals near watering points
    • Man killed animals that were injured by others
    • Driving animals in swampy areas where they got stuck
    • Digging large pits on the paths through which animals went to drink water and covering pits with grass.

  5. How did the discovery of the fire change man’s way of life? (2mks)
    • Warming himself during the cold nights
    • The flames of fire gave him light during the night
    • Fire was used to harden the tips of his tools
    • He used fire to preserve his food e.g. meat and fish by drying it
    • Fire provided man with protection by keeping away dangerous animals at night.

  6. State two effects of food shortage in Africa (2mks)
    • Death of hundreds of people due to famine
    • Increased suffering as many people are weak and children are malnourished
    • Lead to social problems like raids and theft to get food
    • It has caused migration of people by food shortage

  7. State three subgroups of the Kalenjin (2mks)
    • Pokot
    • Kipsigis
    • Tugen
    • Nandi
    • Keiyo

  8. Give two ways through which the Akamba interacted with the Agikuyu in the pre-colonial period (2mks)
    • Through trade
    • Through wars

  9. Name two types of trade (2mks)
    • Local trade
    • Regional trade
    • International trade
  10. Give two examples of regional trade (2mks)
    • The Trans-Saharan trade
    • The long distance trades.

  11. State three functions of the Tuaregs during the Trans Saharan Trade. (3mks)
    • They guarded the caravans against the hostile desert communities
    • They provided food and accommodation to traders
    • They protected and maintained the oases
    • They provided guide to the caravans
    • They served as middlemen.
    • They kept trade products and traded on behalf of the caravan traders.
  12.         
    1. State three reasons for decline of the Trans Saharan trade (3mks)
      • Exhaustion of the trade item e.g. gold and salt
      • Decline of powerful kingdoms such as Mali, Ghana and the Songhai accelerated insecurity in the region.
      • Competition from the Trans- Atlantic trade
      • Turkish invasion and colonization of north Africa
      • Insecurity in the region. The Tuareg changed their roles of guiding and guarding traders and began robbing them.

    2. Discuss six impacts of road transport (12mks)
      • Generation of employment opportunities i.e. road construction and maintenance
      • Has promoted social interaction as people move easily to various parts of the world
      • Contributed to the industrial progress by facilitating transportation of raw materials to the industries and manufactured goods to the market
      • Facilitated the exploitation of minerals
      • Has enhanced agricultural development
      • Promotion of local, regional and continental trade.
  13.                
    1. State three uses of gold (3mks)
      • Used to make ornaments or jewels such as plates, cups vases and bowlsIt was also used to decorate knife handles and
      • headscarf
      • It was also used as a trade item in Central and West Africa
      • Used as a medium of exchange
      • Used as a measure of wealth in Egypt
    2.  Explain reasons why Britain was the first country to be industrialized (12mks)
      • Availability of sources of energy for use in industries. E.g. coal
      • Britain had established cottage industrial products within the British empire and her large population provided domestic market
      • Britain was politically stable
      • Britain had a well-developed transport system i.e. water and land transport
      • Britain’s policy of free trade i.e. she had no custom barriers
  14.                 
    1. State three problems facing Nairobi (3mks)
      • Inadequate housing leading to development of slams
      • Overpopulation
      • Unemployment and consequent rise in crime rate, alcoholism, prostitution and drug abuse
      • Traffic congestion
      • Poor town planning leading to poor drainage
    2. Describe the economic organization of the Shona (6mks)
      • They practiced agriculture and grew crops like cassava
      • They kept livestock like cows
      • Their main economic activity was trade
      • They practiced long distance with the Arabs and the Swahili
      • They hunted elephants for ivory, skins, slaves, and copper
      • They gathered wild fruits and honey
      • They made iron goods such as spears, knives, shields and hoes.
      • They did fishing in rivers and lakes
  15.                   
    1. Give three advantages of written constitution (3mks)
      • readily available for ease of reference and application
      • it lays down procedures of amendment and hence politicians cannot alter or tamper with it
      • it unites all people in a nation
      • it creates harmony since it sets out clearly the powers and relationship between different organs in government.
    2.  State and explain three aspects of democracy (6mks)Political – A system of governing in which the whole population is
      • free to participate
      • Social – Relating to the dignity and worth of the individual
      • Economic – Ensuring equal opportunities for all citizens and prevention of exploitation of some individuals by others

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