History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS: SECTION A: Answer All Questions in This Section. (25 MKS)

  1. What is the difference between a Pongidae and a Hominidae? (1 mark)
  2. Identify the community that displaced the Pokomo from Shungwaya. (1 mark)
  3. List two roles of warriors among the pre-colonial Miji-Kenda. (2 marks)
  4. State two roles of the Orkoiyot among the pre-colonial Nandi community. (2 marks)
  5. Who was the first European to see Mt. Kenya in 1849? (1 mark)
  6. Name two constitutional amendments which were done in 1982 in Kenya. (2 marks)
  7. Define the term “Scorched earth policy”. (1 mark)
  8. Which was the main war method used by Africans in their resistance? (1 mark)
  9. Identify the agreement signed to end partitioning of East Africa. (1 mark)
  10. List two ways the Akamba displayed their resistance against the colonial administration. (2 marks)
  11. Identify the basis of the political organization of African communities in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  12. Name one political parties that existed in Kenya at Independence. (1 mark)
  13. Mention two duties of a chief during the colonial administration in Kenya. (2 marks)
  14. State one group that provided education in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  15. Name one community in Kenya that showed mixed reaction towards British colonization in Kenya. (1 marks)
  16. State two methods which were used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. (2 marks)
  17. State two development rights of children. (2 marks)

SECTION B: Answer three questions in this section.(45 marks)

  1.      
    1. State five economic activities of the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the pre-colonial Somali community. (10 marks)
  2.      
    1. List five reasons for the coming of the missionaries to Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five positive results of the Omani rule along the Kenyan Coast. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Identify three terms of the Devonshire Whitepaper 1923. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six methods used by the colonial government to promote settler farming in Kenya. (12 marks)
  4.      
    1. Identify five reasons for the collaboration of the Maasai. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for failure of armed resistance by the Kenyan communities. (10 marks)

SECTION C: Answer any two questions in this section.(30 marks)

  1.      
    1. State three factors that may cause revocation of citizenship by registration in Kenya (3mks)
    2. Explain six rights that are guaranteed to an arrested person by the Bill of Rights in Kenya. (12 marks)
  2.      
    1. State five non-violent methods of resolving a conflict. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. State three characteristics of indirect democracy. (3mks)
    2. Explain six principles of democracy. (12mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. What is the difference between a Pongidae and a Hominidae?
    Pongidae belongs to the ape family while hominadae belongs to the human family. 1 mk)
  2. Identify the community that displaced the Pokomo from Shungwaya
    Oromo /Galla 1 mk)
  3. List two roles of warriors among the pre-colonial Miji-Kenda.
    • Defended the community from external attack.
    • Helped in maintenance of law and order. (2 mks)
  4. State two roles of the Orkoiyot among the pre-colonial Nandi community.
    • He was a political leaders.
    • He was a religious leader.
    • He advised elders on community affairs.
    • He advised and blessed warriors before going to war.
    • He arbitrated in disputes.
    • He was a seer, rainmaker and chief medicine man. (2 mks)
  5. Who was the first European to see Mt. Kenya in 1849?
    Dr Johann Ludwig Krapf ( 1mk )
  6. Name two constitutional amendments which were done in 1982 in Kenya.
    • Position of chief secretary as the head of civil service was created.
    • Kenya was made de fecto one party state. (2 mks)
  7. Define the term “Scorched earth policy”.
    Destroying all property in sight that are beneficial to man. ( 1 mk)
  8. Which was the main war method used by Africans in their resistance?
    Guerilla warfare. (1 mk)
  9. Identify the agreement signed to end partitioning of East Africa.
    Heligoland / Anglo - German Agrement of 1890. (1 mk)
  10. List two ways the Akamba displayed their resistance against the colonial administration.
    • Boycott: They refused to sell goods to the IBEAC
    • Attacking the British forts / stations / Britons.
    • Use of religious leaders to bless the warriors.
    • Blockade / cutting off some areas.
    • Petitioning for peace.
  11. Identify the basis of the political organization of African communities in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
    The clan 1mk (2 mks)
  12. Name one political parties that existed in Kenya at Independence. (1 mks)
    • Kenya African National union.(KANU)
    • Kenya African democratic Union. (KADU)
    • African Peoples Party. (APP)
  13. Mention two duties of a chief during the colonial administration in Kenya.
    • Maintenance of law and order
    • Hearing of petty cases
    • Tax collection
    • Labour recruitment / army conscription 2mks
  14. State one group that provided education in Kenya during the colonial period.
    • Asians
    • Missionaries
    • Africans themselves
    • Colonial government 1mk
  15. Name one community in Kenya that showed mixed reaction towards British colonisation in Kenya
    • Akamba
    • Luo
    • Agikuyu 1mks
  16. State two development rights of children. (2 marks)
    • Right to education
    • Right to leisure /play
    • Right to participate in cultural and artistic activities
    • Right to express themselves
    • Access to information
    • Parent love-right to social security
  17. State two methods which were used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Diplomacy
    • Collaboration/signing of treaties
    • Military conquests/expeditions
    • Construction of operational bases/forts

SECTION :B

  1.      
    1. State five economic activities of the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period. (5 mks)
      • Grew crop / kept livestock / mixed farming.
      • Iron - working.
      • Traded with their neighbours
      • Basketly / cloth making / ornament making / traditional craft.
      • Hunting / gathering
      • Pottery (5 x 1 = 5 mks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the pre- colonial Somali community. (10 mks)
      • The society was bound together in patrilineal lineage
      • Women did not feature in political set up
      • The largest political unit was the clan.
      • The council of elders controlled the affairs of the clan.
      • Had a decentralised political system.
      • They had an age-sets system from which they established military organization.
      • Adoption of Islam led to introduction of Sheikh.
      • Changed system to Islamic sharia. (5 x 2 = 10 mks)
  2.      
    1. List five reasons for the coming of the missionaries to Kenya.(5 mks)
      • Wanted to spread Christianity.
      • Missionaries wanted to civilize the Africans.
      • They wanted to end slavery and slave trade.
      • Some missionaries wanted to explore the interior of East Africa so that it could be opened.
      • To check against the spread of Islam in East Africa. (5 x 1 = 5 mks)
    2. Explain five positive results of the Omani rule along the Kenyan Coast.10 mks)
      • Plantation agriculture developed.
      • Local trade and long distance trade expanded.
      • Caravan routes opened up the interior.
      • Expansion and starting of urban areas e.g Mombasa
      • Caravan routes became basis of both roads and railways.
      • Emergence of wealthy members.
      • Introduction currency e.g Indian rupee.
      • Expansion of some kingdom e.g Wanga and Buganda.
  3.      
    1. Identify three terms of the Devonshire Whitepaper 1923. (3 mks)
      • There was to be no racial segregation in all residential areas.
      • Restriction on immigration was to be lifted.
      • A missionary was to be nominated to represent African interests.
      • The highlands were reserved for European settlement only.
      • Indians were to elect five members to legco and to have representative to municipal councils.
      • European settlers demand for self government was rejected.
      • Interest of Africans were to be given priority as Kenya was an African country.
      • The colonial office was to exercise close control of the country. (5 x 1 = 5 mks)
    2. Explain six methods used by the colonial government to promote settler farming in Kenya. (10 mks)
      • Acquiring land for them.
      • Forcing Africans to provide labour for the settlers.
      • Offering settlers technical assistance by providing them with agricultural extension officers in field.
      • Developing transport network to enable settlers transport farm inputs and output.
      • Ensuring there was security for the settlers.
      • Encouraging formation of co-operatives for marketing produce and establishment of financial institution to offer settlers financial (credit) facilities. (12 mks)
  4.      
    1. Identify five reasons for the collaboration of the Maasai.(5 mks)
      • Maasai people and livestock were weakened by natural calamities.
      • Famine towards the end of the 19th Century weakened the community.
      • Civil wars between 1850 - 1870 weakened the Maasai.
      • Succession disputes / internal feud between Lenana and Sendeyo.
      • The Nandi raid weakened the Maasai.
      • Lenana realised the British were too powerful to resist
      • The prophesy of Mbatian about coming of superior whiterman. ( 5 mks)
    2. Explain five reasons for failure of armed resistance by the Kenyan communities. (10 mks)
      • Kenyan communities lacked unity.
      • They lacked modern weapons.
      • The African warriors were not trained prior to military encounters with the British.
      • Epidemics, civil strife and other natural calamities had reduced the population of some communities.
      • Lack of effective leadership as some collaborated
      • The British used treacheary to make some African leaders sign treaties.
      • The killing of resisting leaders demoralised some communities.
      • The British troops used ruthless war tactic to force Africans to surrender.
      • Destructions of economic based of Africans due to scorched earth policy. (10 mks)

SECTION : C

  1.      
    1. State three factors that may cause revocation of citizenship by registration in Kenya. (3 mks)
      • If a person acquired it by fraud and false representation.
      • If the person supports enemy country in war with Kenya.
      • If within 5 years after registration the person is found guilty of a crime and convicted to jail term of 3 or more years.
      • If at any time after registration, the person is convicted of treason or an offence whose penalty is 7 or more years. (3 mks)
    2. Explain six rights that are guaranteed to an arrested person by the Bill of Right in Kenya (12 mks)
      • Right to be informed promptly the reason for the arrest and that the person has right to remain silent.
      • Right to communicate with an advocate / other persons of assistance.
      • Right to remain silent.
      • Right to be held separately from persons serving a jail term.
      • To be brought and charged in court as soon as possible (within the time stipulated by the law)
      • When brought to court be charged / or if detention is to continue be informed the reasons for this continuation.
      • To be released on bond or bail on reasonable terms as the trial continues.
      • Not to be remanded in custody for an offence which is punishable by a jail term of not more than 6 months or by fine only. (6 x 2 = 12 mks)
  2.      
    1. State five non-violent methods of resolving a conflict.
      • Litigation (court process)
      • Arbitration
      • Negotiation
      • Mediation
      • Problem solving workshops
      • Policing
      • Religious action
      • Fact finding missions
      • Conciliation any 5 x 1 = 5mks
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity.
      • The constitution gives all Kenyans equal rights hence fostering a sense of equality promoting national unity
      • The presidency - it’s a symbol of national unity
      • Education - children form all races and tribes learn freely and use a common curriculum
      • National language - enables people of different communities to communicate
      • Trade - use of a common currency has promoted interactions among different groups
      • Intermarriages - enhance cooperation
      • Fair distribution of national resources
      • Co-curricular activities / sports / games / music festivals bring people together
      • National symbols - give people a sense of belonging
      • National philosophies - enable people from ethnic groups to put their resources together 5 x 2 = 10mks
  3.    
    1. Three characteristics of indirect democracy.
      • Universal suffrage
      • Free and fair elections.
      • People supremacy. (3 x 1 = 3mks)
    2. Explain six principles of democracy.
      • Consent of the people: Democracy is founded on a government based on the consent of the people.
      • Democracy recognizes equality among the people regardless of colour, sex or creed.
      • The rule of law; Democracy recognises equality of everyone before the law.
      • Democracy balances the liberty of the individual with the power of the state.
      • Transparency and accountability; which gives the citizens the confidence to trust their institutions.
      • Competition: In democracy, different ideas compete for the citizens, attention and opinion.
      • Free press: A responsible free independent and objective press is one of the pillars of democracy.
      • Regular free and fair elections.
      • In a democracy, there are many political parties (multi-partysm).
      • Economic freedom: through private ownership of property and a free market economy.
      • In a democracy, the rights and freedom of the individuals are spelt out in the bill of rights, which forms part of the constitution. (6 x 2 = 12mks)

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