Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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SECTION A: (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name two types of land tenure systems.(1mk)
  2. State four problems associated with land fragmentation in Kenya.(2mks)
  3. Give four advantages of individual owner operator tenure system as practiced in Kenya. (2mks)
  4. Give four methods of breaking seed dormancy. (2mks)
  5. State four disadvantages of organic mulch in crop production. (2mks)
  6. Give four practices carried out in a tree nursery. (2mks)
  7. State four reasons for staking tomatoes. (2mks)
  8. List four methods of treating water for use on the farm. (2 mks)
  9. Give two examples for each of the following categories of water pipes.
    1. Metal pipes (1mk)
    2. Hose pipes (1mk)
  10. What is organic farming? (1mk)
  11. State four problems that may be brought about by hardpans in crop land. (2mks)
  12. State four information contained in a land title deed. (2mks)
  13. State four disadvantage of communal system of land tenure(2mks)
  14. State four factors that determine the depth of planting. (2 mks)
  15. List four aspects of rain.(2mks)
  16. State four human factors influencing agriculture.(2mks)

SECTION B: (20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below illustrates a soil profile. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow
    1
    1. Name the layers represented by numbers 2,3,4, and 5.(4mks)
      2……………………………………………………………………….
      3………………………………………………………………………..
      4………………………………………………………………………..
      5…………………………………………………………………………
    2. State two characteristics of the layer. (2mks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates a method of crop propagation.
    2
    1. Identify the method of propagation. (1 mark)
    2. Name a common crop propagated through the method. (1 mark)
    3. Name two advantages of this method. (2 marks)
  3. The diagrams below illustrate methods of crop propagation. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow
    3
    1. Name the types of layering shown above (1 mark)
    2. State one method of budding (1mks)
  4. The diagram below shows preparation of organic manure.
    4
    1. Which type of organic manure is being prepared above? (1 mark)
    2. Give the importance of inclusion of the following layers. (4 marks)
      1. Ash
      2. Topsoil
      3. Manure
      4. Stick
  5. The diagram below shows a pest and the damaged crop. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    5
    1. Identify the crop pest illustrated above.( 1 mark)
    2. What damage does the pest cause to the crop?(1 mark)
    3. State two ways of controlling the pest. (1mark) 

SECTION C
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1.      
    1. State and explain five ways through which soil loses its fertility. (10 marks)
    2. Describe five characteristics of Nitrogenous fertilizers. (5 marks)
    3. Outline five methods used in application of inorganic fertilizers. (5 marks)
  2.      
    1. Outline the factors affecting rooting of cuttings. (5 marks)
    2. State and explain human factors that influence Agricultural production. (10 marks)
    3. Highlight the management practices carried out in a nursery. (5 marks)
  3.    
    1. Explain the factors considered in choosing seed rates (8mks)
    2. Describe the production of cabbages under the following sub headings
      1. Nursery establishment and management (6 mks)
      2. Transplanting (6mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name two type of land tenure system (1 mk)
    • collective tenure system
    • individual tenure system
  2. State four problems associated with land fragmentation in Kenya two marks (2marks)
    • Time is wasted while traveling from one holding to another.
    • difficult to control weeds and pest
    • Difficulties in supervision of the scattered plots
    • Difficulties of following a sound farm plan
    • difficulties in caring out various soil conservation measures
    • difficulties of offering agricultural extension advise
    • Agricultural productivities remain poor resulting in low standard of living
  3. Give four advantages of individual owner operator tenure system as practiced in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Owner uses title deed to secure loan
    • Owner can make permanent production plan
    • Owner can sell part of or whole land
    • Sale ownership provides greatest incentive in terms of land improvement
  4. Give four methods of breaking seed dormancy. (2mks)
    • Scarification / mechanical
    • Chemical treatment
    • Soaking in water
    • Heat treatment / hot water / slight burning
  5. State four disadvantages of organic mulch in crop production. (2mks)
    • Harbor pests, diseases and weeds
    • It is a fire risk
    • Takes time to release nutrients
    • Prevent light shower of rain from reaching the ground
    • It is laborious to transport and to apply
    • Harbours vermine e.g. snakes
  6. Give four practices carried out in a tree nursery. (2mks)
    • Mulching
    • Watering
    • Weed control
    • Pest and diseases control
    • Shading
    • Pricking out
    • Root trimming
    • Protection against livestock
    • Hardening off
  7. State four reasons for staking tomatoes. (2mks)
    • Production of clean fruits
    • Facilitates spraying and harvesting of crops
    • Control incidences of diseases outbreak such as blight
    • Prevents infestations by soil borne pests.
  8. List three methods of treating water for use on the farm. (2 mks)
    • Aeration
    • Sedimentation
    • Filtration
    • Coagulation
    • Chlorination
  9. Give two examples for each of the following categories of water pipes.
    • Metal pipes (1mk)
    • Galvanized iron pipes
    • Aluminium pipes
    • Hose pipes (1mk)
    • Rubber hoses
    • Plastic hoses
  10. What is organic farming? (1mk)
    The growing of crops and rearing of livestock without the use of industrial chemicals.
  11. State four problems that may be brought about by hardpans in crop land. (2mks)
    • Poor water infiltration / water logging / flooding
    • Lack of air /poor aeration
    • Hinder proper root penetration and development
    • Lead to accumulation of salts / salinity
    • Hinder activities of soil organisms.
  12. State four information contained in a land title deed (2mks)
    • Title number / parcel number / location
    • Size of land
    • Name / identify of owner
    • Date of registration
    • Seal of registrar
    • Conditions if any
  13. State four disadvantages of communal land tenure (2marks)
    • Difficult to control parasite and diseases
    • Livestock breeding is not control
    • Yield may be low due to overstocking
    • Easy spread of pest and diseases
    • Not possible to use the land as collateral
    • Permanent farm plan and investment cannot be done
  14. State four factors that determine the depth of planting. (2 mks)
    • Soil type
    • Soil moisture content / rainfall availability
    • Size of the seed
    • Type of germination.
  15. State four aspects of rain.(2mks)
    • Amount of rain
    • Rainfall realiability
    • Rainfall distribution
    • Rainfall intensity.
  16. State four human factors influencing agriculture.(2mks)
    • Level of education and technology
    • Health
    • Economy
    • Government policy
    • Transport and communication
    • Market forces cultural practices and religious Beliefs.

SECTION B (20MKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below illustrates a soil profile. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow
    1. Name the layers represented by numbers 2,3,4, and 5
      2 Top soil / Horizon A
      3 Sub soil / Horizon B
      4 Substratum / weathered rock / Horizon C
      5 Parent rock / Horizon D
      ½ x 4 = 2mks
    2. State two characteristics of the layer marked 2 (2mks)
      • Uppermost soil layer beneath the superficial layer
      • Darker due to high humus content
      • Well aerated
      • Soil micro- organisms are present (for decomposition)
      • Well drained
      • Most plant roots are present
      • Rich in nutrients
        = 2mks
  2.      
    1. Ways of inducing rooting of plantlets.
      • Use of growth regulator.
      • Use of culture medium with correct nutrients
      • Correct light intensity
      • Correct temperature and relative humidity.
        (any 2x ½ =1mk)
    2. Steps followed in the development of tissue culture
      • Cutting of plants, cells on sterile jelly
      • Development of callus on jelly with hormones to stimulate the growth of shoots or roots.
      • Hardening of the plantlets in a greenhouse.
        (any 2x ½ =1mk)
    3. Advantages of propagating crops by tissue culture technique.
      • Mass production of propagules
      • Faster methods of multiplying planting materials
      • Require less space
      • Pathogens free plants.
      • Maintain genetic potential/ uniformity.
      • Improve yields
        (any 2x ½ =1mk)
  3. The diagrams below illustrate methods of crop propagation. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow
    1. Name the layerings above
      Figure K Figure L
      Aerial / marcotting layering Tip layering
      1 x 2 = 2marks
    2. State one method of budding (1mks)
      • Top budding
      • Patch budding
      • T – budding (First two 1 x 2 = 2mks)
  4.      
    1. Compost heap manure
    2.    
      1. Ash- to improve the level of phosphorus and potassium in resulting manure
      2. Top soil- introduce microorganism necessary for decomposition
      3. Manure- to provide nutrients for the microorganisms
      4. Stick- to check the temperatures
  5.    
    1. American bollworm ( ½ )
    2. Bore holes in tomato fruit
    3.    
      • Spraying with recommended insecticide
      • Crop rotation.

SECTION C

  1.      
    1.    
      • Leaching
      • Soil erosion
      • Monocropping
      • Continuous cropping
      • Change in soil PH
      • Burning of vegetation
      • Accumulation of salts
        NB State any five ( 1 mark) , correct explanations (1 mark) (Total 10 marks)
    2.    
      • Highly soluble in soil water
      • Highly leached
      • Have a short residual effect
      • Has a scorching / Burning effect
      • Highly volatile
      • Hygroscopic
      • Highly corrosive
        Correct explanation (1 mark) In total (5 marks)
    3.    
      • Broad casting
      • Placement method
      • Side dressing
      • Foliar spraying
      • Drip
        Correct explanation (1 ×5 = 5 marks)
  2.    
    1. Factors affecting rooting of cutting
      • temperature
      • relative humidity
      • light intensity
      • oxygen supply
      • chemical treatment
      • leaf area (5 × 1 = 5 marks)
    2. State and explain human factors influencing Agricultural production
      • level of education and technology
      • health HIV/AIDS and health in general
      • economy (level of economic development
      • government policy
      • transport and communication
      • cultural practices and religion beliefs
      • market forces
      • Stating (1mk)
      • Explaining briefly (1mk) (2 × 5=10 marks)
    3. Management practices carried out in a nursery
      • mulching
      • watering
      • weed control
      • pricking out
      • shading
      • pests and diseases control
      • hardening off (5 × 1 = 5 marks)
  3.    
    1.    
      • Explain the factors considered in choosing seed rates (8mks)
      • Number of seeds per hole- When 2 or more seeds are planted per hole, higher seed rate is required than when only one seed is planted per hole
      • Spacing- At closer spacing, more seeds are used than at wider spacing
      • Germination percentage – less seed id used when its germination percentage is higher. Seed of lower germination percentage is required in larger amounts.
      • Seed purity – when planting seed which is pure or with a high germination percentage, less seed is required. More seeds are required wnen using impure /mixed seed.
      • Purpose f the crop – crop for silage making is spaced more closely than one meant for grain production. This would require use of more seeds. Maize to be used for silage making requires more seeds than one for grain production
        2x4 = 8 mks (Any 4 points well explained (Mark well explained points)
    2. Describe the production of cabbages under the following sub headings
      1. Nursery establishment and management (6 mks)
        • Site cabbage nursery iin an are where Brassica family crops have not grown for the last 3 years
        • Prepare nursery bed to fine titlh.
        • Remove all roots/ stones/ perennial weeds during preparation
        • Make shallow drills 10cm apartand drill in seeds evenly and cover with soil
        • Apply mulch and remove when seedlings emerge
        • A thin shade is constructed over the nursery
        • Water seedlings regularly when dry
        • Harden off seedlings 2 weeks before transplanting
          Any (1 x 6 = 6mks)
      2. Transplanting (6mks)
        • Seedlings are ready for transplanting one month after sowing
        • Healthy / vigorously growing seedlings are selected
        • Lift seedlings with a lump of soil around the roots
        • Water the nursery bed 48 hours before transplanting
        • Plant seedlings at the same depth as they were in the nursery
        • Firm soil at the base of each seedling
        • Transplant early in the morning / late in the evening/ during a cloudy day
          Any (1 x 6 = 6mks)

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