Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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SECTION A: (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. List four farm structures that would assist in control of livestock parasites. (2mks)
  2. State three desirable characteristics to be considered when a heifer for a milk production.(3mks)
  3. Distinguish between interbreeding and out crossing in livestock production.(2mks)
  4.    
    1. Mention four reasons why bees swarm.(2mks)
    2. State two methods to stock bee hives. (2mks)
  5. State four reasons for castrating male cattle.(2mks)
  6. Give two reasons for steaming up in dairy cattle management. (1mk)
  7. Give two reasons why honey harvesting should be discouraged at night.(1 mks)
  8.    
    1. Distinguish between inbreeding and line breeding. (1mk)
    2. State any three importance of cross breeding. (1½mks)
  9. State any four factors that may lower the quality of honey.(2 marks)
  10. State four reasons for maintaining wheelbarrow in the farm. (2mks)
  11. List one tool used in tightening barbed wire when constructing a fence. (½mk)
  12. Name two types of bees.(2mks)
  13. State four factors determining the quality of honey,(2mks)
  14. Give two methods of castration.(2mks)
  15. State four signs of parturition in a pig.(2mks)

SECTION B: (20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Diagram X and Y illustrate livestock production. Study the illustration and answer the questions that follow.
    1
    1. State one function of each tool .(2mks)
      X
      Y
    2. What is the suitable name of the livestock production equipment Y?(1 mk)
    3. State one advantage of using the substance g collected in Y above. (1mk)
  2. Study the illustration of processing honey below and answer the question that follow.
    2
    1. Name the part labeled. (2 marks)
      Q
      R
    2. State the function of part labeled S. (1 mark)
    3. State four equipments used for harvesting honey (4 marks)
  3. The diagram below represents a method of livestock nurture management practice. Study it carefully and answer the questions beneath/below.
    3
    1. Identify the management practice represented above.(1 mark)
    2. Name the farm tool used to carry out the management practice.(1 mark)
    3. State one major precautionary measure taken when carrying out the above management practice.(1 mark)
    4. Name four livestock animals which the management practice is carried out.(2 marks)
  4. The diagrams M, N, P, and Q show some structure used in apiculture.
    4
    1. Identify the structures labeled M, N, P, and Q. (2mks)
      M –
      N –
      P –
      Q –
    2. State the uses of P and Q. (2mks)
      P –
      Q –

SECTION C:Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1.    
    1. Outline four factors to consider when siting a calf pen.(4 marks)
    2. Name and describe the features of an ideal calf pen.(6 marks)
    3. What factors should a farmer consider when selecting materials for Constructing dairy cattle shed. (10 marks)
  2.    
    1. Describe the reasons why bees may abscond from a beehive. (10 marks)
    2. Describe the factors considered in siting farm structures on the farm. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Describe the factors to consider when selecting livestock for breeding. (10 marks)
    2. Describe ten signs of ill health in livestock. (10 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A: (30 MARKS)

  1.      
    • Fences
    • Foot bath
    • Crush
    • Cattle dip /spray race
    • Pit latrine
    • Zero grazing units / hazes/ sheds (2mks)
  2.      
    • Good body conformation /wedge shaped
    • Docile/mild temperature
    • Record of good performance of ancestors
    • Good body size
    • Good health record
    • Adaptability to the area
    • Not a free marlin (3mks)
  3. Inbreeding is mating closely related animals whereas out crossing is mating unrelated animals within the same breed. (2mks)
  4.      
    1.    
      • Shortage of food/water
      • Damage of brood combs
      • Lack of adequate ventilation
      • Overcrowding
      • Damp of and bad smell
      • Sick or infertile queen
      • Overheating of the hive (high temperature)
      • Outbreak of diseases in the colony (2mks)
    2.    
      • Using a catcher box
      • Use of swarm nets
      • Placing a bee hive strategically and wait for a swarm of bees to enter (1mk)
  5.      
    • To control breeding diseases
    • To control breeding / inbreeding
    • For faster growth rates
    • Increase quality of meat by removing unpleasant smell (2mks)
  6.      
    • Increase and maintain high milk yield after birth
    • Promote good health of the mother
    • Ensure birth of healthy vigorous calves
    • Helps to build up body reserves to provide energy during partition (1mk)
  7.      
    • Contamination of honey with brood
    • Crushing of bees due to poor lighting
    • To avoid accidental bush fires
    • Difficult to distinguish the honey combs (11/2mks)
  8. Line breeding – this is mating of distantly related animals that share a common ancestry.
    Inbreeding – This is the mating of animals which are closely related, that is have certain alleles of genes in common. ½ x2=1mk
  9.      
    • Type of plant from which the nectar was obtained.
    • Maturity stage of honey at the time of harvesting.
    • Method of harvesting
    • Method of processing honey(.4MKS)
  10. For durability
    Efficiency
    Reduce maintenance cost
    Avoid injury to the user
    Avoid damage to the tool
  11. Wire strainer
  12. African wild bee
    European bee
  13. Methods of harvesting used
    Time of harvesting
    Maturity of the honey at the time of harvesting
    The processing method employed
    Source of nectar that is used in making of honey
  14. Open castration
    Closed castration
    Caponisation
  15. The sow becomes restless
    Enlargement of the vulva
    Muscles on each side of the tail slacken
    Loss of appetite
    Udder and the teat become enlarge
    Sow collect bedding material at one corner to build a nest
    24hrs before farrowing there is milk present in the teat 

SECTION B (20 MARKS)

  1.      
    1. X- castration
      • docking
      • dehorning
        lxl=lmk
        Y-collection of semen
        = 1 mk
    2. Artificial vagina
      1mk
    3.      
      • Semen of superiour bull can serve many cows
      • Control breeding diseases
      • Control breeding parasites
      •  Prevents heavy sires injuring small cows
      • Reduces the expense of keeping a bull
      • Small scale farmers can afford the services of a superior bull
      • Controls breeding
      • Controls inbreeding
      • A useful research tool lxl=lmk
  2.      
    1. Q - Residue
      R - Liquid mixture (1/2 x 2 = 1 mks)
    2. S - holds honey combs and strains honey into the basin. (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
    3. Bee brush
      Hive tool
      Protective gear
      Honey container
  3.      
    1. Ear notching. (1 mk)
    2. Ear notcher / ear notch punch. (1 mk)
    3. The notches should not be too small as they may close up, should not also be too large they may deform the ear. (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
    4. Pigs
      Goats
      Sheep
      Cattle (1/2 x 4 = 2 mks)
  4. The diagrams M, N, P, and Q show some structure used in apiculture.
    1. Identify the structures labeled M, N, P, and Q. (2mks)
      M – Log hive
      N – Kenya Top Bar Hive
      P - Smoker
      Q – Veil
    2. State the uses of P and Q. (2mks)
      P – Puffing smoke into the hive
      Q – Protects the head from bee stings

SECTION C.

  1.    
    1. Factors to consider when siting a calf pen.
      • Drainage.
      • Safety / security
      • Proximity to the dairy shed.
      • Topography (3 x 1 = 3 mks)
    2. Features of an ideal calf pen
      • Concrete / raised floor - easy to maintain cleanliness.
      • Dry litter / bedding - maintain warmth.
      • Proper lighting - should have good supply of natural light / sunlight.
      • Proper drainage - facilitate free flow of urine and water to avoid dampness.
      • Draught free - The structure should stop string winds from blowing into the calf pen.
      • Proper ventilation - should allow for fresh air circulation.
      • Security - should be strong enough to keep away intruders / wild animals.(7 x 1 = 7 mks)
    3. Factors considered when selecting materials for constructing a dairy shed.
      • Cost of material to be used.
      • Availability of required skills / labour
      • Availability of capital for the kind of material required.
      • Environmental conditions such as presence of pests, soil type, climate.
      • Durability / quality / strength of material.
      • Type of dairy shed whether temporary or permanent.
      • Suitability of the materials to the animals e.g. use of non toxic painting.
      • Workability / applicability of the materials.
      • Farmer’s taste and preferences. (any 10 x 1 = 10 mks)
  2.    
    1. Factors to consider when siting a calf pen.
      • Drainage.
      • Safety / security
      • Proximity to the dairy shed.
      • Topography (3 x 1 = 3 mks)
    2. Features of an ideal calf pen
      • Concrete / raised floor - easy to maintain cleanliness.
      • Dry litter / bedding - maintain warmth.
      • Proper lighting - should have good supply of natural light / sunlight.
      • Proper drainage - facilitate free flow of urine and water to avoid dampness.
      • Draught free - The structure should stop string winds from blowing into the calf pen.
      • Proper ventilation - should allow for fresh air circulation.
      • Security - should be strong enough to keep away intruders / wild animals. (7 x 1 = 7 mks)
    3. Factors considered when selecting materials for constructing a dairy shed.
      • Cost of material to be used.
      • Availability of required skills / labour
      • Availability of capital for the kind of material required.
      • Environmental conditions such as presence of pests, soil type, climate.
      • Durability / quality / strength of material.
      • Type of dairy shed whether temporary or permanent.
      • Suitability of the materials to the animals e.g. use of non toxic painting.
      • Workability / applicability of the materials.
      • Farmer’s taste and preferences. (any 10 x 1 = 10 mks)
  3.      
    1. Factors to consider when selecting livestock’s for breeding
      • Body Conformation
      • Reproductive Life
      • Age Of The Animal
      • Breeding Ability
      • Adaptability Of The Breed
      • Mothering Ability In Case Of Female
      • Production Potential/ Ability
      • Growth Rate
      • Disease Resistance
      • Abnormalities / Deformities
      • Temperament / Behaviour
      • Offspring Performance
        Stating ½ mk
        Explanation ½ mk (10mks)
    2. Signs of ill-health in livestock
      • Loss of appetite
      • Abnormal heartbeat
      • Difficulty breathing
      • Dull in appearance
      • Isolates from others
      • Straining /limping when walking/lameness
      • High /low body temperature
      • Abnormal consistency of dung/ diarrhea/ constipation
      • Presence of wounds
      • Bloody urine
      • Sudden drop in milk production
      • Starring coat
      • Emaciation
      • Inflamed mucus membrane/ paleness
        =10 mks
  4.      
    1. Reasons why bees abscond from the beehive.
      1. Shortage of water and food in their surroundings.
      2. Outbreak of diseases in the colony.
      3. Damage of the brood combs.
      4. Dampness in the hive.
      5. Bad smell in the environment.
      6. Sick queen
      7. Infertile queen.
      8. Lack of adequate ventilation.
      9. Overcrowding.
      10. Attack by parasites.
        =10marks
    2. Factors considered in sitting farm structures on the farm.
      1. Location of the homestead.
        Site where it could be possible to have a good view of the farm.
      2. Security of the structure.
        Structure should be safe from predators, thieves and trespassers.
      3. Drainage of the site.
        • Site should have a good drainage to prevent structures from being destroyed by water.
        • Damp conditions encourage disease infection.
      4. Direction of the prevailing wind.
        Pigsty and latrines should be constructed on the leeward side of the homestead because they produce foul smells.
      5. Accessibility
        Structures should be easy to reach from most parts of the farm.
      6. Relationship between the structures.
        Structures with related uses should be constructed close to each other to save on time and labor.
      7. Topography of the area.
        Some structures require a relatively level site.
      8. Proximity of amenities.
        Electricity, water supply etc, should be considered.
      9. Farmer’s taste and prevalence.
        Some farmers may prefer to have the homestead in a sheltered place while others may not.
      10. Government policy.
        The government policy while sitting some structures should be considered, e.g siting structures near river banks.
        Stating ½ mark Explanation ½ mark Total 10marks

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