History Questions and Answers - Form 3 Term 1 Opener Exams 2023

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  • This paper contains two sections A and B.
  • Answer ALL questions in section A and any three in section B.


  1. Identify the branch of history that studies the means of livelihood of people. (1mk)
  2. Name two communities that belong to western Bantu speakers of Kenya. (2mk)
  3. State the importance of the Eunoto ceremony among the Maasai. (1mk)
  4. Give the evidence that show the Chinese traders reached the East African coast. (2mk)
  5. Give two disadvantages of dual citizenship. (2mk)
  6. Identify one technological factor which facilitated to the coming of early visitors to the Kenyan coast before 1500AD. (1mk)
  7. Name two treaties that were signed to end slave trade along the coast of East African coast. (2mk)
  8. Give two types of a constitution. (2mk)
  9. Mention two political causes of conflict in the society today. (2mk)
  10. Give two factors that enhanced the spread of von working in Africa. (2mk)
  11. What was the main item of trade from North Africa in Trans-Saharan Trade. (1mk)
  12. Give two reasons why camel is referred to as “the ship of desert” (2mk)
  13. State two characteristics of industrial revolution in Britain. (2mk)
  14. Give two factors which led to the growth of urban countries in Greece. (2mk)
  15. State one source of British constitution. (2mk)

Answer any three questions in this section.

    1. State five reasons that led to the migration of cushites from their original homeland to present day today. (5mk)
    2. Describe the economic organization of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period. (10mk)
    1. Highlight 5 characteristics of a good constitution. (5mks)
    2. Describe five feature of independence constitution of Kenya. (10mk)
    1. Identify five factors of the ancient city of Athens. (5mk)
    2. Describe five challenges experiences in the city of Johannesburg. (10mk)
    1. State five methods used by European powers to acquire colonies in Africa. (5mk)
    2. Explain five economic factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa. (10mk)


  1. Economic history
    • Abagusii
    • Abaluhya 
    • Abasuba
  3. It marked transition from Morans (warrior-hood) to junior elders.
    1. Chinese coins
    2. Porcelain books and plates.
    1. Divided loyalty especially when the two countries are involved in a conflict.
    2. Payment of taxes which is a requirement by both countries.
  6. Marine technology (ship building, map reading, compass reading)
    1. Moresby treaty
    2. Hammerton treaty
    3. Frere treaty
    1. Written constitution 
    2. Unwritten constitution
    1. Different political ideologies
    2. Party membership
    3. Denying citizens their rights.
    4. Electoral irregularities. (2x1)
    1. Migration 
    2. Trade
    3. Warfare
    4. Intermarriages
  11. Salt
    1. Can service for long without food and water.
    2. Feet are adapted to desert condition.
    3. Stores fat in the hump.
    4. Water lost through the nostril is taken through the mouth.
    1. Use of machines instead human labourers
    2. Rise by the factory system replacing cottage industry.
    3. Use of new sources of energy.
    4. Production of goods in large quantities.
    5. Workers organized in shifts.
    6. Application of scientific knowledge in production.
    1. Trade
    2. Administration
    3. Religion
    4. Strategic location
    1. Statutes
    2. Customers of parliament
    3. Historical documents such as Magma colta (1215AD)
    4. Law of precedents.
    5. Customs and traditions
    6. Conventrans and practices.


      • Escaping clan/ family feuds/ internal feuds
      • Population pressure in their area of origin
      • In search of better grazing fields
      • Fleeing both human and animal diseases
      • Some wanted to satisfy their spirit of adventure
      • Were escaping famine and drought.
      • Crop cultivation e.g sorghum, millet, yams, beans in fertile areas of Mbooni.
      • Livestock keeping in drier areas of Kitui.
      •   Hunted wild game and gathered fruits and roots.
      • Practiced iron working
      • Practiced wood calving making tools and shield.
      • Engaged in pottery
      • Bee keeping
      • Acted as middlemen in long distance treds 
      • Basketry.
      1. Definite and specific in content
      2. Comprehensive so as to cover all aspects of government
      3. Durable and client to avoid being tampered with
      4. Flexible to accommodate changing needs of the society
      5. Able to protect the fundamentals right and freedoms of the citizens.
      6. Able to give room for amendment and clearly state the procedure for its amendment.
      1. It was based on west minerals parliamentary system whereby the prime minister was to lead the government and was to be appointed by the government from among members of the lower house.
      2. The executive power lay with the British Queen who delegates it to the Governor General.
      3. The national assembly was bicameral; This implies that it had two houses. House of Representatives/ Lower house and senate/ upper house.
      4. The constitution provided for an elaborate scheme for protection of minorities rights. These rights were protected by a Bill of Rights. 
      1. It was an education centre.
      2. It was a centre of sports
      3. It was a religious centre
      4. It was a recreational centre/ provided entertainment 
      5. It was a cultural/ theatre/arts centre/ music centre
      6. It was a trading/ commercial centre
      7. It was a transport/ communication centre
      8. It was an administrative centre.
      1. There exists a huge gap between the wealthy Europeans and poor Africans.
      2. High unemployment rate among the people due to high population.
      3. High rate of infection of HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the cost of treatment.
      4. There is land/ air/ water pollution caused by emission of poisonous gases from industries.
      5. There is inadequate housing which has led to development of slums.
      6. There is discrimination where Africans are mistreated.
      7. It experiences industrial unrest/ strikes by industrial workers.
      8. Traffic jams are rampant due to many vehicles in the city.
      9. High rate of crimes leading to insecurity and prostitution.
      10. Congestion in the town due to rural-urban migration.
      1. Diplomacy
      2. Signing of treaties.
      3. Military conquest
      4. Divide and rule tactics
      5. Giving gifts and presents
      6. Treachery/ trials
      7. Use of company rule.
      • Markets for their manufactured goods.
      • Raw materials for their industries.
      • Areas to invent their surplus capital. 
      • European traders sought protection from their home countries when they were faced with competition.
      • Need for cheap labour from Africa to produce raw materials.
      • Speculation about the availability of minerals in Africa.
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