# Geography paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 1 Exams 2023

## QUESTIONS

1.
1. State how the values of minerals influence the exploitation of some minerals. (2mks)
2. Apart from solution method, give three other methods of underground mining. (3mks)
2.
1. Explain in two ways in which soils influence the distribution and type of natural forest. (2mks)
2. State three characteristics of temperate hardwood forests. (3mks)
3.
1. What is a photograph? (2mks)
2. State three characteristics of ground horizontal close – up. (3mks)
4.
1. What is Agriculture? (2mks)
2. Name three types of Agriculture. (3mks)
5.
1. State three characteristics of a bar graph. (3mks)
2. State two disadvantages of using a wind – rose as a method of representing statistical data. (2mks)

SECTION B : 25MKS

1. The table below shows the value of key domestic exports from Kenya between 2013 and 2016 in Ksh. Million.

 EXPORT 2013 2014 2015 2016 TEA 105,000 94,000 123,000 124,000 HORTICULTUREPRODUCE 89,000 97,000 101,000 110,000 TOURISM 94,000 87,000 85,000 100,000
1. Using a Vertical scale of 1cm to represent Ksh. 15 Billion, draw a comparative bar graph to present the data in the table. (10mks)
2.
1. In which year Kenya export the highest produce? (1mk)
2. What is the difference of the produce Kenya exported between year 2014 and 2016 (1mks)
3. Calculate the percentage increase of produce between year 2013 and 2015. (2mks)
3. Give three reasons why a comparative bar graph is more suitable for presenting these statistics than the comparative line graph. (3mks)
4.
1. State three limitations of using observation as a method of collecting data. (3mks)
2. State four ways through which statistics is important. (4mks)
2.
1. Give four ways in which minerals occur. (4mks)
2. Explain how the following factors influence the formation of minerals. (4mks)
1. Volcanicity
2. Weathering
3. State four problems facing the mining industry in Kenya. (4mks)
4. The diagram below shows shaft mining. Use it to answer the question that follows:
1. Identify the parts labeled FG H (3mks)
2. Describe how minerals are extracted using solution methods. (6mks)
5. Explain two ways in which trona mining has benefited the economy of Kenya. (4mks)
3.
1. Define the following terms. (4mks)
1. Forest
2. Forestry
3. Natural forest.
4. Cultivated forest.
2. Explain four problems facing in Canada. (8mks)
3. State three ways in which the Kenyan government has taken to conserve forests. (3mks)
4.
1. State four factors that has influenced the exploitation of softwoods in Canada. (4mks)
2. State three characteristics of softwood forest in Canada. (3mks)
5. State three importances of forest products. (3mks)

## MARKING SCHEME

1.
1. State how the values of minerals influence the exploitation of some minerals. (2mks)
• Mineral such as diamond, gold, and fossil fuels such as petroleum fetch high market prices thus worth mining even at high cost.
2. Apart from solution method, give three other methods of underground mining. (3mks)
• Vertical shaft method.
• Drilling method.
2.
1. Explain in two ways in which soils influence the distribution and type of natural forest. (2mks)
• Latosols in hot regions support tropical rainforests while acidic soils have led to the development of coniferous forests.
• Saline soils support the growth of mangrove forests.
2. State three characteristics of temperate hardwood forests. (3mks)
• Some forests are hardwood.
• Individual tree species are scattered.
• Trees are lighter and easier to exploit than hardwoods from the tropic.
• Most of the trees have broad leaves.
3.
1. What is a photograph? (2mks)
• Is an image of an object which is recorded by a camera on a film or paper
2.  State three characteristics of ground horizontal close – up. (3mks)
• The camera is held at the same level as the object.
• The camera is focused on the major object.
• The main Object obsaires other objects behind it.
4.
1. What is Agriculture? (2mks)
• Is the art and science of growing crops and rearing of livestock.
2. Name three types of Agriculture. (3mks)
• Arable farming
• Livestock farming
• Mixed farming.
5.
1. State three characteristics of a bar graph. (3mks)
• Bar graphs are two dimensional in Nature.
• All bars originate from zero (horizontal axis)
• The width of bars must be uniform.
• Bars representing the same item are shaded uniformly.
• Dependent variables are lofted a long the vertical axis.
• Independent variables are plotted along the horizontal axis.
• Bar graphs must have comprehensive title.
• Space is to be left in between bars, it must be equal.
2. State two disadvantages of using a wind – rose as a method of representing statistical data. (2mks)
• It is difficult to extract Numerical values.
• It does not indicate the exact day when wind blew.
• Wind flow over a long period of month cannot be clearly seen in the diagram.

SECTION B : 25MKS

1. The table below shows the value of key domestic exports from Kenya between 2013 and 2016 in Ksh. Million.
 EXPORT 2013 2014 2015 2016 EXPORT 105,000 94,000 123,000 124,000 HORTICULTUREPRODUCE 89,000 97,000 101,000 110,000 TOURISM 94,000 87,000 85,000 100,000
1. Using a Vertical scale of 1cm to represent Ksh. 15 Billion, draw a comparative bar graph to present the data in the table. (10mks)
Comparative bar graph.
2.
1. In which year Kenya export the highest produce? (1mk)
• Year 2016
2. What is the difference of the produce Kenya exported between year 2014 and 2016 (1mks)
56,00 Millions shillings
3. Calculate the percentage increase of produce between year 2013 and 2015. (2mks)
309,000 – 288,000 =21,000
Increase/initial X 100 = 21,000 X 100/28800 = 7.30%
3.  Give three reasons why a comparative bar graph is more suitable for presenting these statistics than the comparative line graph. (3mks)
• It is easy to compare similar components across the different sets of bars.
• Group bars emphasize quantities very well because of their solid nature.
• They give good visual impression.
• Different in quantities between bars in each set are easier to see than when lines are used.
4.
1. State three limitations of using observation as a method of collecting data. (3mks
• It is only suitable for normal sighted people.
• Old data may not be available for the observer.
• It is limited to direct source of information.
• It involves a lot of travelling thus expensive.
2. State four ways through which statistics is important. (4mks)
• Geographical information can be summarized in different forms such as graphs.
• The relationship between two varying quantities can be easily illustrated.
• Statistical data enables people to draw meaningful conclusive.
• Statistical data enable to explain geographical phenomena eg climate data is used to explain vegetation type.
• Statistical data on climate can be predict future weather trends such occurrence of floods or drought.
2.
1. Give four ways in which minerals occur. (4mks)
• Veins and lodes
• Beds and seams
• Alluvial deposits.
• Weathering products.
2. Explain how the following factors influence the formation of minerals. (4mks)
1. Volcanicity
• Igneous activity course mineral in molten form to cool, solidify and crystallize within rock joint, cracks and faults. This process leads to the formation veins and lodes.
2. Weathering
• Some minerals within rocks may break down into smaller particles under hot humid condition. Chemical reactions during weathering may result in soluble mineral that the washed down during leaching and deposited in lower section.
3. State four problems facing the mining industry in Kenya. (4mks)
• Insufficient capital for the exportation and processing of minerals.
• Inadequate skilled personnel for the mining industry thus making Kenya to rely on laborious from developed countries.
• Air pollution by dust and smoke emitted from open cast mines and processing zones which is harmful to people’s health.
• Occurrence of derelict land mainly due to open cast mining which reduces arable land and is dangerous to people.
• Inaccessibility of some minerals in some regions due to ruggedness.
• Effluent from some mineral processing plants interferes with ground water and river water .
4. The diagram below shows shaft mining. Use it to answer the question that follows:
1. Identify the parts labeled FG H (3mks)
• F – Horizontal tunnel
• G – Mineral ore
• H - Lift
2. Describe how minerals are extracted using solution methods. (6mks)
• A vertical hole is drilled using machines to reach the layer with t he mineral deposit.
• Three pipes are inserted into the hole to reach the deposit.
• Superheated water is passed into the deposit through one pipe.
• After the mineral dissolves or melts, hot compressed air is pumped into the underground to create pressure.
• The dissolved or molten mineral then rises to the surface through the third largest pipe.
• At the surface, the water is evaporated leaving the mineral. Solution method is used to mine salt, potash and sulphur.
5. Explain two ways in which trona mining has benefited the economy of Kenya. (4mks)
• Development of glass and bottle industry as soda ash provides the main material.
• The Kenyan government earns revenue through exportation by taxing the profit of the company.
• It has led to development of a tarmac road and railway branch from konza to magadi.
• Trona mining has created employment opportunities to many Kenyans.
• Trona when exported earns the government of Kenya
3.
1. Define the following terms. (4mks)
1. Forest – is a continuous growth of trees and undergrowths covering a large tract of land.
2. Forestry – is the science of developing and managing forests including cultivating them.
3. Natural forest. – are trees and other plants that grow on their own covering large tracts of land without influence by people.
4. Cultivated forest. – are composed of trees grown by people.
2. Explain four problems facing in Canada. (8mks)
1. Overexploitation in some areas at times resulted in shortage of some trees species.
2. Cold climate especially in the Northern parts of Canada.
3. Accidental fires mainly started by lightning during summer which destroys large parts of forest
4. Rugged landscape in the mountainous region hinders smooth exploitation of the forests.
5. Pests such as aphids which destroy large forests causing drying of some trees ie cypress.
6. Inaccessibility in the Northern parts during winter due to heavy snowfall which hinders exploitation.
3. State three ways in which the Kenyan government has taken to conserve forests. (3mks)
1. Creation of forest reserves
2. Aforestation
3. Reaforestation
4. Enacting laws that prohibit unlicensed cutting down of trees.
5. Establish the ministry of environment and Natural environment and conservation activities.
4.
1. State four factors that has influenced the exploitation of softwoods in Canada. (4mks)
• Availability of cheap water transport through rivers for moving logs downstream to factories.
• The large rivers have been harnessed to generate hydro electric power for the saw mills and paper mills.
• Availbility of large permanent rivers such as river fraser, R. Otrawa which provide water for processing softwood.
• Coastal location of t he main softwood producing areas which favors exploitation and exportation through ports such as Vancouver, Quebec and Montreal.
• High demand for forest products such as newsprint sawn paper in Canada, USA, Britain and Japan.
2. State three characteristics of softwood forest in Canada. (3mks)
• The trees are conical in shape
• They occur in pare stands
• They grow tall and straight
• They have needle- like leaves
• They bear cones
• The forests are evergreen
• The forest have no undergrowth
• The trees have thick barks
• They have shallow roots
5. State three importance of forest products. (3mks)
• Trees provide timber which is mainly used in building construction and furniture making.
• Trees provide firewood and charcoal for domestic and industrial fuel.
• Planted forest provides softwoods that are raw materials for the paper industry plywood, chipboards and veneers.
• Some animals in some forest such as birds and mammals are hunted by some communities for food.
• Some plants found in the forest are used to make herbal medicine.
• Tannin obtained from the bank of the wathe tree is used in the leather industry
• Some communities harvest non – wood products such as fruits, tubers, vegetables and edible mushrooms from forests.

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