INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answers all questions in this question paper
- Read the passage below then answer the questions that follow (20mks)
Drinkers and alcoholics pay severe penalties for their drinking. It has been estimated that alcoholics are likely to die ten to twelve years sooner than non-alcoholics half die before the age of fifty, which is one reason there are so few elderly alcoholics. The mortality rate (that is, the number of persons per 100,000 who die each year) among alcoholics is more than two and a half times higher than that of the general population.
Alcoholics often die violent circumstances; serious accidents, homicide, and suicide are not uncommon. This, together with the physical deterioration accompanying alcoholism, helps explain the limits on life expectancy. No one really knows how many deaths are directly attributed to drinking, and all such statistics are estimates. One reason for our limited knowledge is that many physicians do not report alcoholism as the main cause of death out of concern for the feelings of the family of the deceased.
Research on the physiological effects of alcoholism has increased in the last few years. Heavy drinking is known to be associated with various types of cancer, particularly among persons who also use tobacco. Alcohol abuse also increases the probability of hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease. Alcoholics frequently suffer illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver, a disease in which the liver becomes fatty, scarred, and incapable of functioning normally. In large urban areas, cirrhosis is the fourth most common cause of death among men aged twenty-five to forty-five.
Alcohol affects the brain, often permanently damaging the mental functioning of alcoholics. Drinking may reduce the number of living cells in the brain. Since brain cells do not grow back, alcoholics may suffer from organic psychosis (a mental illness traceable to brain damages), loss of memory, and poor physical and mental co-ordination. One out of four persons who are admitted to mental hospitals are diagnosed as alcoholics and 40 percent of all admissions are alcohol related. Many of the alcoholic inmates are unlikely to recover.
The unborn children of female alcoholics are subject to harm from drinking in what is called foetal alcohol syndrome.
Because alcohol tends to be a substitute for a balanced diet, alcoholics are often malnourished. Consequently, the infants of alcoholic women are likely to be less healthy and less well developed than other babies. Moreover, when a pregnant woman drinks, so, in effect, does her foetus. The new born children of alcoholic women may die shortly after birth unless they are medically treated from the shock to their systems for suddenly being cut off from alcohol. Furthermore, the impact of alcohol on the woman and her foetus is a major cause of birth defects and originally based mental deficiency among the newborn. The effects of foetal alcohol syndrome on the children of female alcoholics are usually chronic and may be permanently disabling.
Clearly, it is not too much of an exaggeration to say that alcohol kills and maims people. When abused, alcohol is a highly dangerous drug.
- What are the major causes of death among alcoholics? (2mks)
- Which reason does the writer give as to why physicians do not report alcoholic related deaths? (2mks)
- One out of four persons who are admitted to mental hospitals are diagnosed as alcoholics. (Rewrite using a few………………) (2mks)
- Alcoholics often die under violent circumstances…. (Add a question tag) (1mk)
- What is the attitude of the writer towards people who abuse alcohol? (3mks)
- Explain what the following sentence means. Alcohol tends to be a substitute for a balanced diet (2mks)
- Make notes on the effects of alcohol to expectant mothers and their children (4mks)
- Supply a suitable title for the passage. (1mk)
- Explain the meanings of the following words as used in the passage (3mks)
- Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follows.
Krogstad: Are you sure of that?
Mrs. Linde: Quite sure, but-
Krogstad: (with a searching look at her) Is that what It all means?- that you want to save your friend at any cost? Tell me frankly. Is that it?
Mrs Linde: Nils, a woman who has once sold herself for another’s sake doesn’t do it a second time.
Krogstad: I will ask for my letter back.
Mrs Linde: No, no.
Krogstad: Yes, of course I will. I will wait here until Helmer comes; I will tell him he must give me my letter back- that it only concerns my dismissal- that he is not to read it-
Mrs. Linde: No Nils, you must not recall your letter.
Krogstad: But, tell me wasn’t it for that very purpose that you asked me to meet you here?
Mrs Linde: In my first moment of fright, it was. But twenty-four hours have elapsed since then, and in that time I have witnessed incredible things in this house. Helmer must know all about it. This unhappy secret must be disclosed; they must have a complete understanding between them which is impossible with all this concealment and falsehood going on.
Krogstad: Very well, if you take the responsibility. But there is one thing I can do in any case and I shall do it at once.
Mrs Linde: (listening) You must be quick and go! The dance is over; we are not safe a moment longer.
Krogstad: I will wait for you below.
Mrs Linde: Yes, do. You must see me back to my door
Krogstad: I have never had such an amazing piece of good fortune in my life!
- Explain what had happened before this excerpt. (4marks)
- Why does Krogstad say he would ask for his letter back? Explain (3marks)
- “Nils, a woman who has once sold herself for another’s sake doesn’t do it a second time.”
Briefly explain what makes Mrs. Linde say this? (3marks)
- Identify one character trait of Mrs. Linde in this extract (2marks)
- What is so surprising in this extract? Explain. (2marks)
- “But there is one thing I can do in any case and I shall do it at once.” What is it that
Krogstad does and how does it affect the rest of the play? (4marks)
- "I have never had such an amazing piece of good fortune in my life!” Rewrite
Beginning Never: (1mark)
- What makes Krogstad say that he has never had such good fortune in his life? (2marks)
- Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the excerpt. (4marks)
- At any cost
- Incredible things
- Read the following narrative and answer the questions that follow
WHY THE LEOPARD HIDES HIS FOOD UP A TREE.
The Ndebele tell their children that long ago, there were three friends: the beautiful leopard, the jackal and the hyena. They went everywhere together. Whenever leopard killed an animal, he would always leave part of it for his friends, so that they could have a good feed too.
One day it happened that leopard was ill, and so he could not hunt. “Jackal,” he said, “Please catch some food for us, for I am not well.”
But lazy jackal said, “No, I am too weary. Ask hyena.” So leopard said, “Hyena, please hunt for us today, for I am not well enough to do so.”
But Hyena, too, made an excuse: “No, I have a sore foot.” So leopard roared in anger, “I thought you were my friends, but you are a no-good lazy pair. Never again will I leave you meat when I make my kill. From this day on, I will make sure of it. I shall take what is left and hang it in a tree, when I have eaten all I want. Then neither of you will be able to get it.
Leopard was true to his word-for since that day he has never left any meat for his selfish friends. Up into a tree it goes, high out of reach of jackals and hyenas. They have become scavengers now instead, and they eat the scraps that other animals leave behind. It was a sad day for them when they lost Leopard’s friendship.
(When Hippo was Hairy and other tales from Africa, Lurtherworth press, 1990).
- Classify this narrative and give reasons for your answer. (2mks)
- With illustrations, describe the characteristics of the Leopard. (4mks)
- Explain two features typical of oral narratives present in this story. (4mks)
- Never again will I leave you meat when I make my kill. (Rewrite this sentence beginning: I….) (2mks)
- What lesson do we learn from this story? (2mks)
- What function is usually played by the opening formula in an oral narrative such as this? (2mks)
- Describe the attitude of the narrator towards the leopard (2mks)
- Explain the implication of the lost friendship between Leopard, Hyena and Jackal (2mks)
- Rewrite the following sentences as instructed: (4mks)
- He ran away. He shouted as he ran. (Rewrite to end ……. Shouting)
- Wanga wrote an article. He posted it on the website. (Join the sentence to begin: Having….)
- Those men have messed up our lives. (Change into passive)
- She asked me who I was. (Change into direct speech).
- Use the correct form of the word given in brackets.
- The doctor’s evidence was………………….. (Admit) in court because it was not foolproof.
- Their play was accused of ……………..……….(decent) and was discontinued
- The contribution……………………(able) the couple to pay hospital bills
- Rewrite the following sentences to remove gender bias. (3mks)
- A professor should give his students opportunities to develop their skills.
- My sister was appointed chairman of the water project committee.
- The firemen took a long time to arrive at the scene of the accident.
- Use phrasal verbs formed from the words in brackets to fill the blank spaces (3mk)
- I am sorry you were not satisfied by our services, I will ……………. your complaint at once (look)
- I………………Michael when I was in town this morning (run)
- The last thing I would like to do is to ………………….with my parents (fall)
- Explain the difference in meaning between the following pair (2mks)
- A Mr. Gitau came to see you when you were out
- Mr. Gitau came to see you when you were out
- Major causes of death among alcoholics include violent circumstances, serious accidents, homicide and suicide.
- It would hurt the family of the deceased to learn that the death of the loved one was caused by excessive drinking/ He is concerned about the feeling of the family of the deceased.
- A few of the people admitted to mental hospitals are diagnosed as alcoholics
- Don’t they?
- Critical – He says that to advance that alcohol kills and maims people is not an exaggeration
When abused alcohol is highly dangerous drug
- Alcoholics do not eat well, they would rather drink than eat
- Their infants are likely to be less healthy and less development than other babies
- The infants may die shortly a few birth
- The children suffer from mental deficiency
- The mothers are likely to be malnourished
- Personal health / alcohol abuse / alcoholism / effects of alcohol
- Attributed – linked / connected
- Scarred – hasting adverse effect / worsening
- Statistics – those thought to have died/figures/numbers
- Before the extract, Krogstad asks Christine if she still have the courage to have him back after what he has done. Christine tell shim she understand that it was despair that made him do that. He regrets that he cannot undo what he has done. Mrs Linde tell him that the letter is still in the letterbox. (4marks)
- He does not want Nora’s husband to know the secret of forgery that she has kept from him for many years. He has reunited with Christine and is very happy. He does not want to ruin the Helmers’ marriage who are friends to Christine. (3marks)
- She once sacrificed her love for the sake of her bedridden mother and two young brothers. By saying that, it means she cannot be doing it the second time for another person because that experience was enough. (3marks)
- Selfless: “she sacrificed for another person, her mother and brothers. She says “a woman who has once sold herself for another’s sake doesn’t do it a second time. (2marks)
- It is surprising that Krogstad can change his mind about revenging against the Helmers. He was much determined to have his own way with them and his change and readiness to withdraw the letter catches the readers by surprise (2marks)
- Krogstad writes Nora another letter that sets free Nora and her husband. He also returns the bond and all the evidence of forgery. Mr. Helmer is very happy now that he is saved and tells Nora he has forgiven her. However, this comes when it is too late for he had already condemned her for her actions. Nora decides to leave him and the children. (4marks)
- Never had I such an amazing piece of good fortune in my life! (1mark)
- Christine had left him for a richer man who would help her support her sick mother and two young brothers. She has given him another chance for she wants to have somebody to live and work for.(2marks)
- at any cost- no matter what/ despite the danger involved.
- recall- ask or call back
- Elapsed- pass
- Incredible things- unbelievable things (4marks)
- Animal tale- characters are all animals
- Aetiological story - explain why the leopard hides his food up a tree with a reason.
- The leopard is hardworking – hunts and ensures there is food unlike the Jackal and the Hyena.
- Principled - decided to end his relationship with his no- good lazy pair of friends and holds to it up to date.
Identification 1mrk illustration 1mrk 2points =4mrks
- Timelessness – Long ago
- Dialogue - between leopard and Jackal Hyena
- Personification – leopard, Jackal and Hyena talk.
- Direct translation – catch for us food
Any 2 points
Identification 1 illustration 1 =1mrk
- I will never leave you meat again when I make my kill. (2mrks)
- We should give our hand to friends when they are in need to sustain friendship. Jackal and Hyena failed.
- Hard work pays. The Leopard always has enough food to eat and spare.
- We should be principled like the leopard if we are to make radical changes in life, like choosing friends.
- Captures the attention of the audience
- Lays background to the narration which ensures that the audience flows with the narrator in the Story.
- Marks the beginning of a story.
- Transport the audience from the world of reality to the world of fantasy.
- Liking / approving / appreciative attitude- Describes that Leopard are beautiful because of his hard work.
- The Hyena and the Jackal would henceforth not share the kill of the leopard/ The Hyena and the Jackal would be reduced to scavengers.
- He ran away shouting.
- Having written an article, Wanga posted it on the website (no mark without Comma)
- Our lives have been messed up by those men.
- “Who are you?” she asked.
- Professors should give their students opportunities to develop their skills/
A professor should give his or her student opportunities to develop their skills/
A professor should give students opportunities to develop their skills.
- My sister was appointed the chairperson/ chair of the water project committee in our village.
- The fire fighters / fire brigade took a long time to arrive at the scene of the accidents.
- Professors should give their students opportunities to develop their skills/
- look into
- ran into
- fall out
- In the first sentence, a person who identified himself as Mr. Gitau came around to see the person being addressed. However, the speaker does not know this Mr. Gitau
- In the second sentence Mr. Gitau who is well known by both the speaker and the addressee, came to see the person being addressed.