History Paper 1 Questions And Answers - Form 4 Term 2 Opener 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS

  • This paper has Three sections: A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question three questions from section B and two others from section C.

SECTION A (25MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Identify one branch in the study of History and Government of Kenya (1mk)
  2. What was the main economic activity of the Cushites in the pre-colonial period? (1mk)
  3. State two similarities in the political organization of the Ameru and Abagusii in Kenya during the 19th century (2mks)
  4. Identify one way in which the Monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan coast and the outside world (1mk)
  5. State two functions of Fort Jesus during the Portuguese rule along the Kenyan coast (2mks)
  6. Define the term dual citizenship (1mk)
  7. Give two categories of human rights (2mks)
  8. Give two rules that govern the concept of National justice (2mks)
  9. State two terms of Anglo-German-Agreement of 1886 (2mks)
  10. Give one reason why the British colonial government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya (1mk)
  11. What was the main reason for the formation of Ukamba Members Association? (1mk)
  12. Why was the nomination of Eliud Mathu to the Legco important? (1mk)
  13. Name two chambers of parliament under the new constitution (2mks)
  14. Name one branch of the police service in Kenya (1mk)
  15. Name one superior court in Kenya (1mk)
  16. Identify one circumstance that would make a county governor to be removed from office (1mk)
  17. State the main function of the National Security Council (1mk)

SECTION B
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Why did the Highland Nilotes migrate from their original homeland during the pre-colonial period? (5mks)
    2. Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Highland Nilotes in Kenya (10mks)
  2.  
    1. Give three reasons for the coming of European Christian missionaries to Kenya in the 19th century (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that hindered the work of early Christian missionaries in Kenya (12mks)
  3.  
    1. What were the reasons for construction of the Kenya – Uganda railway? (3mks)
    2. Explain six effects of the construction of Kenya – Uganda railway (12mks)
  4.  
    1. Why were Africans opposed to the British colonial rule between 1920 – 1939? (5mks)
    2. Explain five methods used by African Nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for independence (10mks)

SECTION C
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.  
    1. State three factors that have undermined natural unity in Kenya since independence (5mks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the correctional services in Kenya today (10mks)
  2.  
    1. Identify three groups of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) (3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Kenya Defence Forces (12mks)
  3.  
    1. Name five survival rights of a child (5mks)
    2. Describe five features of the Independence constitution (10mks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. Identify one branch in the study of History and Government of Kenya (1mk)
    • Social
    • Political
    • Economic
  2. What was the main economic activity of the Cushites in the pre-colonial period? (1mk)
    • Pastoralism/Livestock keeping
  3. State two similarities in the political organization of the Ameru and Abagusii in Kenya during the 19th century (2mks)
    • Clan formed the basic political unit
    • Leadership was by council of elders
    • Council of elders settled disputes
    • Age-set provided warriors who defended the community
  4. Identify one way in which the Monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan coast and the outside world (1mk)
    • They would blow the ships/dhows to the E.A. Coast and back to their countries
  5. State two functions of Fort Jesus during the Portuguese rule along the Kenyan coast (2mks)
    • Used as a watch tower to detect enemies
    • Hiding place
    • Store for weapons
    • Prison for war captives
    • Base for sending expenditions
  6. Define the term dual citizenship (1mk)
    • It is the legal right of a person to belong to two countries
  7. Give two categories of human rights (2mks)
    • Civil and political rights
    • Social, economic and cultural rights
    • Solidarity rights
  8. Give two rules that govern the concept of National justice (2mks)
    • Right to a fair hearing
    • Rule against bias
  9. State two terms of Anglo-German-Agreement of 1886 (2mks)
    • The sultan of Zanzibar got 16km coastal strip and coastline
    • The territory between River Umba and River Ruvuma would become German sphere of influence
    • British would take up the territory between River Umba and River Juba
    • Western boundary was not defined and Uganda was up for grabs to whichever power got there first
  10. Give one reason why the British colonial government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya (1mk)
    • To exploit the highlands to meet costs of administration and railway maintenance
    • Settler activities would offset administration cost
    • Settler activities would provide raw materials
    • Settlers would counter Asian influence
  11. What was the main reason for the formation of Ukamba Members Association? (1mk)
    • Africans were against the Destocking policy
  12. Why was the nomination of Eliud Mathu to the Legco important? (1mk)
    • For the first time Africans were represented in the Legco by one of their own
  13. Name two chambers of parliament under the new constitution (2mks)
    • The National Assembly
    • Senate
  14. Name one branch of the police service in Kenya (1mk)
    • Administration Police Service
    • National Police Service
  15. Name one superior court in Kenya (1mk)
    • Supreme Court
    • Court of Appeal
    • High Court
  16. Identify one circumstance that would make a county governor to be removed from office (1mk)
    • Gross misconduct/abuse of office
    • Physical or mental incapacity to perform
    • Gross violation of the constitution or any other law
    • When proved that the County Governor has committed a crime under national or International law
  17. State the main function of the National Security Council (1mk)
    • Exercise supervisory control over national security organs/supervise national security organs

SECTION B
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Why did the Highland Nilotes migrate from their original homeland during the pre-colonial period? (5mks)
      • Moved in search of water and pasture for their livestock
      • Outbreak of diseases/epidemics forced them to move
      • Attacks from other communities forced them to move
      • Population pressure in their cradle land
      • Due to drought and famine
      • Family/clan disputes
      • Spirit of adventure
    2. Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Highland Nilotes in Kenya (10mks)
      • They displaced some communities e.g. Abagusii, Maasai & Abaluhya
      • They absorbed/assimilated Bantu e.g. Teriki
      • Trading activities intensified
      • Population increased
      • They intermarried with other communities
      • Conflicts increased i.e. cattle raids
      • There was cultural exchange
  2.  
    1. Give three reasons for the coming of European Christian missionaries to Kenya in the 19th century (3mks)
      • To spread Christianity
      • To spread western culture/western civilization
      • To explore
      • They came to stop slave trade/establish legitimate trade
      • To counter the spread of Islam
    2. Explain six factors that hindered the work of early Christian missionaries in Kenya (12mks)
      • Lack of transport and communication facilities
      • Language barrier
      • Tropical diseases led to ill-health/death slowing their work
      • Lack of security
      • Opposition from Muslims
      • Inadequate funds
      • Faced hostility from slave traders
      • They were few in number compared to the vast population of Africans to be converted
      • Lack of geographical knowledge of the area
      • Inter-denominational rivalry
      • Lack of support from Africans because they interfered with traditional African culture
  3.  
    1. What were the reasons for construction of the Kenya – Uganda railway? (3mks)
      • To facilitate movement of troops to suppress resistance
      • To promote development of trade/Abolish slave trade
      • British wanted to protect the source of the Nile in Uganda
      • Wanted to exploit resources in the interior coast
      • Christian missionaries needed easy movement
      • Laying of infrastructure was the best testimony that the territory was now effectively under British crown
    2. Explain 6 effects of the construction of Kenya – Uganda railway (12mks)
      • Led to emergence of towns
      • Encouraged the construction of feeder roads
      • Led to land alienation
      • Simulated both internal and external trade
      • Employment opportunities
      • Provided revenue for governance
      • Missionaries were able to spread Christianity
      • Facilitated cultural & social interaction between different races
      • Led to rural-urban migration
      • Speeded up development of agriculture and industry
      • Rapid movement of troops
      • Easy accessibility to the interior
  4.  
    1. Why were Africans opposed to the British colonial rule between 1920 – 1939? (5mks)
      • Their land was alienated
      • They were discriminated/racial segregation
      • The British introduced Kipande system
      • Resented forced labour
      • Were against policies e.g. destocking policy
      • They were heavily taxed
      • They were against cultural interference
      • They were paid low wages/poor working conditions
    2. Explain five methods used by African Nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for independence (10mks)
      • Used armed struggle e.g Mau mau
      • Organized strikes/boycotts
      • Used trade unions to articulate the course of their struggle among workers
      • Used representatives in Legco to pressurize the colonial government
      • Formed social organization and political parties
      • Used mass media to mobilize the people
      • Used independent churches and schools to sensitize Africans
      • Africans sent petitions and delegations to the governor and colonial office in London

SECTION C
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.  
    1. State three factors that have undermined natural unity in Kenya since independence (5mks)
      • Tribalism
      • Nepotism
      • Racism
      • Party ideologies
      • Greed
      • Ignorance
      • Poverty
      • Corruption
      • Irresponsible utterances by leaders
      • Religious conflicts
    2. Explain five challenges facing the correctional services in Kenya today (10mks)
      • Overcrowding
      • Inadequate facilities due to congestion
      • Diseases e.g. HIV/AIDS
      • Mistreatment of prisoners by wardens e.g. King’ong’o torture
      • Food shortage
      • Poor clothing
  2.  
    1. Identify three groups of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) (3mks)
      • Kenya army
      • Kenya navy
      • Kenya airforce
    2. Explain 6 functions of the Kenya Defence Forces (12mks)
      • Defence and protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic
      • Assist and cooperate with other authorities
      • Deployed to restore peace in any part of the country affected by unrest
      • Assist in preservation of internal security e.g1982 coup
      • Participate in nation building activities e.g. road & bridge construction
      • Assist the public during national emergencies and calamities e.g. floods, famine, fire outbreaks
      • Entertain the citizens during National holidays e.g. Madaraka day
      • Take part in peace keeping missions such as UN peace keeping operations
  3.  
    1. Name five survival rights of a child (5mks)
      • Right to life
      • Right to a name and identity
      • Good medical care
      • Good clothing
      • Good shelter
      • Right to good
      • Right to education
    2. Describe five features of the Independence constitution (10mks)
      • Based on west minister parliamentary system
      • Government was headed by a Prime minister
      • National assembly was bicameral i.e senate & House of Representatives
      • Majiboism – country was divided into 7 regions
      • Rights of minorities were protected
      • Civil service was cushioned from corruption
      • Bill of rights was incorporated to guard against human rights abuses

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