Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Mid Term 2 Exams 2021

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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER 2
FORM 4 MID TERM 2

INSTRUCTIONS

  • This paper has two sections A and B
  • Answer all the questions in Section A
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from Section B

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

  1.      
    1. Name two areas where gold is mined in South Africa (2 mks)
    2. State 3 ways in which mining create employment in Kenya (3 mks)
  2.    
    1. Define the following terms;
      1. land reclamation
      2. Land rehabilitation
      3. Irrigation (3 mks)
    2. Give 2 methods that are used to drain swamps in Kenya (2 mks)
  3.               
    1. Name 2 physical factors that influence growth of palm oil in Nigeria (2 mks)
    2. State 3 uses of palm oil tree in Nigeria (3 mks)
  4.             
    1. Give 3 benefits of delta plan project of reclaiming land in Netherlands (3 mks)
    2. State 2 reasons for planting reeds while reclaiming land in Netherlands (2 mks)
  5.                 
    1. Define the term wildlife (2 mks)
    2. Identify 3 factors that influence distribution of wildlife (3 mks)

SECTION B: ANSWER QUESTION 6 AND ANY OTHER 2 QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.      
    1. The table below shows the methods used in land reclamation by sub counties
      Method of land reclamation Number of sub counties
      irrigation  70
      Drainage of swamps  80
      Tsetse fly control  45
      afforestation  15
      others  30
      total  240

      1. Using a scale of 1cm represent 15 sub counties draw a divided rectangle to represent the data above (8 mks)
      2. State 3 disadvantages of using the above method to present the data (2 mks)
    2. Describe 3 methods of controlling tsetse flies in Kenya (6 mks)
    3. Outline 4 methods of rehabilitating land in Kenya (4 mks)
    4. Outline the steps followed when reclaiming land in Netherlands (5 mks)
  2.      
    1. Describe 3 factors that influence fishing in Japan (6 mks)
    2. Describe the Lampara method of fishing (6 mks)
    3. Explain 4 ways in which fishing promotes the development of industries (8 mks)
    4. A field study was conducted on fishing in Lake Naivasha
      1. List 3 common fish species the study would have noted (3 mks)
      2. Give 2 main problems the study would have noted facing fishing in Lake Naivasha(2mks)
  3.        
    1.        
      1. Name 2 provinces where forests are found in Canada (2 mks)
      2. Give 3 tree species found in Canada (3 mks)
    2. Explain 3 ways in which the transportation of logs in Canada differs from Kenya (6 mks)
    3. Explain 4 problems that face forestry in Canada (8 mks)
    4. A form 4 class conducted a field study in a forested region in the area around their school.
      1. Identify 2 main categories of hypotheses that the students would have formulated (2mks)
      2. Give 4 activities that the students would have been involved in during the study (4 mks)
  4.             
    1. Explain 3 human factors that led to the establishment of Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme(6 mks)
    2.         
      1. Apart from rice,name 3 other crops that are grown in Mwea irrigation scheme (3 mks)
      2. Explain 2 ways in which pests and diseases as a problem facing the irrigation scheme Can be solved. (4 mks)
    3. Explain 3 benefits of Perkerra irrigation scheme (6 mks)
    4. State 6 problems facing Perkerra irrigation scheme (6 mks)
  5.    
    1. Identify 3 areas in Kenya where maize is grown on large scale (3 mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors favour wheat growing
      1. Climate (4 mks)
      2. labour (4 mks)
    3. Explain 3 ways in which harvesting of wheat in Kenya differ from that of Canada (6 mks)
    4. A field study was conducted on wheat growing by an exchange programme of Kenyan students in Canada.
      1. Identify 2 ports through which wheat harvested in Canada is exported through, the students would have noted. (2mks)
      2. Name 2 varieties of wheat that the students would have noted (2mks)
      3. Give 2 reasons why the students would have made use of sampling technique (2mks)
      4. Name 2 wheat growing provinces the students would have visited (2mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.    
    1. Name two areas where gold is mined in South Africa (2 mks)
      • Witwatersrand
      • Ladenburg
      • Ogendaalrus
    2. State 3 ways in which mining create employment in Kenya (3 mks)
      • some people are employed as miners
      • Some people are employed indirectly as managers in factories that make use of minerals
      • some people are employed to transport the minerals from the site to the factories
      • some people are employed to work as security officers in the mining industries
  2.        
    1. Define the following terms;
      • land reclamation-it’s the process by which unproductive land is converted into an agriculturally productive state
      • land rehabilitation-refers to the process of restoring land that was originally productive to its former useful condition.
      • irrigation-it’s the process of supplying water to the land or to crops by means of channels or pipes (3 mks)
    2. Give 2 methods that are used to drain swamps in Kenya (2 mks)
      • canals and ditches have been constructed to drain the swamps
      • planting of trees which take a lot of water in swampy areas.
  3.        
    1. Name 2 physical factors that influence growth of palm oil in Nigeria (2 mks)
      • Temperature
      • Rainfall
      • Humidity
      • soils
      • windbreaks
      • Relief
    2. State 3 uses of palm oil tree in Nigeria (3 mks)
      • Palm leaves are used for thatching
      • Palm leaves are used for making mats,baskets,and brooms
      • Per carp fibres and nut shells are used as fuels
      • Palm trees are used as building poles
  4.       
    1. Give 3 benefits of delta plan project of reclaiming land in Netherlands (3 mks)
      • control of pollution and salinization of the water
      • south western region benefited from the fresh water reservoir created
      • control of flooding
      • more recreational opportunities and the development of tourism
      • the island of zeeland ceased to be isolated since the distance from vissingen to Rotterdam was shorted by 50km
    2. State 2 reasons for planting reeds while reclaiming land in Netherlands (2 mks)
      • to make use of excess water
  5.         
    1. wildlife - refers to plants and animals existing in their natural habitats 2mks
    2. Identify 3 factors that influence distribution of wildlife (3 mks)
      • climate
      • vegetation
      • relief or terrain
      • drainage
      • soil type
      • human activites
  6.         
    1. The table below shows the methods used in land reclamation by sub counties
      1. Using a scale of 1cm represent 15 sub counties draw a divided rectangle data above 8mks
        Irrigation=70/240*15= 4.4cm
        Drainage of swamps =80/240*15=5.0cm
        Tsetsefly control=45/240*15=2.8cm
        Afforestation= 15/240*15= 1.0cm
        Others =30/240*15=2.0cm
        geof4mt221p2q6a
      2. State 2 disadvantages of using the above method to present the data (2 mks)
        • it is difficult to access the values of individual component except for the first one because the other values do not start from a common base
        • the shape of the rectangle is not as appealing as a divided circle
        • only one unit of measurement can be used
    2. Describe 3 methods of controlling tsetse flies in Kenya ( 6mks)
      • Bush clearing because the bushes are the habitat for them and also without the vegetation they will not get somewhere to breed
      • Application of insecticide is dine from low flying aircraft or from the ground and barrier spraying which is done during the dry season and is a high dose of chemical and can be used even during the rainy season. The insecticide used such as DDT.
      • Sterilization which is the introduction of sterility to the insect population
      • Use of traps namely squares of black cloth coated with birdlime and insecticides impregnated traps
    3. Outline 4 methods of rehabilitating land in Kenya (4mks)
      • through afforestation and reafforestation
      • through bush fallowing
      • use of grass strips and cover crops
      • through constructing bunds and gabions
      • through manuring
      • use of cut-off drain
      • use of dams and weirs
      • through controlled grazing
      • through drainage trenches
    4. Outline the steps followed when reclaiming land in Netherlands (5 mks)
      • construction of protective dykes or walls to enclose the part of the sea to be reclaimed and the dykes were to protect the land from flooding during the high tides
      • construction of ring canals to carry water from the areas to be reclaimed into the sea or the fresh water lakes that had been created
      • installation of the pumping stations to pump out the sea water from the area enclosed by the dyke
      • pumping out the water from the area enclosed by the dyke
      • Planting of reed to make use of excess water
      • Drainage ditches were cut in the land and drainage pipes laid
      • Dividing the area into rectangular portions using inner dykes and ring canals
      • Treating the soil with chemicals to lower salinity
      • Flushing the drained land with fresh water to remove salts from the soil
      • pumping out of the water from the polders was a continuous process to prevent water baccumulating in the reclaimed land
  7.        
    1. Describe 3 factors that influence fishing in Japan (3mks)
      • nature of the landscape
      • climate
      • market
      • Type of fish
    2. Describe the Lampara method of fishing (6mks)
      • The method involves the use of a lamp and a net
      • a lit lamp is placed at the edge of a boat atnight
      • The light attracts fish which swim in shoals
      • As they swim towards the light they are caught in a net placed in front of the boat
      • it mainly catches sardines and dagaa
      • it is mainly used in Tanzania and lake Victoria
    3. Explain 4 ways in which fishing promotes the development of industries (8mks)
      • net making industries for catching fish
      • Fishing vessels such as boat making industries for transporting and conserving fish
      • Chemical making industries which make use of fish products
      • Fertilizers making industries which make use of fish products
    4. A field study was conducted on fishing in Lake Naivasha
      1. List 3 common fish species the study would have noted ( 3mks)
        • Tilapia
        • Tuna
        • carp
      2. Give 2 main problems the study would have noted facing fishing in Lake Naivasha(2mks)
        • overfishing
        • poaching
  8.           
    1.       
      1. Name 2 provinces where forests are found in Canada (2mks)
        • British Columbia
        • North Eastern province up to new found land
      2. Give 3 tree species found in Canada (3 mks )
        • Spruces
        • Douglas fir
        • White pine
    2. Explain 3 ways in which the transportation of logs in Canada differs from Kenya(6mks)
      • Transportation of logs in Kenya is by tractors and lorries/trucks while in Canada rivers are widely used to float the logs on water
      • Canada uses tractors to transport the logs where the rives are too small or far away from the logging site while in Kenya tractors are used throughout the year
      • In Kenya rivers are never used to transport the logs at all while in Canada rivers are used most of the times
      • In Kenya workers are transported daily to the logging site while in Canada workers live in the logging sites and so the cost of transportation is reduced.
    3. Explain 4 problems that face forestry in Canada (8 mks)
      • In Canada large tracts of forest land is destroyed by fires that are caused by smokers, bush burning fires, campers and industrial operations like logging.
      • The forests in the northern part of Canada are in accessible in winter due to snow
      • Some sections in the northern part of Canada are in accessible due to rugged terrain and so it becomes hard to exploit the trees.
      • The replanted young seedlings take a lot of time to mature usually 50-60 yrs. Of tree growing in Canada after harvesting or even after cutting down in case they have been attacked by aphids like in the case of Kenya
    4. A form 4 class conducted a field study in a forested region in the area around their school.
      1. Identify 2 main categories of hypotheses that the students would have formulated (2 mks)
        • null hypothesis/negative hypothesis
        • alternative /substantive /positive hypothesis
      2. Give 4 activities that the students would have been involved in during the stud (4 mks)
        • Indentify the trees by their local or botanical names
        • finding out the trees that are hardwood and those that are softwood
        • finding out the uses of trees
        • indentifying the trees that are indigenous and those that are exotic
  9.           
    1. Explain 3 human factors that led to the establishment of Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme (6 mks)
      • scarce population since initially the area had no settlement and so there was no cost involved in the displacement of people
      • availability of market from the Nairobi ,kerugoya etc
      • Desire by the colonial government to start a project that would offer employment to the political detainee during 1952 state of emergency.
      • Availabilty of detainee labour
    2.        
      1. Apart from rice,name 3 other crops that are grown in Mwea irrigation scheme (3 mks)
        • Maize
        • Beans and peas
      2. Explain 2 ways in which pests and diseases as a problem facing the irrigation scheme can be solved ( 4mks)
        • Use of clean planting seeds which are free from pests diseases
        • Burning of residues after harvesting
        • Continuous removal of weeds which may harbor pest diseases
    3. Explain 3 benefits of Perkerra irrigation scheme (6mks)
      • An arid region has been turned into a productive land
      • The scheme has supplied agricultural produce to the Kenyan market
      • A source of livelihood for about 400 farmers and their dependants
      • It created employment to the local people.
      • Seed maize growing raises about 40million annually for the local population.
    4. State 6 problems facing Perkerra irrigation scheme (6mks)
      • Livestock human conflict
      • High cost of input provision
      • financial problem for the land preparation
      • farmers are yet to be supplied with title deeds
      • Fluctuation of the waters in the rivers that provide the irrigation water
      • Inter-ethnic conflicts between Tugens and Njemps.
      • Diversification of agriculture especially because of maize growing has led to the development of other crops such as onions, water melons etc and hence reduction of earnings from such crops
  10.           
    1. Identify 3 areas in Kenya where maize is grown on large scale (3mks)
      • Kitale(Bungoma)
      • Tranzoia
      •  Nakuru and Uasin gishu
    2. Explain how the following factors favour wheat growing(4mks)
      1. Climate
        • Wheat does well in areas that are cool to warm
        • The growing period is sunny and warm and is frost free
        • wheat requires a mean annual rainfall range between 305mm-1015mm and a lot of moisture is needed during the growing season.
      2. labour (4mks)
        • Land for planting wheat is ploughed by tractors
        • planting is done using hands
        • Application of fertilizers is done using hands
        • Weeding is done using hands
        • there is also packaging of the grain into the bags.
    3. Explain 3 ways in which harvesting of wheat in Kenya differ from that of Canada (6 mks)
      • In Canada harvesting is mainly done by combined harvesters while in Kenya it is mainly done manually
      • In Kenya harvesting of wheat is done by cutting the wheat heads using sharps sharps knives while in canada is highly mechanized
      • In Canada the harvested wheat is threshed using machines while in Kenya threshing is somehow less mechanized.
    4. A field study was conducted on wheat growing by an exchange program me of Kenyan students in Canada.
      1. Identify 2 ports through which wheat harvested in Canada is exported through, the students would have noted. (2mks)
        • St john in New Bruins wick
        • Halifax of Nova scotia
      2. Name 2 varieties of wheat that the students would have noted ( 2mks)
        • Spring wheat
        • Winter wheat
      3. Give 2 reasons why the students would have made use of sampling technique (2mks)
        • To avoid wasting a lot of time on studying all areas
        • To increase the efficiency of the study since one will have enough time to look at a specific area.
        • Name 2 wheat growing provinces the students would have visited.
        • Alberta
        • Saskatchewan 

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