History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Mid Term 2 Exams 2021

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HISTORY
PAPER 1
FORM 4 MID TERM 2

INSTRUCTIONS

  • This paper consists of three sections: A,B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A,THREE questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  • Answers to all the questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION A(25MKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Identify one branch in the study of History and Government of Kenya. (1mk)
  2. Name two Bantu groups in Kenya which settled in Mount Elgon area before migrating to their present Homeland. (2mk)
  3. Give two reasons why Kenyan communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period. (2mks
  4. State two duties of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi. (2mks)
  5. Give two evidences which shows that the early visitors reached the Kenyan coast before the 15th century. (2mks)
  6. Give two reasons why slave trade increased during the time of Seyyid Said. (2mks)
  7. Name one person who qualifies for citizenship by registration in Kenya. (1mk)
  8. Name the documents which contains the right of citizen in Kenya. (1mk)
  9. Give two ways the education system in Kenya promotes national Unity. (2mks)
  10. State two provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya. (2mk)
  11. State two rights of a child as contained in children Act. (2mks)
  12. Name the treaty which marked the spheres of influence in East Africa in 1886. (1mk)
  13. Identify the MAIN features’ of the system of education in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
  14. Give one role of welfare organization in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
  15. Name one African political party whose leaders attended the 2nd Lancaster House Conference in 1962. (1mk)
  16. What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the history of Kenya? (1mk)
  17. Give one special court in Kenya. (1mk)

SECTION B. (45MKS)
Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.    
    1. Why did the highland Nilotes migrate from their original homeland during the pre- colonial period (5mks)
    2. Describe the socio-political organization of the Borana in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (10mks)
  2.        
    1. Give three factors which contributed to the development of trade between the Kenyan coast and the outside world by the 16th century. (3mks)
    2. Describe the effects of long distance trade in Kenya during the 19th century. (12mks)
  3.        
    1. Identify three terms of the Devonshire White Paper. (3mks)
    2. Explain six Negative effects of colonial land policies in Kenya during the colonial   period. (12mks)
  4.     
    1. State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British colonial Government in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Describe five roles played by Thomas Joseph Mboya in the development of trade union movement in Kenya. (10mks)

SECTION C (30MKS)

  1.    
    1. State five circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (5mks)
    2. Describe the process of resolving a conflict. (10mks)
  2.     
    1. What are the functions of the defence forces in Kenya? (5mks)
    2. Why should there be separation of powers between the legislature,Executive and Judiciary in Kenya. (10mks)
  3.      
    1. What five situations can make a registered voter in Kenya be denied the right to vote? (5mks)
    2. Explain the rights of an accused person during trial in a court of Law. (10mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. One branch in the study of History and Government
    • Political History
    • Social History
    • Economic History (1x1)
  2. The Bantu groups in Kenya which settled in Mount Elgon area before migrating to the present Homeland.
    • Abakuria
    • Abagusii
      (2x2)
  3. Reasons why Kenyan communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period.
    • Competition for land for cultivation/settlement
    • Competition for water/pasture
    • To demonstrate their military power
    • To raid for cattle
      (2x2)
  4. Duties of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi.
    • Conducting religious ceremonies
    • Advising the council of elders
    • He blessed warriors before going to war
    • He settled disputes between council of elders and clans
    • He foretold the future
    • He was the chief medicine man
    • He was a rainmaker
    • the community consulted him during the time of disaster
      (2 x 2)
  5. Evidences which shows that the early visitors reached the Kenyan coast before the 15th century
    • Archeological evidence: Past remains of material culture by early visitors
    • Written documents of periplus of the Enythrean sea
    • Ptolemy’s Geography
    • Swahili chronicles
    • Arabic sources eg. Almasudi
    • Christian Topography of Cosmos indicopleustes
      (2 X 2)
  6. Reasons why slave trade increased during the time of Seyyid Said.
    • Internal demand for slave labour to work on plantations in Zanzibar,Pemba,Malindi and Mombasa
    • Slaves were needed in French sugar plantations on the island of Reunion and Mauritius
    • Demand for slaves as porters in the long distance trade
    • Slaves were in demand in Arabia to work as domestic workers and soldiers
      (2 x 2)
  7. Person who qualifies for citizenship by registration in Kenya.
    • A person who has been married to a citizen for a period of at least 7 years
    • A person who has been lawfully resident of Kenya for at least 7 years
    • A child who is not a citizen but is adopted by a citizen
      (1 x 1)
  8. Document which contains the right of citizen in Kenya.
    • The bill of Right found in chapter four(4) of the constitution of Kenya
      (1 x 1)
  9. Ways in which the education system in Kenya promotes national Unity.
    • Use of one curriculum in public schools
    • Use of one medium of instruction in schools eg English and Kiswahili
    • Centralised national examinations
    • Centralised training and development of teachers
    • Existence of national schools which admit students from all over the county
    • National music and drama festivals by schools and colleges
    • One of the goals of education in Kenya is to achieve National Unity eg teaching of history in schools
      (2 x 2)
  10. Two provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya.
    • Provided for the establishment of a federal government
    • Spelt out that the party with majority forms the government
    • Spelt out the rights and obligations of individual citizens
    • Spelt out the powers and responsibilities between regional governments
    • Divided responsibilities between regional governments and central government
      (2 x 2)= 2mks
  11. Rights of a child as contained in children Act.
    • Rights to educatio
    • Rights to life
    • Rights to health
    • Rights to parental care
    • Protection against cultural discrimination
    • Protection against misuse in war
    • Protection from any form of exploitation
    • Protection against any form of abuse
  12. Treaty which marked the spheres of influence in East Africa in 1886.
    • The Anglo-German Agreement of 1886.
      (1 x 1)
  13. Main features’ of the system of education in Kenya during the colonial period.
    • it was elementary-taught simple subjects like writing,reading and simple arithmetics
    • it was technical in approach-aimed at teaching African manual skills like carpentry, masonry etc
    • It was denominational-aimed at incullating doctrines of a particular church in the learners
  14. One role of welfare organization in Kenya during the colonial period.
    • aimed at working towards better working conditions to Africans
    • Provide security to one another
    • Assist one another during the time of need
    • Provide unity/sense of belonging
      1 x 1= 1mk
  15. One African political party whose leaders attended the 2nd Lancaster House Conference in 1962.
    • Kenya African National Union(KANU)
    • Kenya African Democratic Union(KADU)
      NB. No Abbreviations
  16. Main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the history of Kenya
    • He led/organized a trade union movement
      NB. Main is one
  17. One special court in Kenya.
    • `Kadhi’s courts
    • Military court/court martial
    • Juvenille courts/children’s court
    • Industrial courts/special tribunals
  18.        
    1. Why did the highland Nilotes migrate from their original homeland.
      • Need for pasture for their animals
      • Population pressure
      • External attacks
      • Outbreak of diseases
      • Internal quarrels
      • Escape from drought and famine
      • Spirit of adventure
        (5 x 1)
    2. Socio - political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.
      1. Social organization
        • Divided into clans led by elders
        • Residential section of the Boran nomadic community was a camp
        • During ceremonial rites, hundreds of huts of related families would emerge in the camp
        • Abba Olla the most senior married and competent man was the head of camp
        • Had a complicated age-sex structure-Gada
        • Gada was led by Abba Boku
        • Worshipped a powerful God-wak/waq
        • Religious leaders existed- Qualu
        • Was patrilineal society where inheritance was from father to son
          (5 x 1)
      2. Political organization
        • Divided into sub-tribes which formed basic units
        • Below subtribes were clans
        • Each subtribe had a hereditary leader-Kallu
        • Kaluu’s main duty was to solve conflicts between clansBoys joined an age-grade
        • Elders were involved in solving conflict
          (5 x 1)
  19.                 
    1. Factors which contributed to the development of trade between the Kenyan coast and the outsideworld by the 16th century.
      • The availability of trade items
      • The demand for goods
      • Existence of enterprising merchants
      • There was political stability
      • Existence of natural harbours
      • The occurrence of moonson winds
        (3 x 1)
    2. Effects of long distance trade in Kenya during the 19th century.
      • Introduction of new items at the coast eg. Guns,cotton,cloth,glasses etc
      • Introduction of new crops eg maize,bananas,rice,sugarcane,mangoes etc
      • Spread of islam
      • Decline of indigenous industries as improved items were preferred
      • promoted slavery and slave trade
      • Development of towns eg Mombasa,Lamu,Kilwa,Pemba and Zanzibar
      • Led to development of money economy that replaced barter trade
  20.                                   
    1. Terms of the Devonshire White Paper.
      • White highlands to be reserved for European settlement only
      • Asians allowed to elect 5 members to the Legco and to have representatives in municipal councils
      • Racial segregation abolished in residential areas and restrictions on immigration lifted.
      • A missionary was to be nominated to the legco to represent the interest of Africans
      • There would not be self government controlled by Europeans alone(all races were to participate)
      • Kenya declared an African country whose interest were to be of paramount importance.
        Any 3 x 1
    2. Negative effects of colonial land policies in Kenya during the colonial period.
      • land alienation
      • Development of African squatter system
      • Brought a lot of poverty and misery to the Africans
      • Introduction of individual,private land ownership with a land certificate
      • Development of classes within African societies made up of the rich who could afford to buy and the majority poor.
      • Introduction of poll tax
      • Introduction of kipande system
      • Land issue spurred nationalistic activities eg Mau Mau
      • Disrupted traditional structures eg could no longer migrate in search of better land and pasture
        Any 6 x 2 well explained
  21.                              
    1. Demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British colonial Government inKenya.
      • They demanded for the return of alienated land
      • They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax
      • They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande
      • They demanded for the better working and living conditions
      • They demanded that elections to the legislative council be on a common roll
      • They demanded for the abolition of forced labour
      • They demanded for more education for Africans
      • They demanded an end to compulsory destocking
      • They demanded the revocation of colonial status
        (Any 5 x 1)
    2. Roles played by Thomas Joseph Mboya in the development of trade union movement in Kenya.
      • He joined the Nairobi African government servants Association and became the vice president in 1952. He pressed for its registration
      • Mboya became the secretary general of the Kenya local government workers in Kenya in 1963
      • He was the secretary General of the Kenya Federation of labour(KFL) in 1963.
      • He fought against discrimination of African workers low wages,poor working condition and mass arrest of African workers.
      • Mboya affiliated KFL to the international confederation of Free Trade Unions which gave financial assistance
      • He travelled widely where he explained African problems
      • He mediated in Mombasa Dock workers strike in 1955.
        (ANY 5 X 2)
  22.                        
    1. Circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied right to life.
      • In a situation of war
      • When suppressing a riot/rebellion
      • When preventing a person from committing a crime
      • When preventing escape of a lawfully detained person
      • When effecting a lawful arrest
      • When defending oneself/property
        (Any 5 x 1)
    2. Process of resolving conflict.
      • recognize that a conflict exist
      • Define the issues in dispute
      • Diagonise the conflict-nature and root causes of the conflict
      • Examine the grievances from conflicting parties
      • Discuss the options available for solving the dispute
      • Settle for the best and most suitable method of resolving the conflict
      • implement the solution
      • Evaluate the solution-effectiveness
      • Follow up
        (5X2) All steps should be followed
  23.                        
    1. Functions of the defence forces in Kenya?
      • To defend the country from external threat
      • Preventing internal security when police are fully extended
      • Participating in national holidays eg Madaraka during public holidays
      • Participating in development projects
      • Providing emergency relief services during disaster eg floading
      • The navy guards territorial water of the country
      • They participate in peace keeping forces
      • Kenya airforce secures the Kenya air space against potential forces.
        Any 5 x 1
    2. Reasons for separation of powers between the legislature,Executive and Judiciary
      • To balance power and distribute it among the three arms of the government
      • To check the excess of power among the three arms
      • To ensure there is no arm that is too powerful and abuse power
      • To ensure there is good government
      • To ensure the independence of each arm
      • To promote democracy and protect peoples rights
      •  To ensure there is rule of law
      • To ensure dispensation of service in an efficient manner
        Any 5 x 2
  24.                        
    1. Situations that can make a registered voter in Kenya be denied the right to vote
      • If one ceases to be a Kenyan citizen
      • If one is convicted of an election offence
      • If one is sentenced to serve more than 12 months in prison or death sentence
      • If one is insane/mentally sick/one who is too sick to make simple judgment/decision
      • One whose name is not in the updated voters register in the constituency or in a particular voting centre.
        Any 5 x 1
    2. Rights of an accused person
      • Right to be heard – The person has a right to attend the hearing and be allowed to present his case
      • The accused should have the opportunity to consider,challenge and contradict any evidence. The parties involved must be allowed to call witnesses
      • Right to legal representation – the person charged has the right to be represented at the learning by a legally qualified person
      • The parties in the case should have adequate notice of all allegations against them and procedures eg time and location of the hearing
      • One is considered innocent until proved guilty through approved legal system
      • One should have access to the case proceeding touching on his case
      • The case can be heard in camera or in public when heard in public member of the public/press are allowed to listen and report on proceedings. Cases heard in camera are closed to both public and the press.
        Any 5 x 2

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