History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Mid Term 2 Exams 2021

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  • This paper consists of three sections: A,B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A,THREE questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  • Answers to all the questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.


  1. Identify two characteristics of a government (2mks)
  2. Give two demerits of oral traditions as source of History and Government (2mks)
  3. Identify the main features in development of man during the middle stone age period (1mk)
  4. Name two countries that were colonized by the Portuguese in Africa in the 19th century (2mks)
  5. Name two communes in Senegal where the policy of Assimilation was successful (2mks)
  6. Name the British engineer who pioneered the construct of tarmac Roads (1mk)
  7. State two uses of the wheel in the ancient Mesopotamia (2mks)
  8. Identify two trade goods for North Africa during the Trans-Sahara trade (2mks)
  9. State two major contributions of religion in the maji maji uprising (2mks)
  10. State two inventions which contributed to the Agrarian Revolution in U.S.A (2mks)
  11. Give the main cause of the cold war (1mk)
  12. Give the main function of the golden stool in the Asante Empire in the pre-colonial era (1mk)
  13. Identify two ways in which Industrial Revolution contributed to colonization of Africa by the Europeans (2mks)
  14. State two types of early Roads (2mks)
  15. Define the term Pan-Africanism (1mk)

Answer any three questions from this section

    1. Name three South African leaders who have been awarded the Nobel Peace prize (3mks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by African Nationalist in their struggle for Independence (12mks)
    1. State five characteristics of Industrial Revolution in Europe (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors that hinders Industrialization in developing countries (10mks)
    1. State three duties of the Omanhene of the Asante Kingdom (3mks)
    2. Explain six results of Buganda collaboration with the British in the 19th Century (12mks)
    1. State three conditions Africans had to fulfill to become fully assimilated in French West Africa (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermined the application of the French Policy of assimilation in West Africa (12mks)

Answer any two questions from this section

    1. State five features of the cold war (5mks)
    2. What were effects of the cold war on international relations? (10mks)
    1. Give three reasons why non-aligned movement was formed (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that affected the performance of NAM (12mks)
    1. List five Achievements of the league of Nations (5mks)
    2. Explain 5 reasons why the league of Nations failed to maintain world peace (10mks)


  1. Characteristics of a Government
    • Enforce the Law by taking action against those who break them.
    • A government should be acceptable
    • A government should have laws/rules which regulate the conduct of citizens.
    • Soverernity - people give the government the authority to exercise power throughout vetting.
    • Jurisdiction – Every Government operates within a given geographical area
      Any 2 x 1 = 2marks
  2. Demerits of oral traditions
    • Information may be exaggerated
    • It is expensive
    • It is time consuming
    • Some information may be concealed by informants
    • Some information may be forgotten
    • It does not give accurate dates
      Any 2 x 1 = 2marks
  3. Main feature in development of man in middle stone age period
    • Invention of fire 1mk
  4. Two countries that were colonized by Portugal
    • Angola
    • Mozambique
    • Portuguese Guinea 2mks
  5. Two communes of Senegal where assimilation policy was successful.
    • Goree Rasfique
    • Dakar St. Louis
  6. British engineer who pioneered the construction of Tarmac roads
    • John Macadam 1mk
  7. Uses of the wheel in ancient Mesopotamia
    • Used in war chariots
    • Transporting farm produce on carts
    • Used in making potters cby
    • In transportation of Logs 2mks
  8. Trade good for North Africa in the Trans-saharan trade - salt, horses and camels,glassware beads, mirrors, spices, rugs, fire arms 2mks
  9. Contributions of Religion in the maji maji uprising.
    • Used to mobilize the people of Southern Tanganyika against the German
    • To encourage and unite Africans against Germans
    •  Interpretation of the German invasion as a bad Omen causing diseases, famine and drought. 2mks
  10. Two inventions that contributed to the Agrarian revolution in U.S.A.
    • Invention of steel plough by John Decre 1837
    • The mechanical reaper by Cyrus Mccomick
    • Invention of food refrigeration on canning 2mks
  11. Main cause of cold war
    • Ideological difference between the two super posers U.S.A and U.S.S.R 1mk.
  12. Main function of the golden stool in Asante empire
    • It was a symbol of unity
  13. Two ways in which Industrial Revolution contributed to colonization of Africa.
    • Africa was a source of Raw materials e.g minerals
    • Africa was a market for manufactured goods
    •  Africa was outlet to invest surplus capital
    • Cheap labour was available to produce raw materials 2mks
  14. Two types of early roads
    • Roman roads
    • Macadam roads 2mks
  15. Definition of Pan-Africnism
    • A movement that aims at uniting all peoples of African descent in the world 1mk
    1. African leaders who have been awarded Nobel peace prize.
      • Nelson Mandela
      • Desmond Tutu
      • Fredrick deKlerk 3mks
    2. Challenges faced by Africans Nationalist in their struggle for Independence
      • Harassment, arrests and detention by colonial government
      • Ban of African political parties
      • Inadequate finances to implement their programmes
      • Disunity among nationalists i.e Radicals verses moderates.
      • High levels of illiteracy among the Africans
      • Nationalist were denied Access to mass media limiting their activities
      • Lack of a common language
      • Lack of fast means of transport 12mks
    1. characteristics of Industrial revolution in Europe
      • Extensive use of mechanized power, heavy machinery and other forms of expensive capital equipment.
      • Rise of factory systems
      • Production of good in large quantities due to use of machines
      • Change of living styles of the peoples of Europe
      • High living standards and high population growth rate
      • Rebirth of learning, scientific knowledge increased and there were many inventions.
      • Growth of modern capitalism as individual acquired a lot of wealth.
      • Growth of trade union movement to cater for workers rights 5mks
    2. Factors that hinder industrialization in Developing countries
      • Competition from developed countries who produce cheaper high quality goods.
      • Poor means of transport and communication systems that hinder transportation of raw materials and finished products.
      • Lack of adequate capital to finance industrialization as they rely on Agricultural economy
      • Poor educational systems which does not produce industrial experts.
      • Political instabilities in some countries which is snot conducive for industrialization
      • Very high poverty levels among the citizens which reduces purchasing power for manufactured goods.
      • Countries have poor economic policies
      • Neo colonialism
      • They were overall leaders
      • Headed the local governement
      • Settling disputes  
      • It led to loss of independence.

      • Introduction of Christianity and European influence in Buganda.

      • Islamic influence declined in Buganda.

      • Buganda got protection from the British against their traditional enemies.

      • Kabaka’s powers were reduced.

      • Kabaka gained some recognition and was referred to as his highness.Baganda were given an advantageous

      • position in the colonial administration and were used to conquer other communities.

      • The Kabaka was privileged in that the British would not impose any new tax on the Buganda without his consent.

      • The political institution of Buganda were recognized by the colonial government as retained.

      • The Baganda advanced more economically than other communities as they acquired European manufactured goods e.g. guns and cloth.

      • They benefited from western education and medicine.

    1. Conditions Africans had to fulfill to become fully assimilated in French West Africa
      • Able to speak French
      • Be able to read and write
      • Serve in the French Government
      • Be a resident in one of the four communes in Senegal
      • Be monogamous
      • Accept Christianity 3mks
    2. Factors that undermined the Application of the French policy of Assimilationism West Africa.
      • It was confined only in the four communes of Senegal
      • It was expensive to implement
      • Some African cultures were still very infact due to little contacts with Europeans
      • French traders feared that assimilated Africans would become serious economic rivals.
      • Traditional African rulers did not want to loose their antity over the assimiles.
      • Muslims resisted fiercely the French attempt to convert them to Christianity
      • French realized it would not be possible to Exploit the African who had attained Assimile status
      • French citizen in France opposed the policy for fear of being outnumbered in the chamber of deputies.
      • Racial discrimination undermined the assimilation policy since the French never accepted the assimiles as their equals 12 mks
    1. Five features of the cold war
      • No actual military confutation between U.S.A and U.S.S.R.
      • Negative propaganda by the opposing blocs
      • No lives were lost in U.S.A or U.S.S.R as a result of the war
      • No destruction of property occurred in U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.
      • Hatred and suspicion increased between Eastern and Western blocs
      • Manufacture and testing of deadly weapons increased.
      • Stiff technologies competition between U.S.S.R and U.S.A emerged 5mks
    2. Effects of cold war on International Relations
      • It undermined peace and security
      • Led to development in Science and technology
      • Led to spread of capitalism and communism ideologies
      • Led to formation of economic military alliances like COMECON and E.E.U, NATO and MARSAN pact.
      • Led to formation of N.A.M a neutral policy approach
      • Formation of Afro-Asia bloc to exert their influence in the U.N.
      • Led to a series of political crises e.g Konea, Vietnam, Afagamistan etc.
      • The suspicion and mistrust divided the world into two blocs
      • Led to the division of some states e.g Germany, Korea, etc.
      • Led to rise of dictators e.g Bokassa, Mobutu Seseko and Idi Amin.
    1. Reasons why Non-Aligned movement was formed
      • Developing states did not want to join the power bloc rivalry between U.S.A and U.S.S.R.
      • Developing states wanted to safeguard their independence and national interests.
      • Developing states wanted to exert their influence in the international affairs
      • They wanted to get maximum aid from both blocs for economic development
      • They were against the arms race by the superpowers which was a threat to international peace.
      • They needed co-operation among themselves to ensure peace and avoid another world war 5mks
    2. Factors that affected the performance of N.A.M
      • Large size of membership (116) affected ideogical coherence.
      • Did not have a permanent army effect it’s decision effectively.
      • Political instabilities among members states e.g D.R.C and Rwanda.
      • Boundary disputes between members states hindered co-operation
      • Dependency of N.A.M member to their former colonial masters.
      • Poor economies/failed to meet their financial obligations
      • Differences among the member states
      • Divided loyalty of N.AM. members to other international organizations e.g. commonwealth, U.N. etc.
      • Personality difference between leaders of members states.
      • Break of U.S.S.R and the end of cold war
    1. Achievements of the League of Nations
      • Maintained world peace for almost 20 years
      • Helped members to settle disputes through international court of Justice
      • Assisted refugees and drought relief programmes
      • Helped to reconstruct economies of affected states in WW1
      • Promoted international co-operation of states
      •  Laid down the foundation of U.N.6
      • Promoted workers welfare through international labour organization 3mks
    2. Reasons for the failure of the league of Nations.
      •  There was non – commitment to the covenant
      • Countries followed their nation interest and ignored world interests
      • League lacked a military with larmy to effect it’s decisions
      • Secret alliances continued to be signed by different states
      • Britain and France adopted the Appeasement policy towards dictators
      • Nationalism in the colonies undermined the leagues efforts to maintain peace.
      • It suffered financial shortages to implement its programmes
      • There was rise of dicators who refused to respect decisions of the league e. Hitle, Massolini, Hirohito etc.
      • The great economic depression of 1929 led to unemployment which weakened theleague 12mks

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