Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Mid Term 2 Exams 2021

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  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A and B.
  • Answer any TWO in section C.

Answer all questions in this section

  1. State two importance of litter in a poultry house. (1mk)
  2. Give three ways by which infections livestock disease can be spread on a farm. (1 ½ mks)
  3. Distinguish between Wessex saddlebacks & Berkshire breeds of pigs. (1mk)
    1. Give two uses of a planter. (1mk)
    2. State two ways of connecting a planter onto a tractor. (1mk)
  5. Name two bacterial diseases which are not vector-transmitted. (1mk)
  6. State two types of mowers. (1mk)
  7. State how each of the following practices controls livestock diseases
    1. Quarantine (1mk)
    2. prophylaxis (1mk)
  8. List four farm structures used in the control of livestock parasites. (2mks)
  9. State two effects of mange mites on goats. (1mk)
  10. Name four cattle breeds that originated from England. (2mks)
  11. State two functions of the crop in the digestive system of poultry. (1mk)
  12. Give two reasons why a dairy should be white washed but not oil painted. (1mk)
  13. Below is a table showing animals of different ages and sexes. Give the name that describes the animals in the respective columns. (2 ½ mks)
    Description Cattle Pigs Poultry
    Young from
    hatching/birth to
    Young female before1st
    Mature male for
  14. Give the functional difference of the following pair of tools. (2mks)
    1. Bastard file and Rasp file
    2. Copying saw and hacksaw. (1mk)
  15. Why are the following conditions maintained during artificial incubation of eggs in poultry production.
    1. Proper ventilation. (1mk)
    2. Relative humidity at 60%. (1mk) ____
  16. Give two reasons for rearing indigenous cattle in marginal areas of Kenya. (1mk)
  17. State four limitations of using hydroelectric power on the farm. (2mks)

Answer all questions

    1. State the class of each of the following feedstuffs. (1mk)
      1. Molasses
      2. Maclick super
    2. The diagrams below represent livestock parasites
      1. Identify the parasites. (1mk)
      2. In which organs in livestock is parasite Z found? (1mk)
      3. How is parasite Z passed from livestock to human beings? (1mk)
    3. Give two control measures of each parasite. (2mks)
    1. State two functions of a hypodermic syringe and a needle. (1mk)
    2. Distinguish between closed and open methods of castration. (1mk) ____
    3. Give two importance of progeny testing method of selection over mass selection method. (2mk)
    1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow
      1. Name the type of plough shown above. (1mk)
      2. Identify the parts labeled P1,P2,and P3. (1 ½ mks)
      3. State two ways through which a farmer would increase the depth of cultivation when using the implement. (1mk)
    2. Study the farm tools illustrated in the diagrams below
      1. Identify each of the farm tools illustrated in the diagrams above. (1 ½ mks)
      2. State one use of the tool labeled T1. (1/2mk)
    3. State two uses of green houses on the farm. (1mk)
    4.  Name two chemicals used in wood preservation. (1mk)
    1. State four factors that cause swarming of bees. (2mks)
    2.  Define a fingerling. (1/2mk)

Answer only two questions

    1. Outline the procedure followed when hand spraying cattle to ensure effective use of acaricides to control ticks. (8mks)
    2. Outline the daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on a farm tractor. (7mks)
    3. State the reasons for maintaining farm tools equipment and machinery in good working conditions. (5mks)
    1. Discuss cannibalism in poultry rearing under the following sub-headings
      1. Definition of cannibalism. (1mk)
      2. Types of cannibalism. (2mks)
      3. Causes of cannibalism. (8mks)
      4. Control of cannibalism. (9mks)
    1. Explain ten factors considered when selecting livestock for breeding. (10mks)
    2. Describe the working of a four stroke cycle petrol engine. (10mks) 


  1. Uses of litter
    • Keeps the poultry house warm – Absorbs moisture
    • Provides bedding for poultry (any 2 correct 1mk 1⁄2 x2)
  2. Spread of infectious diseases
    • Through vectors
    • Ingestion of contaminated feed & water
    • Through contact
    • Through inhalation of contaminated air (3 1⁄2 mks
  3. Wessex saddleback has a black body with the shoulders and only the front legs white while Berkshire is Black with white colour on the feet nose and tail. (1mk) mark as a whole.
    1. Lay 1 introduce plant, seeds into the ground in a precise manner in rows
      • Open a drill/hole, cover the seed, and place 1 tray fertilizers/manure in the drill/holes (any two (1 mark 1⁄2 x2)
    2. With a draw bar, through a three point hitch (2x 1⁄2 1mk)
  5. Foot rot, Anthrax, contagious abortion, Pneumonia (2x 1⁄2 mk)
  6. Reciprocating & Gyromower/Rotary.
  7. Quarantine – Restricts movement of injected stock/livestock products, obviating their chances of mingling with and transmitting to healthy stock. (1mk)
    Prophylaxis – Prepare the animals’ body’s immune system to combalt likely injection. (1mk)
  8. Dips, spray race, livestock houses, zero grazing units fences ( 1⁄2 x4=2)
  9. Their bites causes irritations, transmit disease as spirochaetusis/bubonic plague, suck blood causing anemia, their bites create routes for secondary infection, their bites damages or lower the quality of the skin ( 1⁄2 x2=1mk)
  10. Herefold, Aberdeen Angus, Galloway short horns ( 1⁄2 x2=2mk)
  11. Temporary storage of food and moistening food ( 1⁄2 x2=1mk)
  12. To avoid poisoning of some chemicals as lead that may be in the paints, to discourage insects from inhabiting the shed, to avoid tainting of milk if the shed is used immediately after painting. 1⁄2 x2=1mk)
    Description Cattle Pigs Poultry
    Young from
    hatching/birth to
     calf  Piglet  chick
    Young female before1st
     heifer  gilt  pullet
    Mature male for
     bull  boar  cock
    1. Bastard file and Rasp file - Bastard file is used for smoothing metal while a rasp file is used for smoothing wood
    2. Copying saw and hacksaw – copying saw is used for cutting curves on wood while a hacksaw is used for cutting metal or plastics(mark as whole) 1x2=2mks)
    1. Proper ventilation for air/oxygen circulation for embryonic gaseous exchanges, for aircirculation to control humidity
    2. Relative humidity for
      • low humidity causes embryonic mortality due to loss of moisture
      • High humidity produces abnormal bigger chicks which look marshy end up dying.
  16. Are tolerance to high temperature, have considerable tolerance to tropical diseases, can walk for long distances in search of pastures and water, have ability to survive on poor quality pastures, are able to survive on less amount of food & water without seriously affecting their performance. ( 1⁄2 x2=1mk)
  17. Very high initial capital required for installation if the market is not large, it becomes uneconomical to install, water supply can become unreliable incase of prolonged drought. The river may change the course leaching to wasted investment, Not all farmers can afford the use of electric appliances, lack of skilled personnel, lack of rivers on individual farms. ( 1⁄2 x4=2mks)
    1. class of
      • molasses – Energy concentrate(Reject concentrate alone ( 1⁄2 x1= 1⁄2 mk)
      • Maclick Super – mineral supplement ( 1⁄2 x1=1mk)
      1. Y- Tsetsefly (Accept Glossina spp )( 1⁄2 x1=1mk)
        Z – Tape worm ( 1⁄2 x1= 1⁄2 mk)
      2. Organ in which parasite Z is found – small intestines/ileum – Accept intestine (1mkX1=1)
      3. How parasite z is passed from livestock to humans
        •  By eating infected raw meat/ Eating improperly cooked meat. Reject eating infected meat(1 mkx1=1mk)
    3. Control measures of
      1. y- bush clearing spaying bushes with appropriate Trapping and killing tsetse flies, sterilizing males with sterilizing agents and releasing them into the wild.( Any 2x1/2 mk=1 mk)
      2. Z- Disposal of sewage to a safe distance away from livestock grazing fields/farm hygiene
        • Application/ administration of antihelmintic drugs
        • Eating throuhly cooked meat
        • Buy inspected meat
    1. Uses of ahpodermic syringe and aneedle
      1. Injecting medicine/ vaccination
      2. Extracting blood samples for laboratory analysis(2x1/2 mk=1 mk)
    2. Closed and open methods of costration closed method also referred to as bloodless method involves use of burdizzo or rubber ring and an elastrator to cut the spermatic cods while open methods involves surgical removal of testicles mark as a hole.(1 mkx1=1)
    3. Progeny testing vs mass selection
      1. Progeny testing is important where the trai is not measurable in mature animals of both sexes but only expressed in one sex eg milk production.
      2. It is important where heritability of a trait is low or weak.
      3. It is most valuable where the breeding unit large.
      4. It is important where the increased in generation interval implicit in the methods is not to pronounced.(2x1 mk=2 mks)
    1. Animal drawn moul board plough Reject mould board plough.(1x1mk=1mk)
      1. P1- Handle grips.(1/2 mk)
        P2- land side reject land slide(1/2 mk)
        P3- plough share(1/2 mk)
      2. Increasing depth of cultivation
        • Raise depth wheel; sharpen share; increases angle and which share point the ground(1/2 mkx2=1 mk)
      1.  Identification of tools
        • T1- secatuers/ hand pruner
        • T2- Pruning knife
        • T3- budding knife
      2. Use of tool T1 - In gardening/ floner pruning, pruning soft pranches of coffee/ citrus.(1/2 mkx1=1mk)
    3. Enable growth of crops out of season, protects crops against adverse weather condations; used for research work; used for easy control of pests and diseases.(1/2 mk=1 mk)
    4. Engine oil/ old engine oil, tribuly tin oxide creosote, tar, tanex, copperii sulphate.
    1. Factors causing swarming of bees
      • Lack of food and water in the environment
      • Sick of infertile Queen
      • Pest and disease
      • Presence of more than one queen in the hive.
      • Overheating by the sun
      • Damage of combs brood
      • Bad smell in the area
      • Overcrowding of bees(any 4x1/2 mk=2 mks)
    2. A fingerling - A young one of a fish for rearing.
    1. Procedure followed when hand spraying cattle to ensure effective use of acaricides to control ticks.(8 mks)
      • Spray the entire backline from the shoulder to the tail.
      • spray the sides in a zigzag motion trap and retain the wash from the backline.
      • spray the scrotum, udder and the hind flanks carefully.
      • Spray both hind legs up and including the head.
      • spray under the tail head and the area around the anus & vulva.
      • Hold the tail switch on to the ramp and spay it thoroughly to ensure complete wetting.
      • Spray the inside of the ears total 10 mks max 8 points-8mks. In the right procedure
    2. Maintenance practices on a farm tractor
      • using a dip stick to check the oil level in the sump.
      • check the fuel tank to ensure there is adequate fuel for a day’s work.
      • Check the level of the electrolyte in the battery adjust accordingly.
      • Grease/oil moving parts.
      • check fan belt, tension and conditions and adjust accordingly.
      • check water level in the radiator and top up if necessary.
      • check air cleaner to ensure that there is no dirt check level of oil.
      • Tighter bolts, nuts and pins.
      • open and remove dirt from the sediment bowls.
        (any 7x1 mk=-7mks)
    3. Five reasons for maintain farm tools equipment and machinery
      • Reduce cost of replacing the
      • increase their efficiency
      • prevent injury to the user
      • increase their resale value (1 mkx 5=5 mks)
    1. Definition of cannibalism
      • It is when birds peck at the skin of another and devour its flesh.(1 mk)
    2. Types of cannibalism
      • Toe pecking, vent pecking, feather pecking
        (1 mkx2=2mks)
    3. Causes of cannibalism
      • Boredom, chicks reared in confinement without the mother, congestion, high stocking rates, bright high in poultry house, birds which take too long to form features interruption of pecking order where new birds are introduced in an already existing flock, moulting in some birds, lacking of enough food, balanced diet, presence of external parasites on combs, wattles etc of other birds lacking of guidance of mother of chicks to guide them feed at more rewarding substrates.(1 mkx 8=8mks)
    4. Control of cannibalism
      • Avoid bright light in the brooder e.g by covering windows with gunny bags.
      • Avoid over crowding ie have proper stocking rates/ giving enough space.
      • provide a balance diet
      •  keep birds according to age group
      •  control external parasites
      • keep birds busy by hanging green leaves 60cm above the litter.
      • De- beak (hens which perpetually peck at other)
      • cull perpetual cannibals
      • Realing chicks with access to perches by four weeks of age.
      • Keep birds of the same age/hatched at the same time together throughout growth period.
      • Cull/ isolate birds that take to long to develop features(1 mk x 9=9mks)
    1. Factor (10) considered when selecting livestock for breeding
      • Age- select young animals since they have a longer production life
      • Level of production- select animals with the highest level of production for they will give more products
      • Quality of products- select animals with high quality products for they will attract consumers.
      • Health- select animals resistance, select animals that are free from deformities
      • Body/ physical conformation- select animals that are true to type/with body conformation typical of the type/purpose for which the animal is kept e.g. wedge/triangular shape for dairy cattle.
      • Temperament/Behaviour – select animals with calm temperament/cool disposition and behavior e.g. docile since such animals are easy to handle.
      • Prolificacy- select animals with a history of producing a large litter sizes at a time.e.g. in pigs & rabbits.
      • Mothering ability – select animals that show natural instinct to take care of the young so, they can rear their young ones upto weaning.
      • Fertility – select fertile, regularly breeding animals e.g. cows/heifers that show definite heat signs.
      • Adaptability- Select animals well adapted to the local conditions of temperature, humidity e.t.c
      • Growth rate- select animals with a faster growth rate i.e. early maturity-correct listing
        ( 1⁄2 x10=5mks, Explanation 1⁄2 x10=5mks Total 10mks)
    2. Describing the working of four strokes in a petrol Engine
      1. Induction stroke
        • Piston moves downwards, creating a partial vacuume on the upper part of the cylinder (TDC)
        • The partial vacuum causes the inlet valve to open
        • The open valve sucks\lets in fuel air mixture in the cylinder
        • The exhaust valve remains closed
      2. Compression stroke
        • The inlet valve and exhaust valves are closed
        • The piston moves up the cylinder
        • The air fuel mixture iis compressed in the upper part of the cylinder.
      3. Power stroke
        • The piston reaches upper most portion of the cylinder
        • At this point the fuel air mixture is fully compressed
        • The spark plug produces a spark igniting the fuel air mixture
        • The ignited mixture expands generating pressure that forces the piston downwards thus generating power.
        • The inlet and out let valves remains closed
      4. Exhaust stroke
        • The exhaust valve opens while the inlet valve remains closed
        •  The piston moves up the cylinder and forces out the exhaust gases.
        • NB/ Should mention whether the valves are closed or open, the position of the piston and what is happening at every stroke in the above order (20x 1⁄2 mks=10)

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