History and Government Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 End Term 2 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and Index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Answer all questions in section A
  3. Answer any three questions in section B
  4. Answer any two questions in section C

FOR EXAMINER’S USE ONLY

SECTION

QUESTION

MAXIMUM

CANDIDATE’S SCORE

A

1 – 17

25

 

 

B

18 – 21

45

 

 

C

22 - 24

30

 

 

TOTAL SCORE

 



QUESTIONS

SECTION A 25MARKS
Answer all the questions in this section

  1. Give two unwritten sources of information on history and government. 2mks)
  2. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the Southern Cushitic group. 1mk)
  3. State two religious functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi 2mks)
  4. State the main factor that contributed to the growth of city states along the Kenyan coast before 1500 AD 1mk)
  5. Name some of the missionary groups which were involved in spreading of Christianity in Kenya in the 19th and 20th century 2mks)
  6. Give two factors that enabled the early visitors to come to Kenyan coast by 1500 AD 2mks)
  7. Give one reason why the government of Kenya may limit a person freedom of speech 1mk)
  8. Identify two political causes of conflicts in Kenya 2mks)
  9. State two factors that determine the constitution to be adopted by a country 2mks)
  10. Give one reason why the constitution is important in Kenya 1mk)
  11. Name one group that monitors human rights in Kenya 1mk)
  12. Give one reason why some Kenyan communities collaborated during the colonial period 1mk)
  13. Give the main reason why the colonial government created African reserves in Kenya 1mk)
  14. Name the leader of the chartered company which administered the Kenyan colony 1mk)
  15. Give one challenge facing multiparty democracy in Kenya 1mk)
  16. Identify two external sources of revenue for national government in Kenya 2mks)
  17. Give two disadvantages of Kenya’s reliance on foreign aid as a source of revenue 2mks)

SECTION B 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions from this section

  1. a) Give five reasons which led to the migration of the cushites from their original homeland into Kenya during the pre-colonial period 5mks)
    b) Explain five results of the interaction between Bantu and the cushites in the pre-colonial period 10mks)
  2. a) State five problems experienced by the imperial British East African Company in Kenya 5mks)
    b) Explain the effects of land alienation in Kenya during the colonial period 10mks)
  3. a) Give three terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923 3mks)
    b) Explain the role played by women in the struggle for independence in Kenya 12mks)
  4. a) State five ways in which the government of Kenya has improved the health of its citizens since independence 5mks)
    b) Explain five challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya today 10mks)

SECTION C 30MKS
Answer any two questions in the section

  1. a) Give five rights of a citizen in Kenya 5mks)
    b) Explain five values of a good citizen 10mks)
  2. a) Give three reasons that can make the parliament in Kenya to be dissolved 3mks)
    b) Explain six functions of the National assembly in Kenya 12mks)
  3. a) Give the composition of County Assembly in Kenya 3mks)
    b) Explain six functions of County government in Kenya 12mks)


MARKING SCHEME

1. Unwritten sources of information on history and government

  • Oral tradition
  • Archeology
  • Genetics
  • Linguistics
  • Anthropology2x1=2mks)

2. Community in Kenya which belongs to the Southern Cushitic group

  • Dahallo / Sanye 1x1=1mk)

3. Religious functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi

  • Presided over religious functions
  • Advised community elders
  • He foretold future events 2x1=2mks)

4. Main factor that contributed to the growth of city states along the Kenyan coast before 1500 AD

  • Trade 1x1=1mk)

5. Missionary groups which were involved in spreading of Christianity in Kenya in the 19th and 20th century

  • Church missionary society
  • Church of Scotland mission
  • United Methodist Church 2x1=2mks)

6. Factors that enabled the early visitors to come to Kenyan coast by 1500 AD

  • Existence of monsoon winds
  • Marine technology
  • Existence of natural harbors
  • Accessibility of the East Africa coast 2x1=2mks)

7. Reason why the government of Kenya may limit a person freedom of speech

  • If one makes untrue/malicious utterances about another individual or government
  • If one publishes seditious documents/reveal government secrets
  • If one incites others against the government or other people
  • If one talks against the president.

8. Political causes of conflicts in Kenya

  • Greed of power
  • Corruption in government
  • Violation of human rights 2x1=2mks)   

9. Factors that determine the constitution to be adopted by a country

  • Historic background
  • Geographical factors
  • Racial composition
  • Religious and cultural background 2x1=2mks)

10. Reasons why the constitution is important in Kenya

  • Provides a platform from which laws of a country are made
  • It spells out the rights and duties of all citizens
  • It enlightens the citizens about the powers of the government   1x1=1mk)

11. Group that monitors human rights in Kenya

  • The police
  • Trade unions
  • Journalists
  • Religious organizations 1x1=1mk)

12. Reason why some Kenyan communities collaborated during the colonial period

  • They wanted protection from local enemies
  • They wanted their people to benefit from Christianity and western education
  • Some sought to acquire more territory
  • To acquire more powerful weapons                    1x1=1mk)
  • They wanted to preserve their independence.

13. Main reason why the colonial government created African reserves in Kenya during colonial period

  • To alienate African land for the white settlers to do farming/settlement 1x1 =1mk)

14. Leader of the chartered company which administered the Kenyan colony

  • Sir William Macknon 1x1=1mk)

15. Challenges facing multiparty democracy in Kenya

  • It has led to increased tribalism in the country as most parties have majority members from specific communities
  • Some parties do not meet constitutional requirements
  • Members keep on shifting from one party of another 1x1=1mk)

16. External sources of revenue for national government in Kenya

  • External borrowing
  • Donations/ grants from foreign countries 2x1=2mks)

17. Disadvantages of Kenya’s reliance on foreign aid as a source of revenue

  • It is given with conditions
  • It attracts high interests rates
  • It creates donor dependency syndrome/debt crisis
  • Limits the choice of trading partners           2x1=2mks)

SECTION B 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions from this section
18a) Reasons which led to the migration of the cushites from their original homeland into Kenya during the pre-colonial period                           

  • They moved in search for pasture and water for their livestock
  • There was drought and famine in their original homeland
  • There was outbreak of diseases and epidemics in their original homeland
  • To escape constant attacks from their neighbours/external attacks
  • Population pressure
  • Spirit of adventure 5x1=5mks)
  • Internal conflicts/feuds

b) Results of the interaction between Bantu and the cushites in the pre-colonial period

  • Inter marriages which strengthened relationships between communities.
  • Some bantus adopted Islam religion from the cushites
  • Some bantus copied some customs of the cushites such as circumcision and age set systems
  • The bantus and the cushites raided others for cattle which led to loss of property and thus increased warfare.
  • Cushites attacked the bantus which led to further migration/displacement
  • The cushites and the Bantus exchanged goods which led to development of trade.
  • Some cushites were absorbed/assimilated by the Bantus 5x2=10mks)

19a) Problems experienced by the imperial British East African Company in Kenya  5mks)

  • The region was vast and lacked the anticipated strategically mineral resources for export
  • Lack of adequate funds to run company’s business
  • Competition from other companies
  • Lack of navigable rivers which made transportation slow and expensive
  • Corruption and misappropriation of funds by some company officials
  • Hostility from local people
  • Poor means of transport and communication. 5x2=10mks)

b) Effects of land alienation in Kenya during the colonial period

  • Africans who lost their land became poor
  • The displaced Africans were confined to native reserves thus leading to congestion
  • Many Africans became squatters and lived in misery wages in order to pay taxes
  • The displaced Africans moved to towns to look for employment.
  • The traditional social economic set up of the Africans was disrupted
  • It led to the rise of political organization formed by Africans to demand for their land. 5x2=10mks)

20a) Terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923   5mks)

  • The paper stated that Kenya was on African country and African interests were to be paramount
  • It stated that Kenya highlands to be reserved exclusively for white settlers
  • The paper stated that Indians were to elect five members to the Legco on communal roll
  • The paper stated that there was to be no segregation in residential areas and no restriction immigration
  • The paper stated that a missionary was to represent African interests in the legislative council 3x1    =3mks)

b) Role played by women in the struggle for independence in Kenya                                                          

  • They acted as spies and gave information about the plans and movements of Europeans to the freedom fighters of the forests.
  • They provided the basic essentials to fighters such as clothes, foods and medicine.
  • They composed songs which encouraged the freedom fighters as well as ridiculed the colonial agents such as chiefs and headmen
  • They looked after their families in the absence of freedom fighters who had gone to the forests
  • They participated in oathing ceremonies which united the freedom fighters.
  • They participated in demonstrations against the colonial government
  • Some women inspired the African resistance through prophecies e.g Moraa, Priscilla Abusa took part in the first Lancaster House conference to prepare the independence constitution
  • Some women actively participated in the war such as Elizabeth Gachinka, Mary Nyanjiru and Field Marshal Muthoni 6x2=12mks)

21a) Ways in which the government of Kenya has improved the health of its citizens since independence                                                                

  • It has established the ministry of health
  • It has established hospitals/ clinic/dispensaries
  • It has encouraged nurses/ religious organizations, individuals to provide health services
  • It has established medical training institutions
  • It has recognized the use of herbal medicine.
  • It has established national insurance health fund
  • It has established medical institutions 5x1=5mks)

b) Challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya today

  • Poor infrastructure in some parts of the country has led to great losses of farm produce thus reducing earnings of farmers
  • The unstable prices of agricultural commodities on the local world market has discouraged framers
  • Various parts of the country have been hit by drought and famine thus forcing the government to provide relief food
  • Farmers produce is often destroyed by pests after harvest leading to food shortages
  • Poor technology/use of traditional methods has established to low yields.
  • Corrupt government officials leading to grabbing of research land.
  • High cost of farm inputs.
  • Shortage of agricultural extension officers. 5x2=10mks)
  • Poor storage facilities

SECTION C 30MKS
Answer any two questions in the section
22a) Rights of a citizen in Kenya                                            

  • Right to life
  • Freedom of movement
  • Right to health care service
  • Right to a clean environment
  • Freedom of worship
  • Freedom of conscience and liberty
  • Freedom of association 5x1=5mks)

b) Values of a good citizen

  • Should be patriotic to the country
  • Should take part in activities that foster national unity
  • Maintain and protect human dignity
  • Should participate in the democratic processes
  • Should respect inclusiveness in the society
  • Should pay tax
  • Maintain high levels of integrity in the society
  • Ensure transparency and accountability in the society
  • Take part on project that ensure sustainable development ion the country  5x2=10mks)

23a) Reasons that can make the parliament in Kenya to be dissolved                                                                                                                          

  • It can be done when a vote of no confidence is passed on the government/president
  • The constitution allows president to dissolve at will.
  • It can be done after the expiry of the five year term parliamentary period.
  • During a state of emergency.
  • It can be down when the opposition has more members than the ruling party in parliament 3x1=3mks)

b) Functions of the National assembly in Kenya

  • It makes laws which are used to govern the country
  • Changes/amends the existing laws and the constitution when necessary
  • Acts as a check on the possible abuse of power by either the judiciary, the executive or any other institution in the country
  • It represents the views of the people.
  • Ensures that the rule of law is being represented revenue and expenditure
  • Monitors the government spending through the Public Accounts Committee.
  • It has power to pass a vote of no confidence to the president and the government
  • The members of parliament elect the speaker and the deputy speaker.           6x2=12mks)

24a) Composition of County Assemblies                               

  • Elected members from the ward and nominated members by political parties represented in country assemblies
  • Members representing marginalized groups including persons with disabilities and the youths
  • The speaker who is an ex-official member. 3x1=3mks)

b) Functions of County government in Kenya

  • Development and promotion of agriculture
  • Provision and supervision of healthy services
  • Environmental management.
  • Provision of recreational facilities development and regulation of trade within the country.
  • Promotion and regulation of education in the pre-primary level, polytechnics and child care levels.
  • Regulation of county public works and services.
  • Promotion and regulation of fire fighting and disaster management centers.
  • Putting in place measures to control drug abuse, access to pornography etc in the country. 6x2=12mks)

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