History and Government Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Opener Term 1 Exams 2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PAPER 2

Instructions:

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three in section B and any TWO in section C.


Questions

SECTION A: (25 MARKS)

  1. Define the term History. (1mk)
  2. State two methods used by early man to find food during the Stone Age period. (2mks)
  3. Identify one river responsible for early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (1mk)
  4. State two modern ways of communication. (2mks)
  5. Give two sources of information on history and government. (2mks)
  6. State two early sources of energy. (2mks)
  7. Identify two early urban centres in Europe. (2mk)
  8. Identify the person who invented the seed drill. (1mk)
  9. State two officials who assisted Kabaka of Buganda to administer the Kingdom. (2mks)
  10. Give the main reason for the development of Kilwa as an early urban centre. (1mk)
  11. Who was omulamuzi in Buganda kingdom. (1mk)
  12. State the main advantage of using air transport. (1mk)
  13. Name the type of constitution used in Britain. (1mk)
  14. Name the Lozi leader who collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (1mk)
  15. Give two reasons why the Berlin conference was convened. (2mks)
  16. Name two European countries that formed the Triple Alliance before the outbreak of the First World War. (2mks)
  17. Identify the immediate cause of the First World War. (1mk)

SECTION B: (45 MARKS)
Answer any THREE questions from this section.

  1.      
    1. Identify hunting methods used by the early man. (5mks)
    2. Describe the culture of man in the middle stone age period. (10mks)
  2.   
    1. Give five characteristics of the industrial revolution in Europe. (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why Britain was the first country to industrialize. (10mks)
  3.    
    1. List five traditional forms of communication. (5mks)
    2. Explain five negative impacts of modern means of communication. (10mks)
  4.     
    1. Give five economic activities of the Shona Empire during the pre colonial period. (5 mks)
    2. Discuss the social organization of the Asante Empire in the pre-colonial period. (10mks)

SECTION C: (30 MARKS)
Answer any TWO Questions from this section.

  1.     
    1. Give three methods used by African nationalists in south Africa in their struggle for independence. (3 mks)
    2. Explain six problems encountered by nationalist in Ghana in their struggle for Independence. (12mks)
  2.       
    1. Identify five European powers which colonized Africa. (3mks)
    2. Explain the reasons for the scramble and partition of Africa . (12mks)
  3.      
    1. Outline three effects of the First World War. (3mks)
    2. Explain six causes of the Second World War. (12mks)


Marking Scheme

  1. Define the term History. (1mk)
    • It is the study of man’s past activities/ events.

  2. State two methods used by early man to find food during the Stone Age period. (2mks)
    • Hunting & Gathering
    • Farming
    • Fishing

  3. Identify one river responsible for early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (1mk)
    • River Euphrates
    • River Tigris

  4. State two modern ways of communication. (2mks)
    • Telephone
    • Mobile phones
    • Internet
    • Television
    • Radio

  5. Give two sources of information on history and government. (2mks)
    • Written sources
    • Unwritten sources

  6. State two early sources of energy. (2mks)
    • Water
    • Wind
    • wood

  7. Identify two early urban centres in Europe. (2mk)
    • Athens
    • London

  8. Identify the person who invented the seed drill. (1mk)
    • Jethro Tull

  9. State two officials who assisted Kabaka of Buganda to administer the Kingdom. (2mks)
    • Omulamuzi – chief Justice
    • Omwanika – treasurer
    • Katikiro – Prime minister

  10. Give the main reason for the development of Kilwa as an early urban centre. (1mk)
    • The control of Sofala gold trade.

  11. Who was omulamuzi in Buganda kingdom. (1mk)
    • Chief Justice

  12. State the main advantage of using air transport. (1mk)
    • Fastest means for transporting perishable goods.

  13. Name the type of constitution used in Britain. (1mk)
    • Unwritten constitution

  14. Name the Lozi leader who collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (1mk)
    • Lewanika

  15. Give two reasons why the Berlin conference was convened. (2mks)
    • To settle territorial disputes airing from the Congo region and other parts of Africa.
    • To avert a war/ conflict between European power in Africa.

  16. Name two European countries that formed the Triple Alliance before the outbreak of the First World War. (2mks)
    • Germany
    • Austria- Hungary
    • Italy
    • Romania

  17. Identify the immediate cause of the First World War. (1mk)
    • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinard and his wife Sophie

  18.       
    1. Identify hunting methods used by the early man. (5mks)
      • Digging pits for them to fall into them.
      • Using traps
      • Chasing them and throwing weapons at them.
      • Driving animals towards swamp/ muddy water bodies.
      • Driving animals over cliffs.
      • Chasing animals until they get tired.
      • Poisoning.

    2. Describe the culture of man in the middle stone age period. (10mks)
      • Man continued hunting and gathering especially big animals.
      • Man made tools like hand axes using levallois method.
      • Man did fishing on rivers and lakes.
      • They lived in groups and comps for protection purposes.
      • They made shelters and also lived in caves.
      • They used simple hunting methods of chasing animals and throwing stones at them as well as using
      • traps.They started wearing animal skins as clothing.
      • They painted themselves using red ochre and oil.
      • Distinct language developed to enhance communication.
      • Rock painting was done on cave walls and rocks.
      • They decorated themselves with necklaces made from seeds and animal bones.
      • Fire was made during this period and was used for a number of purposes like providing warmth during cold seasons.

  19.                   
    1. Give five characteristics of the industrial revolution in Europe. (5mks)
      • The use of machines to replace human and animal labour.
      • The use of steam power as a new source of energy to replace water, wind and animal power.
      • Increased exploitation and use of coal, iron and steel.The rise of the factory system in owns instead of the
      • cottage industries in homes.
      • The development of better forms of transport including the use of railways, roads and water.
      • Improved living standards and an increase in the human population who required more manufactured goods.
      • The production of goods on large scale. Machines worked faster than human labour.
      • The development of science and the application of scientific knowledge in production.There was
      • development of trade as manufactured goods were sold locally and abroad.
      • The rise of modern capitalism that provided enough wealth which was then invested back into industry.
      • The growth of trade Union Movements to carter for the rights of industrial workers.

    2. Explain five reasons why Britain was the first country to industrialize. (10mks)
      • Availability of coal and iron ore which served as a basis for heavy industries.
      • The agrarian revolution ensured that important raw materials were available for the industries and also made food more available for the many factory centres
      • Existence of a large population which provided steady internal market for the manufactured goods/domestic local markets.
      • Existence of cottage industries which acted as a base for industrial take-off in Britain.
      • unskilled labour due to the enclosure act.
      • Political stability and strong leadership that existed at the time created a condusive environment for investments when compared to other European countries.
      • Well developed transport and communication network e.g railway, canals, bridges, harbours and roads which promoted industrialization.
      • Existence of good banking and insurance systems which gave financial help and security to the industries.
      • Britain had a strong navy that guarded her trade routes thus protecting her merchants from foreign competition.Policy of free trade encouraged industrialization/ existence of the merchant and middle class
      • who formed pressure groups that forced the government to adopt measures favoring their industries.
      • Availability of wealth/capital that stimulated industrial revolution.
      • Availability of industrial raw materials in her vast colonies.
  20.             
    1. List five traditional forms of communication. (5mks)
      • drum beats
      • horn blowing
      • messenger
      • fire and smoke
      • fire and smoke signals
      • gesture and signals/ body movements
      • flags
      • bells
      • whistle
      • screams and cries.
      • Semaphores

    2. Explain five negative impacts of modern means of communication. (10mks)
      • some have promoted immorality through watching of pornographic films.
      • They have promoted international crime and drug abuse.
      • It has encouraged idleness and addiction to programmes by viewers.
      • They have created unemployment.
      • Some are expensive to buy and install.
      • Some like radios and televisions cause noise pollution.
      • Some programmes on televisions promote violence.
      • Prolonged exposure to computer screens cause eye problems.
      • Mobile phones can cause illness through exposure to radioactive rays.

  21.    
    1. Give five economic activities of the Shona Empire during the pre colonial period. (5 mks)
      • they grew crops/ agriculture.
      • They kept livestock.
      • They traded with Arabs and Swahili traders.
      • They hunted elephants for ivory.
      • They were iron workers/ blacksmiths.
      • They made clothes from wild cotton/ bark fibres.
      • They mined gold.
      • They were fishermen.
      • They gathered.

    2. Discuss the social organization of the Asante Empire in the pre-colonial period. (10mks)
      • the kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke Akan or Twi language.
      • The Asante were organized in clans.
      • Marriage between members of the same clan was prohibited. They practiced exogamy and polygamy.
      • Inheritance of property was matrilineal.
      • The community was bound together by the golden stool.
      • There was an annual cultural festival (Odwira) held at Kumasi to honour the ancestors.
      • The society was divided into social classes (social stratification).
      • The Asante worshipped many gods and goddesses / polytheists.
      • The king, chiefs and Omanhenes were religious leaders (semi-divine)
      • The ancestors mediated between god and the people.
      • They believed in a supernatural god called Onyame.

  22.              
    1. Give three methods used by African nationalists in south Africa in their struggle for independence. (3 mks)
      • Formation of trade unions to fight for workers’ rights.
      • Formation of political parties to air their grievances e.g A.N.C
      • The use of mass Media e.g radios and newspapers.
      • Leaders engage in direct negotiation with the government.
      • Many detained nationalists went on hunger strike.
      • Imposition of economic sanctions by international organizations like U.N.O
      • The churches took part in protest demonstrations e.g the Anglican church.
      • Through armed resistances e.g the armed wing of A.N.C.
      • Use of boycotts and strikes against the regime.
      • They also organized protestors and demonstrations.

    2. Explain six problems encountered by nationalist in Ghana in their struggle for Independence. (12mks)
      • the nationalists were arrested/ detained.
      • The political parties were banned.
      • The government enacted pass laws which restricted movment.They lacked adequate funds to finance the
      • struggle thus slowing their operations.
      • They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their
      • They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in armed struggle.
      • They had different approaches in their struggle (moderate/ radical wings thus creating a loophole which was exploited by the government.
      • Use of divide and rule policy to divide the Africans.
      • Rivalry between political parties e.g CPP and NLD.

  23.              
    1.      
      • France
      • Britain
      • Italy
      • Belgium
      • Portugal
    2.     
      • The industrial revolution in Europe.
      • Speculation about the availability of deep pockets of minerals in Africa.
      • Unification of Germany after under Otto Von Bismarck after the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71.
      • The rise of Public opinion in Europe. There was growth of public support towards the acquisition of colonies.
      • Militarism. Army officers in Europe favoured colonial expansionist wars to give them greater opportunities for glory or promotion.
      • The rise of Nationalism.
      • Construction of the Suez Canal. (The Egyptian question).
      • French activities in West Africa and the Congo
      • The personal activities of King Leopold II of Belgium.
      • The work of Christian missionaries
      • The growth of European population.
      • Anti-slave trade campaigns- Humanitarian factor.
      • Existence of Vast natural resources in Africa.
      • Well-developed trade/trade routes in the interior.
      • Existence of Navigable Rivers. For ex ommunities.
      • Frequent wars / inter community wars.
  24.        
    1. Outline three effects of the First World War. (3mks)
      • Nationalist movements in Asia and Africa grew in strength and number after the war and a sense of patriotism arose.
      • USA gained an upper hand in the post war European affairs. She emerged as a leading world power.
      • German military capability was reduced on land and sea and heavy indemnity imposed on her. She lost all her colonies, which were made mandated territories of the League of Nations.
      • The end of the war marked the beginning of the decline of western imperialism. As early as 1920, there was a possibility of independence for colonial countries. The war encouraged imperial powers to give more freedom to their subjects.
      • The end of the war witnessed the creation of new states e.g. Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Finland.
      • Germany and Italy fell in the hands of dictators e.g. Mussolini and Hitler.
      • The war Created bitter feelings and mistrust among the countries that fought in the war. This continued until the outbreak of the Second World War.
      • It led to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia as radicals took over government there.
      • It led to a change of government in Britain.
      • There was greater use of motor vehicles and aircraft, which facilitated transport.
      • The art of surgery improved
      • Between 1914 and 1918, European factories were destroyed and business brought down hence heavy losses.
      • There was massive destruction of property and infrastructure.
      • It led to the great depression 1920 to 1921, which affected economies worldwide.
      • It led to increased taxation by he colonial authorities to meet war and post -war demands.

    2. Explain six causes of the Second World War. (12mks)
      • The rise to power of Adolf Hitler and his determination to restore Germany’s lost glory.
      • Unfavourable conditions imposed on Germans by the treaty of Versailles humiliated and made her nurse a grudge against the allied powers.
      • The growth of nationalism made countries to be inward looking and therefore were reluctant to participate in international issue.
      • The Great Depression of the 1930s intensified economic instability and forced some countries to practice economic protectionism.
      • The inability of the League of Nations to implement its resolutions and punish those who violated them encouraged the aggressors to pursue their objectives/ ambitions and this intensified tension in the world.
      • The policy of appeasement practiced by France and Britain encouraged the dictators to carry on with their acts of aggression.
      • Establishment of alliances between major powers encouraged acts of aggression because of the feeling of mutual support.
      • The rise of dictators in the 1920s and 1930s destroyed democratic rights.
      • Armaments and increased armed forces increased tension contrary to the wishes of the Versailles treaty.
      • The Spanish civil war (1936-1939)
      • Territorial violations e.g in 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia.

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