Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Term 2 Opener Exams 2022

Share via Whatsapp
Download PDF for future reference Get on Whatsapp for 50/-

INSTRUCTIONS

  • This paper has two sections: A & B.
  • Answer all questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B,
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English.

QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer all questions from this section.

  1.                      
    1. Apart from economic Geography, give three other sub branches of human Geography. (3 marks)
    2. Explain the relationship between Geography and economics. (2 marks)
  2.                        
    1. Name two methods used in alluvial mining (2marks)
    2. State three effects of limestone mining at Bamburi in Mombasa County. (3marks)
  3. Study the graph below and use it to answer the question (a) and (b).
    3 ajjgdada
    1. Identify the type of graph drawn above. (1 mark)
    2. State three conclusions that can be derived from the graph? (3 marks)
  4.                        
    1. What is plantation agriculture. (2 marks)
    2. State three disadvantages of plantation agriculture. (3 marks)
  5.                              
    1. State three conditions necessary for the formation of petroleum. (3 marks)
    2. Give three disadvantages of petroleum as a source of energy. (3 marks)
      SECTION B
      Answer all questions from this section.
  6. Study the photograph below and use it to answer questions (a) and (b)
    6 uyfyatdada
    1.                          
      1. Name the type of photograph shown above. (1 mark)
      2. Give two reasons for your answer in (a)(i) above. (2 marks)
    2.                            
      1. What is the approximate time of the day was the photograph taken? (1mark)
      2. Name three specific places in Kenya where the photograph is likely to have been taken. (3marks)
    3.                          
      1. Citing evidence from the photograph, explain three conditions necessary for the economic activity shown that can be observed from the photograph. (6 marks)
      2. Using evidence from the photograph, explain two health problems that the people practicing this economic activity would experience. (4 marks)
    4. Explain four benefits of the Zuider Zee project in the Netherlands (8 marks)
  7.                              
    1.                    
      1. Define the term forestry. (1 mark)
      2. Give three differences between natural forests and planted forests. (3 marks)
    2. Explain four causes of forest depletion in Kenya today. (8 marks)
    3. The map of Kenya below shows some forest reserves in Kenya. Use it to answer question (i)
      7 uuyuyadad
      1. Identify the forests marked X, Y and Z. (3 marks)
      2. State four measures that are being undertaken by the Kenya Government to conserve forests. (4 marks)
    4. Explain three factors favouring the exploitation of softwoods in Canada. (6 marks)
  8.                                
    1.                            
      1. Name two categories of arable farming. (2 marks)
      2. Give three economic factors that influence agriculture. (3 marks)
    2. State five physical conditions favoring sugarcane farming in western Kenya. (5 marks)
    3. Describe the stages involved in sugarcane processing in western Kenya. (7 marks)
    4. Explain four economic problems facing sugarcane farmers in Kenya (8 marks)
  9.                          
    1.                      
      1. Define the term fishing. (2 marks)
      2. Give three examples of pelagic fish. (3 marks)
    2. Describe how trawling method of fishing is carried out. (6 marks)
    3. Explain three reasons why freshwater fishing is more widespread than marine fishing in East Africa. (6 marks)
    4. Explain four measures taken to conserve fisheries in Kenya. (8 marks)
  10.                    
    1.                          
      1. What is eco-tourism? (2 marks)
      2. State four factors that limit domestic tourism in Kenya. (4 marks)
    2.                        
      1. Give three tourist attractions found at Nairobi. (3 marks)
      2. Explain four measures that Kenya should take in order to attract more Tourists. (8 marks)
    3. Explain the differences between the tourism in Kenya and Switzerland under the following sub-headings:
      1. Security (2 marks)
      2. Culture. (2 marks)
      3. Waterfalls. (2 marks)
      4. Beaches. (2 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                      
    1. Apart from economic Geography, give three other sub branches of human Geography. (3 marks)
      • Population Geography
      • Historical Geography
      • Medical Geography
      • Industrial Geography
      • Mathematical Geography
    2. Explain the relationship between Geography and economics. (2 marks)
      • Economics deals with production, distribution and consumption while Geography is interested in the exploitation and distribution of resources
  2.          
    1. Name two methods used in alluvial mining (2marks)
      • Panning
      • Dredging
    2. State three effects of limestone mining at Bamburi in Mombasa County. (3marks)
      • Occurrence of derelict land.
      • Dust from the mines causes air pollution.
      • Explosives used to blast limestone rock causes sound pollution.
      • Loss of vegetation cover
      • Severe soil erosion in the limestone quarries
  3. Study the graph below and use it to answer the question (a) and (b).
    3 ajjgdada
    1. Identify the type of graph drawn above.(1 mark)
      • Comparative bar graph.
    2. State three conclusions that can be derived from the graph?(3 marks)
      • The value of wheat imports had been increasing over the four years.
      • Value of maize imports increased sharply in 2017 then declined in the following years.
      • Year 2019 had the highest value of wheat imports.
      • The difference in value of wheat and maize imports was smallest in year 2017.
      • 2016 had the lowest value of maize imports.
  4.                      
    1. What is plantation agriculture. (2 marks)
      • Plantation agriculture is the specialized commercial cultivation of cash crops on large tracts of land called estates/plantations.
    2. State three disadvantages of plantation agriculture. (3 marks)
      • Great losses occur in case of crop failure.
      • Highly skilled labour is required in production and management.
      • Monoculture results in severe loss of certain nutrients in the soil.
      • Heavy capital investment is required.
      • Rapid leaching in the tropics requires the use of expensive chemical fertilizers.
      • Over emphasis of cash crops reduces food crops production in a country
  5.                      
    1. State three conditions necessary for the formation of petroleum. (3 marks)
      • Accumulation of organic remains in an area.
      • Presence of porous rocks
      • Occurrence of a non-porous rock cap above and beneath the remains.
      • Presence of a water mass where remains accumulate and are buried..
      • Presence of intense pressure to compress the remains.
      • Presence of sedimentary rocks such as shale.
    2. Give three disadvantages of petroleum as a source of energy. (3 marks)
      • Crude oil is bulky during transport.
      • It is relatively expensive.
      • Exploration and refining of petroleum is expensive.
      • It is highly inflammable thus dangerous when mishandled.
      • It is an exhaustible source of energy.
      • Burning of petroleum products cause air pollution.
  6. Study the photograph below and use it to answer questions (a) and (b)
    6 uyfyatdada
    1.                        
      1. Name the type of photograph shown above. (1 mark)
        • Ground general view
      2. Give two reasons for your answer in (a)(i) above. (2 marks)
        • The camera focuses on many objects.
        • The horizon is seen on the background clearly.
        • Objects become progressively smaller towards the background.
        •  The camera captures the general appearance of an area/scenery.
    2.                        
      1. What time of the day was the photograph likely to have been taken?(1 mark)
        • At around noon / mid-day
      2. Name three specific places in Kenya where the photograph is likely to have been taken. (3 marks)
        • At Mwea in Kirinyaga county
        • At Ahero in Kisumu county
        • At Bunyala in Busia county
        • At West Kano in Kisumu county
    3.                            
      1. Citing evidence from the photograph, explain three conditions necessary for the economic activity shown that are observed from the photograph. (6 marks)
        • Availability of gently sloping land which is evidenced by water logging on the flooded plots and the plain on the photograph.
        • Availability of a reliable water supply for wet paddy production evidenced by flooded plots
        • Availability of labour during field practices such as land preparation, planting weeding and harvesting. This is evidenced by several people within the flooded plot.
      2. Using evidence from the photograph, explain two health problems that the people practicing this economic activity would experience. (4 marks)
        • Presence of waterlogged plots creates stagnant water which is a breeding ground for mosquitoes that transmit malaria to the people.
        • Water snails also breed in waterlogged plots thus transmitting bilharzia among the farmers / labourers.
        • The people seen on the photograph work for long hours while in water logged plots thus likely to suffer from cold related diseases.
    4. Explain four benefits of the Zuider Zee project in the Netherlands (8 marks)
      • Reclamation created more land for agriculture as the polders were fertile for crop farming hence more food / agricultural raw materials for industries.
      • Fresh water Lake Ijessel formed provides water for irrigation, domestic and industrial use.
      • Construction of dykes/sea walls around the polders has helped control floods/ deadly sea invasion of lowlands.
      • Fresh water Lake Ijessel
      • The polders, sea walls and canals created sceneries that have become key tourists attractions thus increased foreign exchange and income to local people
      • Road connection between Northern Netherlands and some Islands was improved /shortened.
      • Reclamation and associated activities have created more employment opportunities thus improved the standard of living of Dutch citizens.
  7.                    
    1.                      
      1. Define the term forestry. (1 mark)
        • Forestry is the science of developing and managing forest
          or
          Forestry refers to the practice of managing and using trees, forests and their associated resources for human benefits
          or
          It is the art of planting, tending, managing and extracting forest products.
      2. Give three differences between natural forest and planted forests. (3 marks)
        • Natural forests comprise of indigenous trees while planted forests are mainly composed of exotic trees
        • Trees in natural forests are of mixed species while in planted forests trees are of one type of tree species/pure stands.
        • Trees in natural forests grow haphazardly while in man-made forest trees are planted in rows
        • Forests of the natural type spread from lowland to highland while planted forests are found in the highlands
        • Thick undergrowth in natural forests but less undergrowth in planted forests
        • Natural forest have canopy while planted have none
        • Natural forests have trees that yield hardwood while in planted forests trees yield softwoods
    2. Explain four causes of forest depletion in Kenya today. (8 marks)
      • Fire outbreaks like the one that happened on Mount Kenya recently destroy large tracts of forests
      • Pests and diseases also kill trees leading to forest depletion
      • Population explosion has raised demand for wood which has resulted into over exploitation of the forests
      • Forest encroachment by man has reduced area under forests
      • Industrialization –setting up of industries that use timber as their raw materials has led to deforestation
      • Adverse climatic conditions e.g prolonged drought make trees to die Illegal felling of trees hence their depletion
    3.  The map of Kenya below shows some forest reserves in Kenya. Use it to answer question (i)
      7 uuyuyadad
      1. Identify the forests marked X, Y and Z. (3 marks)
        • X – Kakamega forest
        • Y – Aberdare ForestZ – Shim
        • ba Hills forest.
      2. State four measures that are being undertaken by the Kenya Government to conserve forests. (4 marks)
        • Enforcing afforestation and re afforestation programs
        • Involving the local communities in forest conservation
        • Scientific management of trees e.g spraying against diseases and pests, pruning, thinning, carrying out research
        • Creating awareness through education about the need to conserve forests
        • Creation of buffer zones to eradicate forest encroachment
        • Increasing forest guards to reduce illegal felling of trees
        • Imposing stiff penalties through legislation on illegal loggers
        • Use of alternative sources of energy particularly the renewable like solar, electricity to reduce reliance on forest for energy.
        • Perimeter fencing of National parks to stop wild animals invading forests
        • Reduction of wastage e.g use of economic jikos
    4. Explain three factors favouring the exploitation of softwoods in Canada. (6 marks)
      • The many rivers such as River Fraser and River Ottawa in Canada provide adequate hydro-electric power for the pulp and prayer as well as other related industries
      • The mild winters with ice-free waters in British Columbia make it possible to transport logs all year round using rivers
      • The many rivers provide plenty of water needed in pulp and paper industries for soaking and bleaching processes.
      • Excellent transport system ensures fast ferrying of logs to the factories and the finished products to the market
      • High demand for forest products within the domestic market as well as international market enhances continuous exploitation
      • Proximity of adequate capital necessary in forest management as well as establishment of related industries.
  8.                    
    1.                    
      1. Name two categories of arable farming. (2 marks)
        • Subsistence arable farming.
        • Commercial arable farming.
      2. Give three economic factors that influence agriculture. (3 marks)
        • Operation cost
        • Price fluctuations
        • Marketing expenses
    2. State five physical conditions favouring sugarcane farming in western Kenya. (5 marks)
      • High temperatures of about 25ºC annually.
      • High annual rainfall of about 1300 mm.
      • Well distributed rainfall throughout the growing period.
      • A dry sunny period during harvesting which increases sugar accumulation.
      • Well drained black cotton or clay soils that retains a lot of water.
      • Gently sloping land that favours the use of machines.
    3. Describe the stages involved in sugarcane processing in western Kenya. (7 marks)
      • At the factory, cane from the farms is weighed while still on lorries and tractors.
      • The cane is off loaded and put in large tanks where it is washed.
      • The cane is cut into short pieces using a machine.
      • The pieces are crushed and squeezed between rollers to extract the juice.
      • The juice is put in a clarifier where fine matter and soluble non-sugars are separated.
      • The juice is boiled with lime in tanks called evaporators forming a thick syrup.
      • The syrup is passed through a vacuum pan under very low pressure forming a mixture of molasses and sucrose crystals (massecuite).
      • The mixture (massecuite) is put in open tanks (crystallizers) where sugar crystals grow.
      • A machine called a centrifuge then separates the crystals from molasses.
      • Raw coarse sugar obtained is further refined to obtain brown and white sugar at various grades.
      • The sugar is then dried and packed in various quantities ready for marketing.
    4. Explain four economic problems facing sugarcane farmers in Kenya (8 marks)
      • Flooding of the market by cheap imported sugar results in unfair competition thus causing delay in payment to the farmers.
      • Some sugar processers are unable to adequately pay for the cane delivered. This causes delays in harvesting hence reducing the quality of the cane and the farmer’s earnings.
      • Closure of some factories such as Mumias due to mismanagement and corruption has deprived the farmers of their income forcing some to switch to other crops.
      • Impassable roads in some areas especially during the wet season leads to delayed delivery of the cane to the factory lowering the quality and subsequently profit to the farmers.
      • Some sugarcane processing factories are unable to cope with the supply of cane from out growers due to outdated processing technology making some farmers to abandon production.
      • High cost of farm inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides increases the cost of production thus reducing the farmer’s profit margin.
      • Mismanagement of factories and cooperatives lead to delayed payments thus discouraging farmers.
  9.                        
    1.                    
      1. Define the term fishing. (2 marks) 
        • Fishing is the practice of catching/harvesting aquatic organisms such as fish and some crustaceans for consumption or for sale.
      2. Give three examples of pelagic fish. (3 marks)
        • Sardines
        • Pilchard
        • Mackerel
    2. Describe how trawling method of fishing is carried out. (6 marks)
      • Trawling involves dragging a cone shaped net (trawl) over the sea bed behind a boat or trawler.
      • A bag shaped net attached to the ship trawler is dragged along the sea bed to trap the fish
      • The net is cast into the sea by a trawler.
      • The upper part of the net is kept a float by floats and the bottom held down by weights.
      • Then it is dragged on the sea bottom at low speed.
      • The mouth of the net is kept open by the floats and weights.
      • Fish swim into the net and trapped in.
      • Once enough fish is caught the net is hauled into the trawler and the fish is removed.
    3. Explain three reasons why freshwater fishing is more widespread than marine fishing in East Africa. (6 marks)
      • There are enormous fishing grounds eg L. Victoria, L Albert, L. Naivasha, L Tanganyika which are accessible to many people.
      • Fresh water fish are popular with high demand among the people encouraging more inland fishing.
      • Fresh water fishing requires simpler methods affordable by majority of fisherman in E. Africa.
      • Most inland fishing ground are rich in Plankton hence encouraging fish breeding.
      • High population in some places such a L. Vitoria offers the much need market.
      • Government support eg setting up processing plants ad cooing plants have encouraged more fishing.
    4. Explain three measures taken to conserve fisheries in Kenya. (8 marks)
      • Fishing is restricted to specific seasons to allow for breeding and maturing of fish
      • The size of the nets used in fishing are standardized to prevent catching of immature fish/fingerlings
      • Licenses are issued to prospective fishermen to control their number and to ensure that there is no over-fishing.
      • Improved patrols by the Kenya Navy within Kenya’s exclusive economic zones. This ensures the protection of marine fisheries from external exploitation.
      • Fish farming is being encouraged to that there is sufficient supply of fish from other sources other than the natural fisheries
      • Artificial fertilization is carried out in special hatcheries to sustain the supply of fish/ restocking of over-fished waters.
  10.                    
    1.                    
      1. What is eco-tourism? (2 marks)
        • This is travelling to enjoy nature while at the same time protecting it.
      2. State four factors that limit domestic tourism in Kenya. (4 marks)
        • Negative attitude towards local tourism by the citizens
        • High cost of accommodation in the lodges and hotels discourages many local tourists
        • Impassable roads leading to the parks and other attractive sites during the wet season.
        • Preferential treatment given to the foreign tourists discourages the locals.
        • Inadequate knowledge on the tourist attraction sites.
    2.                            
      1. Give three tourist attractions found at Nairobi. (3 marks)
        • Nairobi National park/safari walk/animal orphanage.
        • Giraffe centre.
        • Mamba village.
        • Kenyatta International Conference centre.
        • Many five and three star hotels.
        • National museums of Kenya Nairobi.
        • Bomas of Kenya.
        • Uhuru Park/city park
      2. Explain four measures that Kenya should take in order to attract more tourists. (8 marks)
        • Marketing the country more aggressively in order to make it more known/improve the image of the country abroad
        • Establishing a diversity of tourist attractions/emphasis on ecotourism to avoid depending entirely on the traditional attractions/reduce competition with other tourist destination.
        • Establishing/modernizing tourist facilities in areas that have high potential such as Western Kenya where such facilities are inadequate.
        • Improving public utilities such as roads, airports and communications to all tourist sites in order to make them easily accessible.
        • Improving security to ensure the safety of the tourist is guaranteed.
        • Intensify domestic marketing to reduce reliance on foreign tourists.
        • Improve/train more personnel to serve tourists
        • Better/sensitize citizens on the need to be hospitable to local and international tourists to encourage more visitors.
        • An Aggressive promotion by ministry of Tourism through KTB through exhibitions abroad to promote Kenya as a tourist destination and also marketing is being done within, targeting domestic tourists.
        • Lowering of tariffs in hotels, games parks and airports taxes so as to encourage more tourists visits Kenya.
        • Strength of the Kenyan shillings depreciation of will attract more tourists since most will find it cheaper to visit Kenya.
        • Opening up of new areas with untapped attraction potential eg around Lakes like Baringo, Bogoria, and Turkana.
        • Developing of sustainable tourism eg Eco-tourism i.e tourism that involve conservation of the environment.
    3. Explain the differences between the tourist attractions in Kenya and Switzerland under the following sub-headings:
      1. Security (2 marks)
        • In Kenya, some areas have rampant insecurity/terror attacks which scares away tourists while in Switzerland there is a peaceful atmosphere/political neutrality which encourage many tourists.
      2. Culture. (2 marks)
        • In Kenya there are varied/a diversity of African cultures while in Switzerland tourists are attracted to the traditional Swiss hospitality and many European languages spoken
      3. Waterfalls. (2 marks)
        • In Kenya, waterfalls that attract tourists occur along rivers while in Switzerland, waterfalls are associated with hanging glacial valleys within the Swiss Alps
      4. Beaches. (2 marks)
        • In Kenya, there are several classic coastal white sandy beaches such as Diani and Watamu that attract tourists while in Switzerland being landlocked has only lake beaches that attract tourists during summer

Download Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Term 2 Opener Exams 2022.


Tap Here to Download for 50/-





Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Read 33 times Last modified on Tuesday, 28 June 2022 12:54
Print PDF for future reference