- List four implements used to carry out secondary cultivation. (2mks)
- State one condition under which a farmer would prefer to use an ox-cart instead of a tractor-drawn trailer. (1mk)
- State three ways of improving the labour productivity of farm labour. (3mks)
- Give four variable costs in the production of coffee in an established field of coffee. (2mks)
- Describe four ways by which a farmer can adjust to risks and uncertainties. (2mks)
- Give four examples of joint products in livestock production (2mks)
- Explain the following terms as used in agriculture economics. (2mks)
- Production function
- Principle of Equi–marginal returns
- List four types of financial books farmers should keep. (2mks)
- Study the following information which was extracted from Mr. Mwaniki’s farm records on 31 -12 – 95 and answer the question below.
Kshs. Loans payable to bank 300,000 Five milking cows 250,000 400 layers 80,000 20 goats 30,000 Debts payable to cooperative 20,000 Buildings and structures 600,000 Bonus payable to workers 19,000 Cattle feed in store 10,000 Animal drugs in store 4,000 Debts receivable 18,000 Breakages to repair 30,000 I cash at hand 20,000 I Cash in bank 30,000 Spray equipment 12,000
- Explain four problems farmers face in marketing of agricultural produce. (4mks)
- How will the price of mangoes in the short run be affected if the quantity of mangoes supplied in a market is increased (1mk)
- Give three benefits a farmer would derive from being a member of a dairy co-operative society. (3mks)
- Given that at a price of Ksh. 1000 per bag, 20 bags of maize are demanded, but when the price changes to Ksh.800 per bag, 22 bags of are demanded. Calculate the elasticity of demand. Show your working. (3mks)
- State three problems experienced by farmers in marketing agricultural produce.(3 mks)
- State one method of increasing ploughing depth when using a disc plough. (1mk)
- Explain three qualities that make colostrum suitable for newly born calves. (3mks)
- Name the hormone that stimulates milk secretion in dairy animals (1mk)
- Describe three characteristics of a poor layer which should be considered during culling (3mks)
- Below is a graphical representation of a law in agricultural economics. Study the graph carefully and answer the questions that follow.
- Explain what the law illustrated by the graph states (2mk)
- Explain how each additional unit of fertilizer input relates to the total output of maize in Phases II and III. (2 mks)
- State the importance of the law identified in (a) above to the maize farmer (1mk)
- Disc harrow
- Spring tine harrow/ rigid tine harrow/ ox- tine harrow
- Spike toothed harrow/ peg toothed harrow
- Chain harrow
- Zigzag harrows
- If a farmer has inadequate capital
- If a farmer has little load to carry
- If the area is too steep to use a tractor
- Training the labour force
- Giving incentives to employees
- Efficient supervision of labour
- Assigning specific tasks to workers
- Proper remuneration of a worker
- Provide efficient tools
- Mechanization of some operations
- Provide transport within the farm
- Casual labour costs
- Fertilizer/ manure costs
- Costs of chemicals
- Cost of fuel
- Costs of repair of machinery
- Cost of hiring machinery
- Adopting modern methods of production
- Flexibility in production methods
- Input rationing
- Taking insurance cover
- Selecting more reliable enterprises
- Milk and butter
- Beef and hide
- Honey and wax
- Mutton and wool
- Pork/bacon and bristles
- Rabbit meat and skin/pelts
- Mutton and skin
- Production function
Production function is the physical relationship between inputs and output (products).
- Principle of Equi–marginal returns
Equi-marginal returns states that limited amounts of resources should be allocated in such a way that the marginal returns those resources is the same in all alternative to which they are put.
- Production function
- Cash book
- Mr. Mwaniki’s farm balance sheet as at 31-12-95
LIABILITIES ASSETS Kshs Cts Kshs Cts CURRENT LIABILITIES CURRENT ASSETS Breakages and repair 30,000 Cash at hand 20,000 Bonus payable to workers 19,000 Cash at bank 30,000 Debts payable to cooperative 20,000 Debts receivable 18,000 LONG TERM LIABILITIES Animal drugs in store 4,000 Loan payable Bank 300,000 Cattle feeds in store 10,000 Total liabilities 369000 400 layer 80,000 20 goats 30,000 Five cows 250,000 FIXED ASSETS Spray equipment 12,000 Buildings and equipments 60,000 Capital 685,000 Total Assets 1,054000 TOTAL 1,054,000 TOTAL 1,054,000
- Poor transport network/lack of vehicles lead to loss due to spoilage.
- Most of them are seasonal; hence create storage problems/over supply at times leading to price fluctuation.
- Due to bulkiness they are expensive to store/difficult to store.
- Due to changes in market demand, there is time e.g. between decision to produce and actual availability of the product making it difficult to respond immediately to market demand.
- Change in supply due to under/over production/competition from cheap imports cause price fluctuation.
- Most agricultural produce are perishable hence, farmers incur extra costs in transportation-processing/storage/incur losses due to spoilage.
- Most of them are bulky, occupy large space/expensive to transport.
- The price of mangoes will go down.
- Co-operators pool their resources together to buy expensive machinery e.g. tractor for use by farmers.
- Provide education/technical information to members.
- Provide credits to members inform of inputs and cash.
- Negotiate for higher produce prices for members.
- Reduce overhead costs e.g. transportation, storage and use of machinery.
- Bargain with suppliers to give discount on seed fertilizer and other farm inputs /provide inputs at lower prices.
- Provide employment for their members and other people.
- Benefits farmers from lower taxes charged
- Market farmers produce.
- Provide strong bargaining power for members on policy issues.
- Invests and pay dividends to members.
- Help to negotiate loans for their members without security.
- Provides banking services to its members.
- Elasticity of demand = % ∆ in quantity
% ∆ in price
∆ in price quantity = 22-20 = bags
% ∆ in price => 22-20 = 10%
∆ in price =. 100-800 = 200/=
% ∆ in price 200 x 100= 20%
Elasticity of demand =10%= 0.5
- Perishability of the produce.
- Inadequate supply to spread supply over a long period.
- Drastic changes in supply/seasonality.
- Poor infrastructure e.g. poor roads no vehicles/piped water/ telephone / electricity,
- Lack of market information,
- Delayed payments.
- Decrease the angle of cut
- Use of hydraulic/ draught control lever
- Adding weights on the plough beam
- Raising the land wheel
- Has a laxative and helps to remove the faecal meconium/ first faecal matter/ opens up the alimentary canal/ cleanse the digestive system/ prevent constipation
- It is rich in antibiotics that offers temporary immunity against diseases
- It is rich digestible proteins/ fats/ minerals/ vitamin/ highly nutritious
- It is highly digestible
- Combs and wattles are small, dry and cold/ combs have white scales
- The space between the pelvic bones is narrow 2-3 fingers cannot fit in the space between the pelvic bones
- Plumage is shiny, well preened/ sometimes moulting
- Yellowish pigmentation in the vent, shanks and beak
- Space between the keel bone and pelvic bone is small / 3-4 fingers cannot fit in the space
- Eyes are dull and yellow
- Abdomen is hard
- The layer is lazy and dull
- Hen becomes broody
- Law of diminishing returns which states that if successive units of work input are added to a fixed input a point is eventually reached where additional output per addition unit of input declines
- Phase II
Phase II each additional unit of fertilizer input leads to a lower increase in total output of maize than the previous unit of fertilizer
Phase III each additional unit of fertilizer input leads to decrease in total output of maize
- Helps the farmer to identify the level of optimum fertilizer application in the production of maize