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Describe the political organization of Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period.

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  1. They were ruled by a king(Mwene Mutapa) who had absolute authority over the subjects
  2. The King’s position was hereditary so as to reduce succession disputes.
  3. Their king was assisted by several people eg the court steward.
  4. There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the king.
  5. The kingdom was divided into provinces under provincial/lesser chief who were directly answerable to the king.
  6. The provinces were divided into chiefdoms ruled by chiefs
  7. Under the chiefs there were headmen who were in charge of the villages
  8. They had a standing army whose main duty was to defend and expand the empires
  9. The royal fire was a symbol of unity as he was semi-divine
  10. There existed priests who acted as spies for the King.
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