Track events are athletics events that involve running or walking around an athletics track.
The track events include the following.
- Medium sprint start.
- Elongated start.
- Run through finish technique.
- Improvising the relay baton.
- Visual baton exchange technique.
- Phases in hurdling.
Sprints are short races that require an athlete to make use of crouch stance when in starting position.
The main types of crouch start in this level are medium sprint start and elongated sprint start.
In an elongated start, the knee of the rear leg is placed slightly behind the front foot heel and the feet are spread out slightly wider than medium start. Run through finish technique is one of the three types of common methods of finishing races.
In run through finish technique, the athlete crosses the finish line at top speed when the trunk is leaning forward with shoulders and chest.
Hurdling phases include.
- Take off.
- Flight or hurdles clearance.
- Box drill.
- Single leg box drill.
- Reaction drill.
Medium Start In Sprints.
How to perform a medium sprint start.
- At the command ‘’on your marks’’, the body should be in a crouch position.
- Do not touch either the start line or the ground beyond it with your hands or feet.
- Place your hands shoulder width apart on the ground.
- Place the foot of the leading leg behind the starting line with the knee bent.
- Place the knee of the back leg beside the foot of the front leg.
- Wait for the next command, ‘’set’’. Raise hips to a position above the shoulders.
- Head and knees should be in line with the spine.
- Shoulders should be placed slightly forward than the hands.
- At ‘’go’’ command, leave the starting line
Elongated start in races.
How to perform an elongated start.
- During ‘’on your mark’’ command;
- Place hands on the ground shoulder width apart and behind the starting line.
- Place one foot behind the starting line.
- Place the knee of the back leg slightly behind the heel of the front foot.
- Spread out the feet slightly wider than in the medium sprint start.
- During ‘’set’’ command, lift the knee of the back leg off the ground ready for the last command, ‘’go’’ and leave the starting point.
- Push start.
- Pedal the bicycle drill.
Importance of participating in Running Activities.
- Improves mental health.
- Strengthens the lungs.
- Helps prevent the body from being attacked by diseases such as high blood pressure.
- Helps control body weight.
- Makes the bones stronger.
- Helps to relax the body.
- Improves blood circulation.
- Helps in relieving stress.
- Helps in increasing confidence.
Run through finish technique.
This is one of the types of finish that the athletes use to reach the end of a race at full speed.
It is performed by;
- Maintaining top speed as you approach the finish line.
- High knees lift maintaining full speed.
- Drive your arms harder through the final metres of the race.
- Continue running past the finish line.
Improvising the Relay Baton.
Relay batons are hollow inside so as to make them light in weight, not to be heavy, to make it easy to carry.
It is painted bright in colour so as to make it more visible, be seen better.
Safety measures observed while improvising Relay Baton.
- Paint and allow it to dry.
- Clean the working area.
- Burn or throw to the dustbin the waste products.
- Wash your hands.
Visual Baton Change.
When performing visual baton change technique;
- Runners changing the relay baton must be in high speed.
- The visual baton change should be done smoothly without dropping the baton.
- The runner receiving the baton should stretch his or her arm with the hand being open and look at the runner bringing the baton.
Positioning of the hand of the runner receiving the baton:
- Stretched out and behind.
- Open and facing up.
How the runners changing the baton position themselves:
- Running in motion.
- Legs apart at high speed.
HURDLES (approach, take off, flight, hurdle clearance and landing.)
These include running and going over an obstacle at a speed.
Stages in hurdling.
- You are required to go over barriers called hurdles when in high speed.
- The following are the five stages in hurdling
- Approach – runner sprints towards the first hurdle after the start command.
- Take off – runner places the take-off foot about 20-35 cm from the top of the hurdle and quickly lifts the thigh of the leading leg to the chest and to go over edge appropriate hurdle.
- Flight – the body should be streamlined and take the shortest time possible.
- Hurdle clearance – runner goes over the hurdle with the toe of the leading foot pointing up and the foot of the leg behind being flat with toe pointing out.
- Landing- leading leg touches the ground with the back of the foot followed by the back leg.
it is used by athletes as a field event.
Athletes combine speed, strength and ability to jump as far as possible from a take-off point.
The following are the sections of the long jump facility.
- Runway – this is the sprinting or approach area.
- Take-off board – this is the point you jump from.
- Landing pit – this is a sand filled pit for safe landing. The equipment found in the long jump facility include;
- A 50 metre measuring tape.
- A rake for leveling the sand pit.
Long Jump Technique.
Stages in Long Jump.
- Approach – the athlete runs along the runway using quick long strides.
- Take-off – placing one foot next to the take-off board or line and then lift the body off the ground.
- Flight – cycling action of the legs in the air to move the body.
- Landing – contacting or touching down on the landing pit area with both feet and knees bent.
The following are the important rules to be followed for a good long jump;
- Takeoff foot must not cross the takeoff board or line.
- Use quick long strides, when running along the runway during approach.
- Land on the pit with knees bent and the head leaning forward with the hands in front.
A discus is an equipment used for throwing in athletics field events.
A discus facility has a throwing sector with a diameter of 2.5 metres and a landing sector.
There are different weights for discus. Boys under 13 years throw discus weighing 1 kilogram, while for girls it is 0.75 kilograms.
Other equipment found in the discus facility include:
- Marking flags or pegs – used to mark several throws made by players.
- Measuring tape – it is used for measuring length of the throws made by players.
- Score cards – they are used by the teacher to record the scores and other details of the players.
Standing Discus Technique.
It is a method used when performing a discus throw.
It is used to teach athletes how to throw a discus. This is done from a stsnding position.
Stages or phases of performing standing discus technique.
- Stand with the feet shoulder width apart.
- The left or right shoulder should point to the direction of throw.
- The discus sits flat against the palm of the throwing hand.
- The fingers hold the edge of the discus.
- The thumb rests on the back of the discus. The discus is held in loose grip.
- The non-throwing arm is extended towards the throwing direction.
- The throwing arm is extended back.
- Swing the discus and bring it on top of the palm of the non-throwing arm.
- Swing the hip, torso and shoulder while pivoting the back foot to the front.
- Release and recovery;
- Continue to hold the correct grip.
- Step forward with the opposite foot to the throwing hand before releasing the discus.
- Release the discus from a comfortable height, not too high.
- As the discus is released, the non-throwing arm swings back for recovery.
These are techniques in rope skipping.
Rope work involves skipping or jumping in different styles using a rope.
How to perform straddle and straddle cross rope skipping.
- Stand straight, shoulders level and head looking forward.
- Put the arms slightly forward and extend sideways.
- Grip the handle of the rope firmly and comfortably with your fingers, ready to make small circles with the wrists when swinging the rope.
- With elbows close to the body and knees slightly bent, swing the rope from behind the feet and jump to clear it.
- In straddle rope skipping, jump the rope with feet apart on the first rotation of the rope followed by jumping the rope with feet together on the next rotation. Keep repeating this rhythm but in a smooth and relax manner.
- In a straddle cross rope skipping, jump the rope alternating the right and left foot in front and back. Repeat the rhythm.
This is a technique used in performing rope skipping. The balls of the feet are used when performing the skill.
How to perform skier rope skipping.
- Stand straight with your feet shoulder width apart.
- Keep knees slightly bent and arms extended sideways.
- Keep the body weight well balanced on the balls of the feet.
- Grip the rope at the handle and lower it on the ground behind your feet. Swing the rope overhead and jump over it using small jumps.
- Continue with the small jumps but moving the feet when together and side to side.
This is a style for performing rope skipping where the heel is used when performing the skill.
How to perform heel taps rope skipping.
- Stand with knees slightly bent, feet shoulder width apart and arms extended sideways.
- With the body weight well balanced on the balls of the feet, swing the rope from behind the feet and jump up and down over the rope.
- As you continue jumping, begin to tap the ground with the heel of one foot and then keep alternating the feet.
Softball is one of the batting games which is played between two teams on a large field, with nine players from each team.
The aim of the game is for a team to score more runs (points) than the other team by batting (hitting) a ball into play and running around the bases, touching each one in succession. The defending team is referred to as fielding team.
Parts of the field.
- Bases – these include 1st , 2nd , 3rd and home plate. The bases are made of rubber material and are square shaped while the home plate is 5 sided.
- Infield – this is the area around the four bases and the surface is generally grass.
- Outfield – this is the area outside the infield. It consists of left fielder, centre fielder and right fielder.
- Foul lines – two straight lines extending from the 1st and 3rd base lines that mark fair territory.
- Pitcher’s plate - is placed at the middle of the diamond from which the pitcher throws the ball.
- Batter’s box – two long rectangular boxes marked near the home plate where a batter player must stay while batting.
Softball equipment include:
- Batting helmet.
- Softball balls.
- Fielding gloves.
- Catcher’s mitts.
- Chest protector.
- Sliding shorts.
- Leg guard.
The positions of the players at the start of the softball game are:
- Pitcher – position 1.
- Catcher – position 2.
- 1st base fielder – position 3.
- 2nd base fielder – position 4.
- 3rd base fielder – position 5.
- Shortstop – position 6.
- Left fielder – position 7.
- Centre fielder – position 8.
- Right fielder – position 9.
N/B For the batting team, nine batters line up near the batting box ready to get into batters’ box in turns for batting. They must follow this order all through.
Responsibilities of in field players.
- Catching or collecting ground balls.
- Catching high balls.
- Throwing caught balls to various bases.
- Helping to cover the bases.
- Assisting each other (backing up).
- Tagging (touching using the hand holding the ball) the running batter.
Qualities of a good infield player.
- Keeps his or her eyes and mind alert on every ball thrown by the pitcher.
- Puts effort by going after the ball.
- Able to move quickly in all directions to collect the balls.
- Courageous enough to catch balls which have been hit hard.
Responsibilities of the outfield players.
- Catching all the flying balls.
- Fielding ground balls.
- Throwing balls to infielders at various bases.
- Backing up their teammates.
Qualities of a good outfield player.
- Ability to position themselves properly for different batting opponents and at different positions.
- Ability to make quick and good judgment on the direction of the balls batted.
- Have strong and accurate ability to throw balls.
- Outfielders should be fast.
FIELDING: Ready Position and Footwork.
Ready position is when the fielder player positions the body in a way that he or she is ready to move to any direction when the ball is released.
How to perform ready position and footwork in fielding.
- Stand with legs apart and get the body low to the ground by squatting.
- Balance the body weight by using the balls of your feet.
- Wear a glove on the left hand. Stretch the gloved hand further towards the ball.
- Bending low to the ground with the back straight and head up, face the batter, stay alert and focused,
- In that position move your feet forward, backward and side to side.
THROWING: Overhand throw.
How to perform overhand throw:
- Standing upright with the ball in your throwing hand and feet apart, face your target.
- Turn sideways about 90 degrees to your right side or left side if you are left handed.
- Lift your non-throwing arm to point at your target. Shift your weight to your back foot and lift your throwing arm in a way that it is near your ear.
- Twist your chest as you bring the arm over the shoulder.
- Release the ball with enough force aiming at your target.
- Catching a ground ball.
Lower your body into ready position.
Bring the hand with the glove near the ground with the tips of your fingers touching the ground to prevent the ball from rolling under the glove.
Place your other hand without the glove on the bottom edge of your glove. Move towards the oncoming ball and close your glove to catch the ball.
- Catching an aerial ball or high ball.
Move in front of the ball.
Hold your hand with the glove straight up.
With your eyes focused on the oncoming ball, open your mitts or glove to catch the ball.
Quickly place your other hand at the side of the glove.
BATTING: Stance And Grip.
When performing stance and grip during batting:
- Hold the bat at the handle with your fingers.
- If you are right handed, set your right hand higher up on the handle and place your left hand close to the base of the handle.
- Place your feet wider than shoulder width apart as you stand.
- Bend your knees to be in a comfortable position.
- Ensure your toes and shoulders are facing the home plate or the direction the ball is coming from.
- Raise your arms until hands are at ear-level and the bat is resting on top of the right shoulder.
Note: when playing the softball game, each of the two teams alternate in batting and fielding roles. The teams compete to earn scores known as ‘’runs’’. The team which gets more ‘’runs’’ becomes the winner.
The Swing Technique.
When performing the swing technique:
- Stand with your feet apart. Knees bent and toes facing the home plate.
- Stretch your arms with elbows out and use the correct grip on the handle of the bat.
- Bend the upper part of the body slightly forward.
- With hands firmly gripping the bat by the handle, move the bat up and above the shoulder.
- Swing the bat to hit the ball by the middle part of the barrel of the bat with enough force.
- Ensure the ball is hit towards the fair territory of the softball field.
- Make the follow through by moving one step forward.
Base Running And Sliding.
- Take quick strides as you run to the next nearest base.
- Use strong arm action as you run in order to have maximum speed.
- Run straight to the base and then round it.
- As you run around it, step on the inside corner of the base.
- Run as close to the base line as possible.
Base running and sliding skill.
- Run at full speed to the next base, when you are 4 to 5 steps away from the base, bend your knees. Shift your weight to the left side of your body and get low to the ground. As you get low to the ground, fold your left leg under your right leg to form shape 4 as you slide on the ground.
NOTE: The thigh and shin of the left leg are the parts of the body used in sliding.
- Lift up your hands past the head with arms stretched out to balance the body while sliding. This will also help to prevent the defender from easily tagging your hands.
- Tuck your chin in your chest to prevent your head from flopping backward and hit the ground.
Importance of sliding in softball.
- To prevent injury – players can slide to avoid collision with whoever is making a tag at 1st , 2nd or 3rd base.
- Sliding is the quickest way to the base – running to the base might be slow; so sliding will help the player get to the base faster.
- To avoid a tag – a player can slide away from the person tagging.
- To make a diversion – if a player wants to make a change of direction around the base.
The Rounders game is played by players referred to as fielders and batters. The fielders try to put out the batters by stamping the post they are running to.
The game should be played between two teams with a maximum of 15 players.
Throwing the ball in rounders.
There are two throwing skills in rounders. They include:
- Over arm throwing – it is mostly used by the fielders to pass long balls to other team members. The ball is passed to a teammate who is near the base which is in front of the leading batter. It is mostly used for the balls which have been hit far from the post.
- While using the over arm throw, grip the ball in a way that your first and second fingers are over the two seams.
- Direct your shoulder towards the teammates you are passing the ball to and release the ball.
- Under arm throwing – it is mostly used by the fielders when making short passes to the teammate in order to stamp opponents. Grip the ball as it is done in an over arm throw between the fingers and the thumb. The player swings the arm forward as he or she steps in front to release the ball with a flick of the wrist.
Catching the ball in rounders.
Catching is done by the fielders when receiving a thrown ball in order to stamp the post and put the batter out. The golden rule of catching is to keep the eyes on the ball from the moment it leaves the pitcher’s hands and follow it all over.
When catching the ball, stretch out your arms in front of the chest. Thumbs should point each other. When the ball gets in your palms, close your fingers over it to prevent it from bouncing out.
Stamping in rounders.
- Stamping is touching a post by the fielder using the hand with the ball.
- Fielders stamp the nearest post that the batter is approaching so as to stamp him or her out.
- Once a batter is stamped out, he or she is out of the game.
Technical, tactical approaches and rules of the game.
Technical approaches are skills that the players apply to ensure they win the game. These skills include; catching, throwing and stamping the post.
Tactical approaches are methods that are planned and used to achieve a particular goal.
Examples of tactical approaches are; Spread all over the field of play, Communicate with your teammates loudly and clear, Work as a team, Be quick and alert.
Rules of the rounders’ game.
- It is played between two teams. One team bats while the other team fields and bowls.
- The game starts when the bowler bowls the ball to the batter who hits the ball forward on the rounder’s pitch. The batter runs around tapping every post before the fielders can stamp the nearest post.
- If the batter reaches 2nd or 3rd post in one hit. The team scores half a rounder. If the batter reaches the 4th post in one hit. The batter scores full rounder.
- A batter is put out when he or she leaves the nearest post and run to the next post and it is stamped before he or she gets there.
- Push pass.
When passing the ball in soccer using push pass;
- Use a flat ground which is free from dangerous objects.
- Wear a suitable sports kit.
- Perform enough warm up and cool down activities before and after the game.
- Follow your teachers’ instructions correctly.
- Wall pass.
When playing wall pass skill;
- Communicate loud and clear ‘’wall pass’’ among your teammates involved in the pass.
- A minimum of two teammates should be involved in the passing in order to move the ball past an opponent player.
- One player makes a good pass and sprints into the open space in order to receive the ball from the second teammate.
- The player who receives the pass should sprint behind the defender. The teammate should then pass the ball in the space in front of him or her.
- Outside of the foot pass.
When passing the ball using outside of the foot;
- Approach the ball with the upper body slightly bent.
- Bring the non-kicking leg to the same level with the ball but slightly away from the kicking foot.
- Shift the body weight to the supporting leg and slightly bend it.
- Turn the toes of the kicking foot inwards to face the non kicking leg.
- Swing the kicking leg and strike the ball with the middle of outside foot.
- Ensure the pass is directed at the intended target or teammate.
Facility, equipment and positioning.
A volleyball court is rectangular in shape. It measures 18m long and 9m wide.
It is divided into two halves by a centerline.
A net is placed at the center; each court is divided into two by an attack line which is 3m from the center line and 6m from the back court.
Basic equipment used in playing volleyball games are; net, ball and two posts to support the net.
Each team must have 6 members playing at the start of the game.
Improvising volleyball equipment.
Improvising is making an item using what is available because you do not have what is needed.
Equipment are things needed for a particular purpose or activity.
How to improvise the volleyball posts.
- Cut long wood from any tree available. Make sure it is smooth and about 1.93 metres long. Metal material can also be used as posts.
- Make holes on the ground to support the posts.
- Insert the posts in the holes and make sure they are firm.
How to improvise a volleyball net.
- Materials such as; nylon ropes, sisal fibre and old clothes cut into long and thin pieces can be used to improvise a volleyball net.
- Volleyball nets can be twined using sisal fibre or old pieces of clothes that are cut into thin pieces.
- This is a type of service in volleyball where the player serving the ball holds it about waist high.
- The player slightly tosses the ball up and hits it with the opposite hand using an under hand motion.
- The hand hits the ball at the bottom with a closed fist.
- Tossing is throwing the ball upward above the waist before striking it.
When applying an underarm serve;
- Stand behind the service line with your feet apart.
- Hold the ball with the non-dominant hand, slightly above the waist and in front of the body.
- As you toss the ball, swing the other hand backward and forward to hit the ball across the net.
Note; non-dominant hand is the hand that is note active.
This is a way of receiving or passing the ball that is below the waist.
- It involves standing in line with the incoming ball.
- Hand fist of one hand overlapped over the fingers of the other hand and extended forward but below the waist.
How to perform the dig pass;
- Stand with your feet shoulder width apart for balance.
- Put arms together and join the hands, locking the wrist and elbow joints.
- Contact the ball with the part of the arms just above the hands.
- Move the hands upward and forward to give the ball an upward motion.
- This is a way of passing a ball that has been received at the full hand level.
- It is used to keep the ball in play, set the ball for an attack and for passing the ball over the net.
How to perform the volley;
- Stand with your feet apart for balance.
- Knees bent and body slightly leaning forward.
- Elbows bent with palms facing upwards.
- Contact the ball just in front of the forehead.
- Push the ball up with force using fingers. Pass it to a teammate or over the net.
Facility and Position of Players.
Kabaddi is also called a game of struggle because it is one player against 7 players.
The aim of the game is to score points by raiding into the opponent court touching as many defensive players as possible without being caught by any of the opponents.
Defensive players are called antis while attacking players are raiders.
The Kabaddi field of play measures 8 metres by 11 metres for junior boys and girls.
Each team has seven players at the start of the game.
Each team selects a raider who runs across the centre line to the other team’s court.
As the raider enters the opponent’s court, he or she chants ‘Kabaddi’, ‘Kabaddi’, ‘Kabaddi’ and tries to tag any member of the opposing team.
Once the raider tags a member or members of the opponent team, he or she runs back to their court. A point is awarded.
- This involves getting into the opponent’s court chanting ‘Kabaddi, Kabaddi, Kabaddi’ and trying to step or touch the opponent player.
- The raider tries to touch an opponent player while the opponent player puts effort to prevent the raider from touching them.
- The raider should be done with tagging a member from the opponent team within 30 seconds.
- This is the movement made by the raider with his or her feet during the course of the raid.
- It is guided by the stance, body position, speed and the ability to bend in any direction.
How to perform footwork;
- Stand with one foot in front of the other.
- Position your body to face forward.
- Move forward with speed.
- Dodge the opponents to avoid being tagged.
Rules for successful footwork in Kabaddi;
- Each team should take turns to run across the centre line.
- Tag a member of the other team.
- Run back to your half court.
In Kabaddi, legal touch means a raider touching any member of the defending team by any part of their body including clothes, shoes and any other part of the body.
Types of legal touches.
- Toe touch – it is when the raider touches the opponent’s foot using the toes and gets a point.
- Running hand touch – it is when the raider requires to move fast and stretch hands to touch the opponent before moving back.
- Frog jump – it is when the raider jumps above the opponent and tries to touch him or her.
- Scorpion kick – it is when the raider faces away from the opponent, he or she quickly curls the leg to touch the opponent.
- Dubki – raider escapes from the opponent by squatting below him or her to avoid being tapped before reaching the half way line.
Can't is the chanting of “Kabadii” continuously once a raider is in the opponents part of the field. If a raider stops chanting, he or she is out.
Cant is also the capacity of the lungs to hold the breath which is required to maintain raid for a longtime.
- This is the taking of turns in sending a player into the opponents’ court to try tagging them and win a point.
- It is also a repeated clear sound of the word “Kabadii” in one single breath during raid by the raider.
Roles of Raiders.
- Try and touch as many players in the opponent team as possible in order to score, tap them out and score points.
- He or she must say “Kabadii” several times until a tag is made or he has faulted.
Facility and Equipment.
This is a game of rugby that involves tagging as opposed to tackling.
It is a non-contact game in which each player wears a belt that has two tags or small loops attached to it.
It is played by a player trying to protect his or her tag as he or she runs and passes the ball to a partner. The opponent tries to stop them from scoring by pulling the tags from their waist or belt.
Tag Rugby field of play is rectangular in shape. Its standard measurements are 70 metres by 50 metres. The pitch size varies depending on the number of players and their age i.e a pitch of 55-60 metres long and 30-35 metres wide is suitable for grade five learners.
It is played by two teams of 7 players per team for two halves of each 20 minutes.
Equipment used in tag rugby are: tag belts, rugby ball, sportswear and training cones. Handkerchief, pieces of clothes or ribbons can be used to improvise tags for Tag Rugby.
Passing and ball carriage.
These are styles or techniques for playing tag rugby. It involves passing the ball to a teammate and how to carry the ball.
Passing the ball in a tag rugby game.
- The ball can only be passed sideways or backwards through the air. It cannot be handed over to another player or teammate.
- The ball cannot be snatched from the carrier, it can only be intercepted.
- Carriage is holding the ball under the armpit firmly and moving with it. It is done to avoid losing the ball to the opponents.
- Lateral pass is when the player collects the ball from a tap or roll ball and passes it to teammates on either side.
- Hold the ball with both hands, turn to the receiver and swing the ball across the front of your body.
- Direct the ball to the chest level of the receiver.
- Release the ball as the upper body turns and the arms extend.
This is moving with the ball in your hands away from the opponent.
In Tag Rugby, players run sideways more since most of the opponents are focusing ahead. This helps them to avoid being tagged.
Tagging and Offside rule.
- Tagging is pulling out one of the two tags or ribbons attached to the ball carrier's waist or belt.
- Only the player with the ball can be tagged.
- The opponent should hold the tag above their head and shout “tag” after removing it from the ball carrier’s waist. Then the referee shouts ”pass” to confirm the tag.
- The ball carrier cannot defend the tags from being taken using hands, they can only doge taggers.
- When the ball carrier is tagged, they have to pass the ball to the teammate within three seconds.
- If tagged near the try line, they are allowed one step to score a try.
- When a ball carrier is tagged and passes the ball, he or she must take the tag and put it back. No play without a tag.
- Offside is when a player is in a prohibited area during the game.
- The offside rule occurs immediately when a tag has been made.
- All defenders must go back to their side.
- A defender should not knowingly wait to block or intercept a pass from the attacking team after a tag.
- A score in Tag Rugby is called a try and is awarded 1 point.
- To score a try, a player must carry the ball over the opposing goal line and place the ball down on the ground.
- Opponents must remove the ball carrier’s tag to stop them from scoring.
- A player cannot dive over the try line to ground the ball.
- If a player drops the ball over the try line, a try is not given. The ball is given to the opponents.
Frisbee is a game that is played using a disc. It is also called ultimate.
Two handed rim catch.
- A two handed rim catch is a style or technique used when receiving a disc from another player.
- It is the best catching method when the disc comes above the shoulder height. However, you can also use it when the disc is below the waist.
- The catcher should concentrate on the leading edge of the disc and grab it.
- To catch the disc when it is above the shoulder, stretch your arms up, open your hands as thumbs face down.
- When catching the disc which is below the waist, open your hands with thumbs facing up and fingers pointing towards the ground.
- Bend your knees and catch the disc near the ground by its edge.
Cutting in Frisbee.
- Cutting is a technique used to confuse defenders or opponents.
- It involves running and changing direction so that you throw the disc safely to your partner.
How to perform cutting in Frisbee.
- The player with the disc runs a short distance, then stops and changes direction.
- The opponent ends up not being able to catch up.
Marking in Frisbee.
Marking is a technique used to control the ball carrier and limiting them from throwing the disc.
How to perform marking in Frisbee.
- Stand slightly in front of the thrower.
- Keep your arms extended and bent slightly with hands near the waist level.
- Legs should be shoulder width apart, with knees bent and weight should be on your balls of the feet to enable easy movement. The arms should be bent at the elbows.
- Move your hands up and down to prevent the opponent from throwing the disc towards the intended direction.
- When the person you are marking manages to throw the disc, shout to your teammates “up or air” to alert them to intercept or block.
Pivoting in Frisbee.
Pivoting is done with one foot maintaining contact on the ground while turning and stepping with the other foot.
Pivoting is done to give the player a better chance of passing the disc to the teammates.
How to perform Pivoting.
- Stand with legs apart and firmly place one foot on the ground.
- The other leg is lifted from the ground.
- Turn and move to any direction with the leg which is lifted.
- Step on the ground with the moving leg.
- Do not move the leg which is firmly placed on the ground.
Spirit of the Game.
- This is the mindful behavior that players practice before the game, during and after the game.
- It involves:
- Knowledge of the rules (there is no referee in the game).
- Fairness (when there is a mistake, it is accepted and settled).
- Safe play.
- Space awareness.
- Clear and calm communication.
Note; Through “spirit of the game”, moral lessons like honesty, fairness, politeness, teamwork among others are taught.
Breaststroke is a swimming style that is performed with the body facing down in a streamlined position.
The arms perform semi circular movements and the legs perform a frog like kick, the head bobs in and out of water.
Streamlining the body.
- For the body to be streamlined, place yourself horizontally in water. Let your toes point to the wall behind you. Stretch your arms out in front of you. The fingers should point towards the wall ahead.
- Keep the head facing down towards the bottom of the pool.
- Stay in that position for a few seconds to help your body get used to the water.
- for arm action, start from the streamlined position. Turn both palms outward without bending the elbows. Then push them out and slightly down.
- When your arms form a “Y” shape with your body, bend elbows and bring hands down and back towards your face.
- For the leg action, begin by pointing the feet outwards from the body by rotating the ankle. Bring the heels towards your bottom as you bend hands down and back towards the shin.
- Extend your knees slightly past the width of your shoulders. Push your legs straight back behind you and bring them back together.
It is a swimming style performed with the body lying on the back and streamlined.
The head is submerged above half level of the ears and the face is left off the water surface at all times.\
- Lie with your back on the water and streamline your body.
- Put your head half way into the water.
- Lower your legs and hips slightly.
- Put your legs together and straighten them.
- Once you are in a stable position, start kicking.
- As you raise one leg, kick using the other leg. Keep alternating the kicks.
- For best results, kick from your hips.
- As you start kicking forward, keep the arms at your side then stretch one arm in front.
- When the hand contacts the water, bring it down and pull outward to move yourself forward. Raise your other arm to do the same.
Sidestroke is a swimming style where the swimmer lies on the side in the water. It is used for life saving , leisure and for swimming long distances.
- Start from a glide side position.
- Lay one side of your body straight in the water.
- Drop one shoulder in the water with your hip below the water surface.
- Position your head in line with your spine.
- Half of your face should be in the water, the other half of the face above the water.
- One side of the face and ear should be in the water.
- Extend the leading arm forward with the palm facing downwards. Place your arm on your side.
- Palm of the leading arm pushes water backwards and downwards. The hand then moves upwards and inwards.
- Your other arm moves forward, bending at the elbow.
- Your leading hand moves forward in a straight line with palms rotating from upward to a downward facing position.
- Your other hand performs a semi-circular backward sweep.
- Bend your lower leg and move the foot towards your back. At the same time, straighten the upper leg.
- Make “scissors kicks” with your legs to move the body forward.
- Gymnastics include general categories of movement such as travel, weight transfer, balance, jumping, flight or landing.
- These skills can be developed with integration of other body aspects and movement elements. For example locomotor and non-locomotor movements, space and effort aspects.
- Hand balance into splits and hand walk.
- Hand balance into splits and hand walk is standing upright with the support of the hands with toes pointing up, splitting the legs sideways and making few steps.
- It helps in developing; balance, coordination, reaction time, flexibility and many more.
- How to perform hand or frog balance into splits.
- Get into a squat position and place hands on the ground in front of the feet, next to the toes.
- Move the knees so that they rest against the bent elbows for support. With your knees in this position, they will help carry some of your body weight to make the hold possible.
- Lean forward into the hold taking weight onto the hands so that the feet are raised completely from the floor.
- Hold the position for 30 seconds.
- How to perform a hand walk.
- Once you are stable on your hand balance position, try to move one hand forward. Make short steps as you lean the body slightly in the direction you are moving to. Move the other hand.
- Once you have made several steps or you are tired, lower your body by bending the knees. Land with your feet on the ground.
Hand balance into splits and hand walk helps us to develop the following physical fitness components:
- Balance – the body is able to stay upright and in control of movement.
- Coordinating – ability to move two or more body parts under control.
- Reaction time – ability to respond quickly to a command or stimulus.
- Flexibility – ability to move the joints easily without getting injuries.
- Shoulder roll.
This is a kind of roll that is performed over one shoulder.
It prevents you from hurting your head, hands or knees if you fall on the ground.
How to perform shoulder rolls.
- Kneel down on the ground with legs apart.
- Bend the legs at the knees and body to lean on one side of the shoulder.
- Push the body forward while placing one arm diagonally across the body.
- Tilt the head to the side as you tuck the chin to the chest.
- Roll over.
- Through vault into forward roll.
It is a movement done by going over a vaulting box or an obstacle.
Forward roll is a movement that involves rolling of the body forward on the ground or on a mat.
Learning points for through vault into forward roll.
- Have a fast run up and take off powerfully on both feet.
- Hands together on the vaulting box.
- Hips and feet horizontal.
- Tuck the legs up to the chest.
- Swing the knees through your arms and bring the legs forward to prepare landing.
- The moment your body touches the ground, push over your back so that the body rolls forward and hips are pushed over the head.
- Side vault.
It involves jumping over an obstacle or object with the hands placed on the object and the legs being moved away on the side of the obstacle while jumping.
How side vault is performed;
- Make a short run towards the obstacle or vault.
- Place both hands on one end of the obstacle.
- Jump over the obstacle with the legs on one side.
- Release the arm that is closer to the legs.
- Then come down as you release the other hand.
- Run out or move smoothly from the vault.
It is a sideways circle movement of the body.
It is performed by bringing the hands to the ground one at a time while the body inverts.
Steps in performing cartwheels.
- Place your dominant leg in front and bend it slightly as the other leg remains straight. Arms should be straight above the head.
- Place your hands on the ground with fingers well spread out.
- Push your feet over your head one at a time. The foot that takes off first should land first.
- Land in such a way that you are facing the opposite direction. Your arms should be over your head near your ears. Your front leg should be slightly bent and your back leg straight.
- Round off.
This is a movement of turning the body parts from one point to another in the air.\
The take off can either be off hands or off feet.
How round off is done;
- Start in an upright standing position with one leg forward and arms lifted straight above your head with palms facing forward.
- Bend your body trunk forward and lift up the back leg.
- With palms placed firmly on the ground, rotate the hands towards each other.
- Put legs together at the top and push them through so that you land facing the direction you started from.
- Five action sequences.
A sequence is the performance of a series of gymnastics skills in a continuous movement.
The finishing point of one skill marks the starting point of the next skill.
- Five action sequences therefore, is performing five activities continuously which is a combination of spring balance, vault, roll and balance.
The purpose of the sequence is to connect movements into smooth and flowing order without stopping.