It must be noted that Kenya inherited a number of political problems from the colonial government. For example;
- Lack of African technocrats who could give political direction to the country.
- Suspicion and jealousy between different communities due to the divide-andrule tactic employed by the colonial administration for many years.
- An illiterate population, ignorant of its political obligations
Political developments in Kenya between 1963 and 1991
On 12th December 1963, Kenya became independent under KANU led by Jomo Kenyatta.In 1964, there was voluntary disbanding of KADU and APP making Kenya a de facto one party state. There was abolition of Federal Constitution in favour of a Unitary or Republican Constitution. The post of an executive president was created to replace the post of Prime Minister.In 1966, the Limuru conference presided over replacement of the Vice -President of KANU With seven Provincial Vice Presidents and one for Nairobi Area. On 14th April 1966, Oginga Odinga resigned from KANU and Government and formed Kenya People’s Union (KPU) where Bildad Kaggia, Achieng Oneko and Tom Odongo joined him. In 1966, the bicameral legislature (the senate and the House of Representatives) was disbanded. A single –chamber parliament was established.
In 1966, Joseph Murumbi was appointed the country’s vice-president to replace Oginga.
He resigned in 1967 to pave way for Moi’s appointment. 1969 witnessed the political assassination of the flamboyant Tom Mboya in the hands of one, Nahashon Njenga on 5th July on Nairobi’s Moi Avenue.1n 1969, KPU was banned following riots in Kisumu.
In 1975, Josiah Mwangi Kariuki. MP for Kinangop was found brutally murdered in Ngong Forest.In October 1975 martin Shikuku and the deputy speaker, Jean Marie Seroney, were arrested and detained for making claims in the house that KANU and parliament were dead. In 1976, Chelagat Mutai, MP for Eldoret North was arrested and jailed for 2½ years for inciting his constituents to violence. In 1977, George Anyona, MP for Kitutu was also arrested after he accused the government of corruption.In 1976, the change the constitution campaign was began by Kihika Kimani, Dr. Njoroge Mungai, Jackson Angaine, Paul Ngei and Njenga Karume with the objective of making sure that the then vice president, Daniel Arap Moi would not succeeded the president.On 22nd august 1978, Jomo Kenyatta died and Moi assumed presidency for 90 days and was finally elected as second president of Kenya.In July 1980, Moi banned all tribal organizations, the Kenya Civil Servants Union and the Nairobi University Staff Union.
In June 1982, after an attempt by Anyona to form a political party, section 2A was introduced in the Kenyan constitution makin g it a de jure one party state. On 2nd august 982, Kenya experienced a coup d’etat by some air force servicemen. Charles Njonjo, the Constitutional Affairs Minister was accused of masterminding the coup.
In 1988, KANU introduced the infamous Queue voting method (mlolongo) that was open to abuse.In February 1990, Dr, Robert Ouko, minister of foreign affairs and international cooperation was murdered. The better part of 1991 witnessed a series of tribal clashes involving Kalenjin and Kikuyu, Kalenjin and Luhyia and Luos.
Kenya’s political developments from 1991 up to 2011
In December 1991, a parliamentary act repealed the one-party system provisions of the constitution and effectively established a multiparty system. The first political party to be formed under the repealed act was Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD)
In august 1992, one of the leaders of FORD Masind e Muliro died mysteriously.
The first multiparty elections were held in 1992 in December.KANU won against a disjointed opposition.In 1994, the official leader of the opposition and MP of Bondo, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died.After 1997 elections, the Inter-Parliamentary Parties Group ((IPPG) passed the reforms that marked the genesis of the constitutional review process.In 2002, several opposition parties formed a coalition that overwhelmingly defeated KANU in the general elections.
In January 2003, the National Rainbow Coalition formed the new government with Mwai Kibaki as the president. In august 2003, Wamalwa Kijana, the vice president of the coalition government died after a short illness. Mood Awori was appointed the next Vice president.In 2005, a new political movement, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) was formed as a campaign tool against the proposed new constitution. Raila Odinga was its leader.The general Elections of 2007 resulted in a political crisis that provoked an unprecedented wave of political violence and killing across Kenya.
On 28th February 2008 the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan succeeded in brokering a power sharing deal between the incumbent President, Mwai Kibaki, and the opposition leader, Raila Odinga thus bringing to end the political violence. On April 17, 2008, Raila Odinga, from Orange Democratic Movement, was sworn as Prime Minister of Kenya, after more than forty years of the abolition of office.On 28th august 2010 Kenya promulgated a new constitution thus making it the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.In 2011, the International Criminal Court seating at the Hague, begun criminal proceedings against Uhuru Kenyatta, William Ruto, former police Commissioner Hussein Ali, Henry Kosgei, the head of public service Francis Muthaura and a journalist Joshua Arap Sang over their involvement in the 2008 post-Election Violence.
In June 2011, Dr. Willy Mutunga became the first Kenya’s Chief Justice and Nancy Makokha Barasa, his deputy under the new constitution.The Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) was also replaced with the Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission (IEBC). The constitutional changes in Kenya in the period between 1963 and 1991.The first meeting in Lancaster in 1960 resulted in an interim constitution that failed to grant any substantial autonomy to Kenya. The second Lancaster conference in 1962 negotiated a framework for self government. The third and final conference in 1963 resulted in the drafting and adoption of Kenya's first independent Constitution by the British Parliament. The 1963 constitution marked the end of colonial rule and transformed the colony into a dominion.It established a parliamentary system with executive powers vested in a cabinet headed by a Prime Minister.The Constitution was changed in 1964 and Kenya became a republic and the executive becamepresidential. The senate and regions were also abolished.In 1966, the voting majority to change the Constitution was lowered to two -thirds of the MPs. The term ‘region’ was replaced with ‘province.
’In 1966, a constitutional amendment abolished the Bicameral Legislature and replaced it with a Unicameral Legislature, chosen directly by the electorate.On 28th April 1966, an amendment was passed to compel MPs who defected from sponsoring party, to resign from parliament and seek re-election.In May 1966, the Public Security Act was passed empowering the president to detain a citizen without trial on grounds of being a threat to state security.In 1968, the president was empowered to alter provincial and district boundaries.In 1968, the procedure for presidential elections and succession in the event of his death was laid down. The age qualification for presidential candidates was also lowered to 35 from 40 years.In 1974, an amendment of the constitution empowered the president to pardon any election offender at his own discretion. This was done to favour Paul Ngei. In 1975, Kiswahili was declared the national language of the national assembly.
In 1977, the Kenya court of appeal was established after the breakup of the East African Community. Voting age was lowered from 21 to 18. In 1979, both Kiswahili and English were declared languages of the national assembly.In 1982, Kenya became a de jure one party state. KANU became the only lawful party in Kenya.In 1987, the security of tenure of the Attorney General, Chief Secretary, The Comptroller and Auditor–General was removed. Office of chief secretary was abolished. In 1988, the security of tenure of Puisine Judges and Chairman of Public Service Commission was removed.A parliamentary act in December 1991 repealed the one-party system provisions of the constitution and effectively established a multiparty system. Multiparty elections were held the following year in December.
Steps towards realization of a new constitution in Kenya since 1997
- In 1997, Parliament passed the Constitution of Kenya Review Act that set the pace for comprehensive constitutional reforms. The Constitution of Kenya Review Commission (CKRC) was established to provide civic education, seek public input and prepare a draft constitution).
- In 2005, after many years of struggle, the draft constitution was ultimately rejected by Kenyans at the constitutional referendum because of disagreements amongst various stakeholders.
- 28 February 2008The National Accord and Reconciliation Act (NARA) signed by President Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga put in place arrangement for a new process to finalize the long awaited constitution of Kenya
- In 2008 the Constitution of Kenya Review Act 2008 was passed and a Committee of Experts (CoE) was established as the main technical constitutional review organ to drive the process. The CoE was chaired by Nzamba Kitonga, the deputy chair was Ms Atsango Chesoni, other members were Ms Njoki Ndung'u, Mr Otiende Amolo,Mr Abdirashid Hussein Mr Bobby Mkangi Professor Christina Murray (South Africa) Dr Chaloka Beyani (Zambia) and Dr Frederick Ssempebwav (Uganda.
- 23 February 2009 Members of the CoE were appointed by the President were later on sworn in
- On 17 November 2009 CoE released the draft to the public and invited views and comments on the draft constitution,
- By 23rd February 2010. CoE had submitted the final draft of constitution to the Parliamentary Select Committee.
- On 4th august 2010 Kenya held a Constitutional Referendum where the new constitution was overwhelmingly endorsed.
- On 28th august 2010, the new constitution was promulgated and became operational making Kenya the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
Factors that led to the development of multi-party democracy in Kenya after 1991
- International pressure from multilateral and bilateral donors. The western donors took advantage of the collapse of the Soviet Union to set the stringiest conditionalties for aid on the government, for democratic reforms.
- Disunity in KANU. There was pressure from individuals who had been expelled from KANU without political alternatives.
- Existence of people who were ready to push democratic agenda ahead. This included the civil society, the lawyers and intellectuals. E.g the Law Society of Kenya led by Paul Muite and Gitobu Imanyara put pressure on the government for reforms.
- Success of multi-party in other African countries. In Zambia for example, Chiluba’s Movement for Multiparty Democracy defeated Kaunda’s United National Independence Party.
- Pressure from the church. Several church leaders, among them Alexander Muge, Bishop Henry Okullu and Rev. Timothy Njoya called upon the government to create an en environment in which Kenyans could participate in governance.
- Massive rigging of the elections. The most notorious of all was the 1988 general elections, which were marred with widespread rigging.
- The developments in Eastern Europe. Due to Gorbachev’s liberal reforms, one party dictatorship in Eastern Europe was replaced by regimes that were more liberal.
- Rampant corruption in particular, embezzlement and misappropriation of public funds and grabbing of public assets. Those who criticized were punished through detention, arbitrary arrests and other forms of intimidation.
- Repeal of section 2A of the constitution in December 1991
Role played by political parties in government and national building in Kenya.
- The party that gunners majority of seats and votes forms the government either alone or in coalition with other parties.
- Political parties influence government affairs and development through participation in legislation process.
- Political parties through the elected members of parliament decide on national development policies and development projects.
- Political parties provide exemplary leadership founded on freedom , justice, fair play and African socialism.
- Opposition parties provide a system of scrutinizing government expenditure through public accounts committee and public investment committee.
- Opposition parties make the government more accountable to the people through constant criticism.
- Opposition parties provide checks and balances to abuse and misuse of powers and privileges by those in the government.
Challenges of multi-party democracy in Kenya
- Since many politicians and senior government officials were not ready for Multipartism, they often incited their supporters to kick out opposition supporters from certain regions. This has been common in the Rift Valley region.
- The executive arm and the ruling party have many a times misused the members of the civil service to frustrate the opposition. In case of flawed elections, the provincial administration has always been used in rigging.
- Many of the parties formed failed to attain a national outlook. They mainly were tribal based.
- The multi party democracy has been hampered with defection of greedy politicians who become preys to bribes. This has weakened some parties.
- The former KANU for a long time retained control of the government machinery,,(the police force, the radio and television.) these were utilized for the advantage of KANU for al long time.
- There has been a problem of lack of funding from the government. Most of the political parties have been unable to sustain competition for political power due to inadequate funds
- Interference by the international community in the running of the country. Some members of the diplomatic community openly side with certain political parties.
- Many political parties have been embroiled in wrangles. For example the Orange Democratic Movement has been bedevilled with a number of desertions due to wrangles between Ruto and his supporters and Raila Odinga. Ford Kenya has split into New Ford Kenya and Ford Kenya due to wrangles between Eugene Wamalwa and Moses Wetangula.
Identify the disadvantages of multiparty system.
- Multipartism tends to divide the people on tribal, regional and sectarian line.
- It tends to sharpen the struggle for personality and group dominance rather than policy implementation.
- Multipartism is a foreign system, which does not conform to the aspirations of independent Africa.
- It encourages the politics of destabilization.
- Political statements deadlocks on debates and tensions become too common.
- Decisions take too long to be made and implemented.
- Encourages use of violence in a state since opposition party members will be regarded as traitors by the government. The government will be regarded as oppressors by the opposition.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES
Economic challenges that have faced Kenya since independence.
- Stagnation of investment in the first years of independence due to massive transfer of capita from the country by the white settlers. The government faced the challenge of cultivating investor confidence.
- The problem of landlessness among many Africans whose arable land had been alienated. There was an urgent need for redistribution.
- Serious economic disparity in the country with the former white highlands having adequate provision of water, electricity and roads while the rest lacked enough of the same.
- Overpopulation in urban areas as result of rural-urban migration, putting facilities under pressure and creating unemployment.
- Problem of control of economy by the Europeans prior to independence and after independence. E.g. farm ownership and key industries.
- Lack of qualified manpower to run the technical sectors of the economy.
These were issues that were addressed by session paper number 10 of 1965.
Types of landholding in Kenya
Land tenure refers to the terms and conditions under which land is acquired, used or transferred At independence the type of landholding in Kenya was mainly communal, where land belonged to the whole community. Access to land was open every member of a social group. Community elders, clan heads or kings were empowered to control and give advice on land use.
Land alienation during the colonial period transformed land into a commodity that could be disinherited from an individual.
Such colonial land policies leading to alienation of African land resulted in the following;
- Widespread landlessness as Africans lost ancestral lands.
- Reduction in land available to Africans leading to land pressure as population increased.
- Deterioration of the quality of land due to fragmentation.
- Overstocking because of limited land, leading to soil erosion.
- Displacement of pastoral and agricultural communities, leading to problems such as famine and livestock diseases.
- Disintegration of social and cultural institutions in the reserves due to ethnic boundaries being fixed, thus separating African communities.
The Mau Mau wars which were a consequent of the bitterness arising from land alienation resulted in a number of land reforms under the Swynnerton Plan of 1954. The plan put in place a programmee for land consolidation, adjudication and registration.
This was what the Kenya government inherited at independence.
Land Adjudication: - verification of individual or group rights to land within a given area.
Land consolidation: - merging of fragmented land into single economic units.
Land registration: - recording of rights to land and the consequent issuance of a title deed.
The post-colonial land holding system in Kenya
The land tenure system in Kenya after independence was categorized as private or modern, communal or customary, public or state and open accessPrivate land; comprised of 6% of the total land areaGovernment-owned; former crown land, comprised 20% of the land area. It included the national parks, government or public forests, alienated (land acquired from customary land owners by government for own use or private development) and unlalienated land (land that has not been leased or allocated by the government).Trust land comprised 64% of the total land area as at 1990. This comprised the former native areas and was awaiting small holder registration to transform it into private tenure system.
Land ownership in Kenya has been a source of bitter conflict as manifested in the post election violence after the 2007 elections. The historical injustices in Kenya have always been related to land.
In 2010, land ownership in Kenya was classified as follows under the new constitution.
- Public land
- Community land
- Private land
- Public land
Public land is the land held by the central or local government.
It consists of;
- Land not set aside for any purpose (unlalienated land).
- Land set aside for public utility use or land that is occupied by the State organ as lessee.
- land transferred to the State by way of sale, reversion or surrender;
- Land to which no individual or community ownership is traceable.
- Land which no heir can be identified.
- All minerals and mineral ores.
- government forests, game reserves, water catchment areas, national parks, government animal sanctuaries, and specially protected areas;
- All roads and thoroughfares.
- All rivers, lakes and other water bodies.
- The territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the sea bed.
- The continental shelf.
- All land between the high and low water marks.
- Any other land declared to be public land by an Act of Parliament.
Community land is land which is implied as owned by a group of people on the basis of customary norms, not through formal registration.
It consists of:
- Land registered in the name of group representatives.
- Land transferred to a specific community through a legal process.
- Any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament.
- land that is held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
- Ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter gatherer communities;
- Land held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government.
Private land is land (and houses and buildings) held under registered entitlement (freehold or leasehold).
It consists of:
- Registered land held by any person under freehold tenure.
- Land held by any person under leasehold tenure.
- Any other land declared private land under an Act of Parliament.
- Landholding by non-citizens is allowed only through lease for a period not exceeding ninety-nine years.
- A corporate body, for the purpose of land ownership can only be recognized as a citizen if it is wholly owned by one or more citizens.
- Property held in trust will only be recognized as being held by a citizen if all the beneficial interest of the trust is held by the persons who are citizens.
Land policies since independence
Two type of programme that characterized land reforms exercise that commenced in 1963 in Kenya were;
- Transfer of land from European large scale farmers to Africans.
- Land consolidation and registration in which the government purchased several farms from the Europeans and sub-divided them among African holders.
In the former European farms, the government established settlement schemes as follows;
- The Million Acre Scheme which was began in 1963 and involved settling African families on 13.5 hectares each.
- The Harambee Scheme started in 1969, involved settling families on 16.25 hectares each.
- The Haraka Scheme where squatters were settled in small plots of land in Central, Coast, Eastern and Rift Valley Provinces.
- Shirika Scheme started in 1971 to settle the landless and unemployed on the former European lands. Under this scheme, the individual farmers would own a small plot each while the rest of the farm would be managed by a cooperative. This scheme did not succeed since people wished to have their own pieces of land.However, these schemes failed to adequately solve the problems of landlessness in the country. A few politically-connected people acquired large tracts of land, most of which remained underutilized. Some of the schemes are located in areas of harsh climatic conditions and are unviable without irrigation.Several commissions have addressed land issues in Kenya. For example, in 2001, President Moi appointed the Njonjo Commission to investigate the main problems of land ownership and distribution in Kenya. In 2003, the NARC government set up the Ndung’u Commission on land. Its Recommendations are yet to be implemented.By 1983, 29 districts in Kenya had benefitted from Land adjudication and registration, a process which began in the 1950s in Central Kenya then spread to other parts of the country after 1963.
Benefits of the land reforms in Kenya
- Farmers could use their land title deeds to get loans from banks in order to expand farming on their land.
- Land titles enabled people to purchase land with confidence. No one would alienate them from their land.
- The reforms enabled thousands of landless people to own land.
- Dairy and cash crop production increased.
Land ownership by non-citizens
A non-citizen can only own land in the country on the basis of leasehold tenure not exceeding 99 years.
Principles that govern utilization of land in Kenya
- Equitable access to land. All members of the society must have equal access to land since it is an important resource.
- Transparent and cost effective administration of land. State institutions should be given powers and responsibilities of ensuring transparent and accountable administration of land.
- Elimination of gender discrimination. in line with protection of human rights, for all, discrimination against women on issues of land ownership and access to land need be eliminated.
- Sustainable and productive management of land resources. Since land is an economic resource, it should be managed well to ensure maximum productivity.
- Sound conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive areas. Conservation measures like prohibiting settlement and agricultural activities in water catchment areas and zoning of forest lands to protect them from further degradation.
- Encouragement of communities to settle land disputes. This should happen as long as they are consistent with the constitution.
Ways in which the Kenya government has solved land related problems since independence.
- The problems related to Communal Land ownership have been solved through land demarcation and adjudication by the government. This saw the conversion from traditional system of land ownership to modern freeload tenure.
- Landlessness was solved through creation of resettlement schemes. Large-scale farms and former European farms were divided into smaller ones and given to the landless. E.g Mwea Tebere, Bura, Shirika etc.
- The government has put marginal lands to more productive use through establishment of irrigation schemes and drainage schemes.
- The government removed restriction of movements from the reserves that were created by the colonial government. This decongested the reserves and gave chance to arable farming.
- At independence, the t government embarked on land consolidation policy through which scattered plots were put into one holding.
- The government also embarked on land reclamation measure to bring previously unused land to productive use.
- The Government has established the National Land Commission which manages public land
The National Land Commission
Functions of the National Land Commission.
- It manages public land on behalf of the national and county governments.
- It advises the national government on a comprehensive programme for land registration throughout the country.
- It investigates present and past historical injustices, as a result of a complaint or on its on initiative, and recommends appropriate action.
- It has a duty to encourage the use of traditional methods of dispute resolution in land conflicts.
- It recommends the national land policy to the national government.
- It assesses tax on land and premiums on immovable property in any area designated by law.
- It monitors land use planning throughout the country.
Development in agriculture since independence
After independence, the government encouraged small scale farming of coffee and tea as opposed to large scale farming that existed during the colonial period.
The Agricultural development corporation (ADC) was set up to manage large scale farms that were established by the government in western, Rift Valley and Coast provinces.
Such farms specialize in production of seeds to be used by farmers for planting. They also specialize in production of high quality dairy and beef cattle in Kenya.The government also established the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in Muguga near Kikuyu to assist in identifying good crop breeds for different types of soils.
Irrigation Schemes were expanded in the marginal areas. For example. Mwea (central), Bura (coast), Ahero (Nyanza) and Perkerra (central). The government created development authorities to effectively manage water catchment areas. For example, TARDA, KVDA and LBDA.
Challenges facing Kenya’s agricultural sector
- The 1984 drought and famine in various parts of the country occasioning supply of relief food to the affected regions.
- Rapid increase in population which is not at pace with the rate of increase in agricultural production.
- From the late 1970s, the world market prices of agricultural commodities fell drastically yet the inputs remained expensive.
- Corruption and mismanagement of the cooperatives leading to meager earnings for key cash crops in Kenya.
- Grabbing of research land by corrupt government officials has affected the operations of the research institutes.
- The problem of poor infrastructure in the country sometimes discourages farmers especially during the rainy season.
- Ethnic clashes in Molo in 1991-1992, Likoni in 1997 and Mahi Mahiu in 2005 plus the post election violence in 2008 discouraged farmers from intense farming due to insecurity.
- Poor technology hassled to low yields. People in Kenya still rely on natural rains for agriculture instead of using irrigation. Others use primitive traditional tools in cultivation.
- The problem of pests that destroy the farm yields before reaching the factory.
- Competition from COMESA member states and from the more industrialized powers such as the European Union and USA often frustrate Kenyan farmers.
Industrial developments in Kenya since independence
Kenya’s industrial sector was shaped by the long period of colonization. At independence, industry was characterized by dominance of foreign capital and dominance of the agricultural sector.
Factors that facilitated industrial development in Kenya since the colonial era
- The existence of raw materials, such as trona (soda ash) at lake Magadi, fluorspar at Kerio Valley and lime in several parts of the country.
- Existence of fish resource from numerous water bodies has promoted the fishprocessing industry.
- Existence of expansive forests which provide timber needed in the furniture industry.
- The rich scenary, e.g Mt. Kenya, Mt. Elgon, the Aberdares and rich wildlife have promoted the tourism industry.
- Kenya’s rivers have enough water for production of HEP.
- Increase in population since the colonial period ensured supply of labour and the market required for industries to flourish.
- The transport and communication infrastructure have provided the necessary link between the material producing zones , industries and markets..
- Existence of rich agricultural lands producing raw materials such as coffee, tea, sugarcane, sisal and fruits
Measures taken by the Kenyan government to promote industrial development since independence.
- The government engaged on decentralization programmes to spur development in new areas. Industries were established in rural areas.
- The government has embarked on the programmes of funding new markets for industrial products.
- Infrastructure was improved through establishment of more roads, railways and improvement of water transport, to-transport raw materials labour and goods.
- Power concerns were addressed through construction of the Seven Forks Dam to supplement power from neighboring Uganda.
- Favourable government policies have been put in place to attract investors.
- The government has put in place measures to reduce imports in order to protect local infant industries. E.g discriminative tariffs were introduced.
- The government encouraged and assisted in giving capital for industrial development through development of the co-operative movement, funding through Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation(ICDC) , the Development Finance Company of Kenya.(DFCK) and the Industrial Development Bank.
- The government has ensured political stability in the country, which is an important factor in industrial development.
Factors that have hindered industrial development in Kenya
- The problem of multi nationals whose interests do not favour Kenya’s progress. Multi-national co-operation repatriate capital to their own home countries
- There is shortage of strategic raw materials e.g. petroleum, diamond. Cotton for textile industries. Many industrial companies use imported raw materials.
- Foreigners, who pass policies not friendly to the country, hold managerial positions in industries.
- Mismanagement of major industries and lack of transparency I parastatals.
- Over concentration of industries in few areas leading to negligence of other areas. It also has led to related problems of industrial concentration like the social ills.
- Competition from the industrialized nations who dominate the market and produce high quality goods.
- Poverty limits industrialization. A poor population means a small domestic market thus hindering industrial development.
- Products are produced with low technology hence small quantities.
Social Development and challenges since independence
To solve the problems inherited at independence in the education sector (poor quality education and poor facilities available the Kenya children), the government undertook the following measures;
- Constitutional amendments were made in 1975 to give Kiswahili a respectable position in the country.
- Several educational Commissions were set up to streamline education.
- The Harambee strategy was employed to expand educational facilities. Education Commissions.
- The Kenya Education Commission (1964) (The Ominde commission) that recommended overhaul of curriculum to make it relevant.
- The National Committee on Education Objectives and policies- Gachathi commission(1976) that looked into he possibility of setting up a second university.
- Presidential Working Party on the Second University- The Mackey commission (1982) that established the 8-4-4 system and proposed emphasis of vocational subjects such as art and craft, music, agriculture and Home science.
- The Kamunge commission (1988) which recommended cost-sharing in education
- The Koech commission (1999) which recommended reintroduction of A-level system in form of Totally Integrated Quality Edu cation and Training.
Main developments in education in Kenya since independence.
In 1975, Kiswahili was made the official languages of parliament and learning in schools.
The ministry of education established structures right from the district level to national level to help in fulfilling the national objectives of education.Several education commissions were set up to streamline education. The harambee strategy was employed to expand education facilities. Many schools were built.
In 1980, the government took over the responsibility of providing pre-primary education.In the 1990s, the government in collaboration with UNICEF launched a programme to promote early childhood education.By 1998, the total number of students in the various universities was over 40,000.
In 1969, the ministry of education took over the administration of primary education from local government, this witnessed increased enrolment.In 1978, the government introduced the school milk programme to encourage children especially in drought prone areas to go to school.The programme stalled in 1990 but had achieved higher enrolment in schools.The Ministry of education launched school feeding programme, targeting dry areas.In 2002, the NARC government introduced the ‘Free Primary Education ’ policy.
Measures taken to improve the health sector in postcolonial Kenya.
- The ministry of health was created to oversee health matters.
- Expansion of health facilities through harambee and donor funds e.g. Nyanza Provincial hospital (Russian Hospital)
- Many health training institutions were started e.g. Medical training colleges
- Improvement in hygiene through provision of piped water.
- Establishment of several research institutions on human diseases e.g. KEMRI
- Provision of more basic education in order to uplift hygiene standards in the society.
- Provision of free anti-retroviral and anti-malaria drugs.
Major challenges facing the Health sector in Kenya.
- Increase in population has posed major challenges to the government in the provision of healthcare services to its citizens. There has been a challenge of inadequate doctors and medical facilities.
- The cost- sharing policy introduced in the 1980s to help buy medicine and other equipment has prevented the poor from going to the hospitals.
- The spread of HIV and AIDS and other diseases such as Diabetes and Heart diseases has worsened the situation.
- Cultural practices like Female mutilation have made provision of medical services more challenging.
- Pollution of the environment has increased allergy-related ailments, many of which have no cure.
- Poverty and malnutrition render many people vulnerable to diseases.
- Illegal abortion and early pregnancies endanger the lives of mothers.
- High rate of accidents and injuries , especially on roads.
ways through which the government has encouraged the preservation of African culture since independence.
- Creation of the ministry of culture and social services. The ministry promotes cultural and social values.
- The syllabus has been tailored to include cultural studies.
- Inclusion of music as a subject in the national curriculum.
- The government has encouraged music/drama festivals on an annual basis as way of promoting cultural exchange.
- The government has encouraged intermarriage between different ethnic groups.
- The government has developed cultural heritage centre at the Bomas of Kenya, National Archives and Museums.
- Schools have been encouraged to admit people from different communities.
- Allowing the media houses to play traditional music/dance..